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1. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Helminthases In Parrots At Lahore Zoo.

by Ashgar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the incidence of helminthiasis in all breeds of parrots and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthelmintics, albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) and levamisole (Nilverm drench, ICI) used against the nematodes at Lahore Zoo. For this purpose, 130 Faecal samples were collected group wise in clean polythene bags, properly labeled for identification and examined for the identification of helminths. Eighty eight out of 130 were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia gaul have individual percentage as 73.86% and 26.14% respectively. Of 88 positive birds belonging to different breeds of parrots, 72 of the same age, weight and number were devided in three equal groups (24 each) i.e. A (love birds peach face breed), B (budgerigar ring necked breed), and C (Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds), while in group D (Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds), only uninfected and untreated birds were kept. Drug therapy was only induced to the group A i.e. albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.lml/kg body weight and group B (levemisole hcl (Nilverm, ICI) @ 5m1/litre of water, while infected but non treated birds were placed in group C. Faccal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces on day"O" (pre-medication) with McMaster egg counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. The overall prevalence of gastro intestinal helminthes in different breeds of parrots was found as 67.69%. Albendazole was found to be the more effective (96.33%) among the two anthelmintics while levamisole was less effective (84.90%). The EPG rise up to 8.98% at day 10 post medication in untreated group C was noted while no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0962,T] (1).

2. Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Cryptosporidium Parvum In Dairy Calves

by Amar Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian agent of diarrhoeal disease affecting many mammals, including dairy calves. Calves infected with this enteropathogen may either be asymptomatic or manifest mild to profuse diarrhoea and dehydration. Keeping in view the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves, the current study was conducted to find out the prevalence in dairy calves, in and around Lahore and also to find out the most effective therapeutic measure to control the infection. For this purpose, 500 faecal samples (n=250 cow calves, n=250 buffalo calves) from different dairy farms and home-bred dairy calves were collected and analyzed by using faecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 25.6% Calves were shedding C. parvum with a slightly high infection rate in the cow calves 27.2% than buffalo calves 24%. The highest infection rate was recorded in 1-30 days age group of dairy calves as 50.81% and 42.02% in the cow calves and buffalo calves, respectively. The infection rate of C. parvunm in the dairy calves of cow breeds indicated relatively high infection rate in crossbred cow calves (28.18%) than the Sahiwal cow calves (20%) and Nih Ravi buffalo calves (24%). The pattern of oocyst shedding was negatively correlated with increase in age, highest in the 1-30 days age group and lowest in the age group ranging from 9 months to 1 year and above. Diarrhoeac calves were infected significantly higher than the nondiarrhoeac calves indicating a direct relationship of diarrhea with C. parvum infection. Diarrhoea was the highest contributing factor to infection in 1-30 days age group with 58.97% infection rate in both the cow calves and 48.88% in buffalo calves than the nondiarrhoeac calves of the same age group as 36.36% and 29.16%, respectively. The infection rate was not associated with the sex of the dairy calves and the infection rate was almost equal in both the sexes. The cumulative rate of infection was relatively high (30.28%) in the physically healthy calves than weak (21.5%) and emaciated (19%) calves. Milk suckling calves were infected almost two times more than the ones utilizing both milk and fodder and almost 7 times of the fodder eating calves. The calves kept on dirt yards were infected more (28%) than the ones on the paved floor (21 .11%). A significantly high infection rate was observed in the cow calves and buffalo calves having some sort of contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats (31.3%) and (25.80%) respectively, than the calves having very little or no contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats as 19.27% and 12.12% in cow calve and buffalo calves, respectively. The results of the comparative efficacy of a.zithromycin and cotrimoxazole and kalvangi showed that azithromycin was the most effective of the three in treatingcryptosporidial infection in dairy calves under field conditions. It resulted in significant reduction in the oocyst shedding and consequently, better weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain may be due to its vitamins, enzymes and Nigellone and Thmoquinone acting as an immune system booster. The results of Azithromycin in the present study on the overall weight gain of calves was significantly higher than the other two drugs used in the study suggesting it as a drug of highest efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0985,T] (1).

3. Clinico -Therapeutical Trials Of Lactic Acidosis In Small Ruminants

by Haq Aman Ullah | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: During the present study clinical examination of 200 small ruminants (sheep and goats) any breed, age and sex with the history of diarrhea was performed at the Outdoor Hospital, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore and adjacent areas. A total of 38 animals were diagnosed positive for the disease. Temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, rumen pH, serum pH, ruminal movements and ruminal protozoa of affected animals were studied before and after treatment with two drugs magnesium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate. It was found that rectal temperature, rumen pH, blood pH, ruminal movements decreased significantly in lactic acidotic sheep and goats before treatment as compared to control group. While increased pulse and respiration rate were observed in lactic acidotic group before treatment as compared to control group. Thirty diseased and ten healthy animals were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D each having ten animals. Group 'A" was provided with magnesium hydroxide at a dose rate of 1.11 g/ Kg body weight orally mixed in water at a rate of 450 g/ 3.5 liter once, group "B" was treated with sodium bi carbonate at a rate of lg/ kg body weight orally once, group "C" was kept as diseased untreated control and group "D" acted as healthy control. Mean values obtained before treatment were rectal temperature 99.74 F° + 0.67153, lOO.59F° 1 0.75580, 101.25 F° ± 0.49448 and 102.86 F° ± 0.30155 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Rectal temperature values after treatment were 102.47 F° ± 0.2 1294, 101.9 + 0.27849, 101.19 F°±0.41965 and 102.95 F° ± 0.16142 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean pulse rate values for group A, B, C and D before treatment were 100.6/mm ± 3.40008, 97.2/mm ± 4.24745, 103.6/min ± 2.5636 and 86.3/min ± 1.85626 respectively while after treatment were 88.55/min ± 1.77768, 92/min ± 1.75123, 94.3/min ± 1.90938, 86/min ± 1.06460 respectively. Mean respiration rate values before treatment were 24.1min ± 0.86218, 28.2/min ± 2.52020, 24/min ± 0.84329 and 19.8/min ± 0.59256 for group A, B, C and D respectively while after treatment were 20.55/min ± 0.78953, 22.8/min ± 0.80001, 24.5/min ± 0.79234 and 20.7/min ± 0.66751 respectively. Mean rumen pH values obtained before treatment were 4.43 ± 0.14533, 4.49 ± 0.13287, 4.76 + 0.17075 and 6.39 ± 0.13699 while after treatment were 5.66 ± 0.17125, 5.41 ± 0.13506, 4.94 ± 0.18683 and 6.42 ± 0.08035 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean d pH values obtained before treatment were 7.18 ± 0.04667, 7.1 ± 0.05375, 7.21 ± 0.05044 and 7.33 ± 0 .02808 while after treatment were 7.37 ± 0.02806, 7.25 + 0.02390, 7.18 ± 0.03837 and 7.41 + 0.0383 7 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Ruminal protozoa were completely absent in ruminal fluid of lactic acidotic group. Ruminal stasis was also observed in lactic acidotic group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1052,T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of Cestodes And Comparative Efficacy Of Niclosamide, Mebendazole And Fenbendazole In Pet Dogs

by Muhammad Shahid | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cestodes infestation in pet dogs in district Lahore and to evaluate the efficacy of niclosamide, mebendazole and fenbendazole against them. For this the samples were collected from three different clinics in Lahore for a period of 3 months. A total of 400 samples were collected. Three types of cestodes were identified (E.granulosus, T.hydatigena and D.caninum). The highest prevalence revealed was that of T.hydatigena and the lowest was of D.caninum in pet dogs. For the drug trials, 32 dogs were divided into four groups named group A (niclosamide), group B (mebendazole), group C (fenbendazole) and group D (positive control). The sampling was performed on day 0, 7 and 21 & the treatment with each drug was made on 0 and 7 days. Later on the reduction in EPG and the calculation of efficacy revealed that mebendazole is the best drug among the three drugs used and the efficacy of fenbendazole was found to be very poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1164,T] (1).

5. A Comparative Study On Clinico -Hemotological & Therapeutic Trails In Indigestion & Lactic Acid In Small Ruminents

by Muhammed Abdul Basit | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The Indigestion and lactic acidosis are most common non infectious managmental problem in small ruminants that have been causing global concern as a potential threat. Some cases shows the clinical signs very early while some shows late clinical signs most of which arc common among these two diseases. So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for differential diagnosis and quick response of the therapeutical agent. It was found that rectal temperature, Ruminal fluid pH, and ruminal movements decreased significantly in Indigestion and lactic acidosis in sheep and goats before the treatment in comparison to the control group. On the other hand it was observed that pulse and respiration rate were increased in both groups D-l and D-2 as compare to control group. In present study design, 2 groups of animals were designed for Indigestion and lactic acidosis (I for each disease). Each group was divided into 4 sub group each comprising 10 animals (sheep and goats). The group 1-1 of D-l was provided with Acetic Acid Vinegar 500-800 ml per animal per oral while 1-2 of D-l group was treated with Stomach powder @ 50-70 grams per animal per oral. Similarly sub group LA-l of D-2 was treated with sodium bicarbonate 5% 200-3 00 ml per animal intravenously and sub group LA-2 of D-2 group was provided with sodium bicarbonate @ 40-60 grams per animal per oral. On the other hand sub group 1-3 of D-l and LA-3 of D-2 was kept as diseased untreated control and subgroup 1-4 of indigestion group and LA-4 of Lactic acidotic group was kept as healthy control. Mean values obtained after treatment for D- I group (Indigestion) were rectal temperature increases more significantly in I-I than that of 1-2 while pulse rate of 1-2 sub group was significant than I-i. Respiration rate change was also significant in I- I sub group. Blood pH of 1-2 was significant while ruminal fluid p11 increases more significantly in 1-1. On the other hand mean values obtained allcr treatment for D-2 group (Lactic acidosis) were rectal temperature and pulse rate changed significantly in LA-i sub group. Respiration rate change was significant in LA-2 sub group Blood pit of LA-i & LA-2 in similar range while ruminal fluid pH increases more significantly in LA-I that LA-2 sub group. Ruminal protozoa were not seen in ruminal fluid of both groups. Ruminal movements was rarely observed in indigestion group and not observed in lactic acidotic glol''). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1167,T] (1).

6. A Study Of Giardiasis And Its Chemotherapy With Metronidazole And Albendazole In Dogs

by Ayesha sara | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Giardiasis is an intestinal pathogenic protozoan which infect humans and a wide range of animals including dogs prevalence of giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization and population studied. The objective of the study was to determine the percentage of giardiasis in dogs, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. The study was conducted in pet center of university of veterinary and animal sciences (UVAS) and private clinics in Lahore; collected sample were processed in medicine laboratory, department of clinical medicine and surgery (UVAS), Lahore. Faecal samples of five hundred dogs suspected with giardiasis were collected and assessment of giardia cyst were seen using zinc sulphate floatation technique and sucrose gradient centrifugation method, then the positive dogs were separated and divided into four groups viz A, B, C, groups D was negative control, group A was treated with Metronidazole and its efficacy wasll.3 %,64 % & 85 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment while group B was treated with Albendazole & its efficacy was 16.3 % ,44.2 % & 74 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment the results showed that the Metronidazole was better in efficacy then Albendazole, C group was serve as positive control & all these results were compared with negative control (healthy dogs) that is group D.The efficacy of the drugs was determined by the disappearance of giardia cysts from feceas. The blood examination total leukocyte count & Differential Leukocyte Count was conducted before & after the treatment with drugs & it showed that there was mild increase in TLC but not more increase in DLC & no adverse effect of drugs on blood parameters and values were almost normal and close to the values of negative control(healthy dogs). It has been observed during the present study that metronidazole & albendazole showed their mild effect on blood parameters as a result of curing giardiasis. Statistical analysis of data revealed non significant difference (p>O.O5) between groups, A, B, & D (-ye control) on day 3 & 7 of treatment. it was observed that metronidazole was the most effective 85% followed by albendazole 74% against giardiasis in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1192,T] (1).

7. A Study Of Parasitic Causes Of Diarrhea In Cattle Calves In District Gujranwala

by Muhammad Salman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The loss of fluids through diarrhea can- cause severe dehydration which is one cause of death on diarrhea sufferers. In present study cattle calves up to six months of age in district Gujranwala were examined for parasitic infestation. The samples were collected from different Government farms, veterinary hospitals and from villagers having livestock. A total number of 300 cattle calves were examined during the period of three months. The effect of parasitic diarrhea according to the factors like sex and age were studied, the percentage of parasitic diarrhea in cattle calves were also studied. Collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory of university of veterinary and animal sciences Lahore. Fecal samples were processed for different coporological tests, including direct smear, floatation, sedimentation, McMaster and for cryptosporidial examination, staining of fecal smears were used. Blood parameters like Hemoglobin level, TLC & DLC was also be studied. The faecal samples result showed that 147 samples were positive from parasitic diarrhea out of 300 samples and percentage was 49 % including cryptosporidium, cooperia, oesophagostomum, fashiodorous, toxocara, coccidian & eurytrema. The samples were collected age wise as 0-1 months, 42 samples were positive out of 90 samples showing 46.6%, in 1-3 months 47 samples were positive out of 95 samples showing 49.47 %, 1n3- 6 months 58 samples were positive out of 115 showing 50.43 %.while the blood parameters Hb level, TLC & DLC were altered in parasitic diarrhea which showed milk decrease in TLC & DLC as compared to normal values while Hb level was also decreased in parasitic diarrhea. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1193,T] (1).

8. Comparative Study Of Primary And Secondary Bloat In Buffaloes

by Sajjad Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. M.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Bloat (tympany) is the abnormal distension of rumen and reticulum caused by excessive gases of fermentation, either in the form of persistent foam mixed with rumen contents or as free gas separated from the ingesta. The experimental study on bloat was conducted at outreach clinic of university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas. There were 500 buffaloes, out of these cases 86 were diagnosed to be suffered from bloat (60 were suffering from primary bloat, 2o were suffered from secondary bloat as shown in the table No 5 and table No 6). Six animals were expired from primary bloat as shown in the table No 10. They were expire without any treatment. Thus the disease percentage recorded was 17.4 A systemic clinical examination of each animal was conducted. The age, breed, sex and general heath of the animal was also recorded. Complete history of each affected animal was recorded. Diagnostic confirmation between primary bloat and secondary bloat was done through stomach tube. Primary bloat was easily recognizable and there were no other diseases of reticulorumen that result in ruminal tympany. Secondary bloat was differentiated from causes of failure of eructation including esophageal obstruction,chromic reticuloperitonitis, vagal indigestion, tetanus, injury and rumen impaction. Treatment trials were carried out on the basis of grouping of animals. The buffaloes which are under attack of bloat were classified into two main groups i.e. group A and group B, which were further divided into four sub groups, which were A1, A2, B1 and B2.Animals suffered from primary bloat were kept into Group A1 and A2. While the animals suffering from secondary bloat were kept into Group B1 and Group B2. Treatment trials for Group A1 and Group B1 were same, while for Group A2 and Group B2 were same. The efficacy of drug was evaluated on reversal of clinical signs. The bloat affected buffaloes recovered with in 2 to 3 hours after the administration of medicine. No Side effects of these drugs, if any, was recorded the animals was examined for 24 hours after medication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1194,T] (1).

9. Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years. In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season. The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region. In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed. In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR. From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection. Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6% H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1211,T] (1).

10. The Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Paramphistomum In Sheep

by Muhammad Mashhood Hassan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to diagnose the paramphistomum infection in sheep and to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole and to observe the effect of paramphistomum on various blood parameters, haemoglobin estimation, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and packed cell volume. For this purpose twenty four Sheep were selected and divided into 4 groups. Each group comprised of 6 animals. Faecal samples were collected from Out Reach centre Sitar wala and its adjacent areas and out door clinic UVAS Lahore for the diagnosis of paramphistomum. The faecal and blood samples were collected on day zero pre-medication, and day 7 and 10 post-medication. The drug efficacy was checked at those animals which were positive for the paramphistomum. The animals in Group A were treated with Oxyclozanide (Zanil) at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group B were treated with Albendazole (Albensel) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group C were kept as positive control (infected-untreated) and Group D were kept as negative control (uninfected-untreated). Eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on day 0 day before medication. The efficacy of these drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. Zanil showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil) was 58.33% on day 7 and 83.33 % on day 10. The efficacy of Albendazole (Albensel) was 36.36% on day 7 and 56.36 % on day 10. It was observed that Oxyclozanide (Zanil) showed better efficacy than Albendazole. Haematological parameters showed different results. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected sheep and the haemoglobin value was in normal range in healthy sheep on day zero. Packed cell volume was reduced on day zero in all infected groups, but was normal in the group of healthy sheep. After the treatment these values increased towards normal range in group A and B. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased after 24 hours on day zero in all infected groups A, B, and C but was normal in the group D of healthy sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1303,T] (1).

11. Efficacy Of Antifungal Agents Against Dermatophytosis In Cats

by Muhammad Irfan Saleem | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The cat is commonly kept as pet all over the world. The dermatophyte Microsporum canis is the most common fungal agent of dogs and cats. In the presence study, the prevalence of Microsporum canis was recorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with Microsporum canis were divided into three groups named, group A (griseofulvin), group B (ketoconazole) and group C (terbinafine). All the drugs were given orally and the efficacy of each drug was observed by collecting the samples on 15 days interval after the commencement of treatment until the mycological cure was achieved up till day 90th. Prevalence of M. canis infestation was 31%. The breed wise prevalence was highest in Persian cats as compared to Siamese and local breed and the prevalence were also higher in young ones as compared to old age cats. Later on the calculation of efficacy revealed that griseofulvin was the best drug among the three drugs used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1305,T] (1).

12. Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys

by Adnan Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite. The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication. Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1307,T] (1).

13. Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants

by Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1322,T] (1).

14. Determinaton Of Multiple Drug Resistance Against Pasteurella - Multocida Isolates From Cattle And Buffalo In District Naseerabad, Balochistan

by Abdul Salam Baloch | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic Septicemia is one of the major problems from livestock point of view with high morbidity, mortality, loss of production and cost of treatment. The predisposing factors such as high temperature, high humidity and uncontrolled transportation of cattle and buffalo round the clock favor outbreak from time to time in the District Naseerabad, Balochistan. Forty samples were collected aseptically from Cattle and Buffalo and transported for further processing placing temperature 4 0C in to the Laboratory Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Samples were cultured on blood agar for isolation and purification .These isolate were identified macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical profile characteristics test. The antibiotic sensitivity test of Ceftriaxone, Cephaloridine, Trimethoprim, Streptomycin, Cinoxacin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenical and Amoxycillin were determined for P. multocida isolates and also observed noticeable resistance against these antibiotics. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed statistically. The aim and objective of present study was to determine multiple drug resistance against Pasteurella multocida so that proper antibiotic for the above said ailment with recommended dosage may be accomplished according to standard dosage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1333,T] (1).

15. Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes

by Amir Nasir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan), viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab ::. and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan. Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 % - with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male (29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%) counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity- specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero- prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger " 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5 yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non- pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts. Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog. The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo '" properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the - . transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997). The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement (Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA). However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results . for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA. The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age, ~ though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host (buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~ "0. in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -, buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in buffalo was not significant. Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC), differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo. Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1366,T] (1).

16. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr..Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts, Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle. A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and crossbred cattle of both the sexes. Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent (5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer. The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association (P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non- significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were revealed. The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was 31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders in all study districts. The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles (OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to Khushab and Rawalpindi. The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%). The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves. It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1368,T] (1).

17. Incidence And Therapeutic Trails Of Sub Clinical Ketosis In Cows In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr.. Muhammad sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Subclinical ketosis is preclinical stage of ketosis. The peak incidence of subclinical ketosis occurs during the fourth week of lactation. There are indications that cows with the highest milk yield directly after calving are at greatest risk for developing ketosis. Subclinical ketosis causes delayed reproductive functions, increased intervals from calving to first and last service, and an increased frequency of ovarian cysts. The study was designed to diagnose the Subclinical ketosis on the basis of Ross Rothra's method. This method was easy to conduct and can be able to perform at the farm. The purple color indicated the presence of ketone bodies in the sample. After diagnosis the treatment trails was done on three different treatment methods comprises of Dextrose, Dexamethasone and by increasing the diet. Total 200 cow were studied for the diagnosis of subclinical Ketosis. Total positive samples of subclinical ketosis were 62 and the overall Incidence of Subclinical Ketosis in was 31 % and in sheikhupura and Raiwind areas it was 35% & 27 respectively. The results indicates that the use of dexamethasone was very effective and it cured 84%,dextrose cured 64% ,and by the diet it was 25%.Although, dexamethasone was very effective but it also reduced the milk production in very next day after the administration of drug while, the dextrose shows no any reduction in milk production. The animals who received only green fodder as ration showed very positive results for subclinical ketosis while, the animals who received a concentrated diet with green fodder they showed very little presence of subclinical ketosis. Prevention of subclinical ketosis can be done by providing extra ration to pregnant animals and during pregnancy give them pregnancy allowance and by effective managemental practices the effects of subclinical ketosis can be minimized. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1369,T] (1).

18. Chemotheraph Of Ancylostomiasis In Cats In Lahore.

by Awais Bokhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: It has been a long time since the affection of cats is with human beings. Cats have recorded as most adoptable pet of the modern world. Cats can be found anywhere in the world. Many diseases of cats are zoonotically important and they may cause zoonotic problem in human and mainly these pathogen are involved in enteric problems. The relationship of feline with human does provide many benefits to them but also act as a cause of zoonotic diseases. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from cats and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The positive samples for Ancylostoma were 65 out of 300, indicating prevalence of Ancylostomiasis was 21.66%. For the chemotherapeutical trails 18 positive cats and 6 healthy cats were divided into four groups viz. A, B, C and D with 6 animals in each group. The cats of group A were treated with Pyrantel Pamoate @ 20mg/kg orally. The cats of Group B were treated with the Albendazole @ 50mg/kg orally. The cats of Group C were kept as positive control while the cats of Group D were kept as negative control. The fecal samples were collected on day 0 pre-treatment and then on day 7th, 14th and 21st of post-treatment. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the fecal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate on these days was 43.47%, 67.39% and 94.20% respectively, against Ancylostoma. The efficacy of Albendazole on these days was 30.77%, 60.44% and 86.81% respectively, against Ancylostoma. Thus it was recorded that Pyrantel Pamoate was more effective against Ancylostoma than Albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole. Hematological study showed that the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, B and C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leukocyte count were higher in group A, B and C as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leukocyte count gradually decrease on day 7th, 14th and 21st post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Pyrantel Pamoate and Albendazole showed their positive effect on blood parameters as a result of Ancylostomiasis with more efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate as compared to that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1391,T] (1).

19. Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae

by Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1425,T] (1).

20. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Schistosomiasis In Cattle

by Mudassar Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1433,T] (1).

21. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats

by Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The fasciolosis in sheep and goat is an important and infectious disease of ruminants characterized by dullness, weakness, lack of appetite, pallor and edema of mucosa and death of animal. The accurate diagnosis of Fasciolosis remained a difficult task for the field practitioners and the right choice of medicine. For this purpose 600 sheep and goats was examined for fasciolosis. The fecal samples were collected directly from rectum while bile samples were collected from various private and public slaughter houses of districts Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore. Fasciola egg was identified by standard text while molecular conformation of Fasciola spp. was done by using PCR. For therapeutic trials, sixty animals (n=30 sheep; n=30 goats) positive for Fasciolosis was equally divided into A, B and C groups and each group comprising of 20 animals (n=10 sheep; n=10 goats). The animals of group A was given Zanil (Oxyclozanide) orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight; the animals of group B was given Albendazole orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight and the animals of group C was given the grounded powder of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) @ 5-6 teaspoon (25-30gm) orally. Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of Fasciola eggs at 3, 7 and 14 day of post-medication. Data on the prevalence of fasciolosis was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test while therapeutic trials data was analyzed with one way ANOVA using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); P < 0.05 was considered significant. To study fasciolosis in sheep and goats, samples were collected from Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal. The collected samples were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore and LPRI laboratories of Bahadurnagar, Okara. In this study first of all the fecal and bile samples were examined through microscope then these samples were processed by PCR test. No study was conducted previously on the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan, this is the first report for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis. In all F. hepatica positive samples approximate 300-bp fragment was generated on gel tested with DSJF/DSJ3 primers for sheep and goats. All positive samples by microscope were also positive by PCR, but out of the 92 samples positive (43 in sheep; 49 in goats) by PCR test, out of these 14 (7 in sheep; 7 in goats) were negative by microscopy. This study provides the base line data for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep in both fecal and bile samples in various districts of Punjab was calculated. Out of 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of sheep, F. hepatica prevalence rate was 12% (36 samples) by microscopic examination while 14.33% (43 samples) by PCR test. On the basis of microscopic examinations districts wise prevalence rate was 11, 12 and 13% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively and by PCR test prevalence rate was 13, 14 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Sahiwal than Okara and Lahore in sheep in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis was also calculated in goats on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR in both fecal and bile samples. Among 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of goats F. hepatica prevalence was 14% (42 samples) by microscopic examination while 16.33% (49 samples) by PCR. On the basis of microscopic examinations the prevalence was 13, 15 and 14% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively while on basis of PCR test prevalence was 15, 18 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Okara than Sahiwal and Lahore in goats in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. The eggs per gram (EPG) values and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves against fasciolosis in 30 positives sheep was recorded at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment. As group A was treated with oxyclozanide (Zanil), its efficacy was 50, 75 and 90% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively after treatment. The efficacy of albendazole was 46, 65 and 81% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively while the efficacy of Neem leaves was lowest that was 15, 30 and 42% at day 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole was significantly higher (p= 0.000) than Neem leaves. In sheep against the fasciolosis Oxyclozanide significant effect on EPG followed by albendazole and Neem leaves. The EPG and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves were determined in 30 goats against fasciolosis at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was 57, 76 and 90% at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was higher than Albendazole against the fasciolosis. The efficacy of albendazole was 55, 68 and 79% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. Efficacy of Neem leaves against fasciolosis was lower as compared to other two drugs, it was 15, 23 and 40% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. When the efficacy was compared at different days, Oxyclozanide reduced the EPG significantly, followed by Albendazole and Neem leaves. From this study it was concluded that PCR is more reliable technique than microscopic examination for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Microscopic technique provides the base line data for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats but PCR provides help to conduct further molecular diagnosis on fasciolosis as well as others parasitic diseases. Secondly fasciolosis which is an important parasitic problem of ruminants is significantly prevalent in sheep and goats in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts of Punjab. Oxyclozanide is the most effective drug while albendazole and neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) are relatively less effective against fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1434,T] (1).

22. Clinico-Chemotherapeutic Study On The Occurrence Of Navel Ill In Cow Calves

by Safdar Abbas | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Navel ill occurs commonly in young calves. Calves less than 1 week of age are most commonly affected by infections of navel because the umbilical stump usually takes 7-10 days to dry up. Infection of navel develops when pathogenic bacteria contaminated the wet umbilicus under the unhygienic environmental conditions. It may also cause the death of newborns calves due to bacterimia and septicemic shock. The unhygienic environmental conditions like parturition of cow in dirty pen, poor navel hygiene practices, inadequate colostrum feedings within 6 hours after parturition or when umbilical cord is cut too close to abdominal wall of calf, may predispose a calf to navel ill. The present study was conducted in and around Kahna region of Lahore to find out the disease percentage of navel ill in newborn calves, and chemotherapeutical trials were conducted to see the comparative effect of topical, parenteral and topical with parenteral therapy. For this purpose, 400 newborn calves of 15 days or less than 15 days age were randomly selected from small dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area. Among 400 calves, 197 calves were randomly selected from different small holder farmers of study area and 203 were selected from small dairy farms. Among 197 calves from different local areas of Kahna, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.19% and among 203 calves from small dairy farms of study area, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.80%. The overall occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill from dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area was 29.25 %. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study areas was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves respectively. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study area was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves respectively. For chemotherapeutical trials, calves were divided into five groups. Calves of group A (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder, applied to navel cord topically twice a day for five days. The average percentage recovery of group A among males was 41% and among females was 46.5 %, but the overall recovery in group A was 43.75%. Similarly, when calves of group B (n=10) were treated with parenteral therapy of Moxin and Meloxicam for five days, then the average percentage recovery of group B among males was 41.47 % and among females was 48.08 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group B was 43.60 %. Calves of group C (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder plus parenteral therapy of Moxin and Melacam for five days. The average percentage recovery of group C among males was 76 % and among females was 90 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group C was 83 %. Calves of group D (n=10) were kept as positive control to observe complications. They were of diseased conditions. Among these calves, three calves got maggot wounds; one died due to septicemia, two calves got small hernia and remaining calves showed no further complications except existing signs. Calves of group E (n=10, healthy calves) were kept as negative control. Among these healthy calves, three calves became thin and emaciated but all others remained healthy and showed no clinical signs of any disease. Finally, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Chi Square method (software stata). In conclusion, the statistical analysis showed that occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was more in male as compared to female calves. Similarly, the occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill was high in local areas i.e. small holder farmers as compared to dairy farms of study area. The chemotherapeutic trials conducted among different groups of calves showed variable results. Topical treatment showed some better results than parenteral treatment, but when topical treatment was given with parenteral therapy, the calves showed maximum recovery. On the behalf of this study, it was concluded that the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill is high in calves reared under unhygienic conditions. At dairy farms, hygienic conditions were better due to some good calf rearing practices as compared to local small holder farmers, that's why the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was high at local small holder farmers than that of dairy farms. Similarly, the results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that simple topical or parenteral therapy alone was not effective much as compared to when both topical and parenteral therapy was given at the same time. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1436,T] (1).

23. Prevalence And Therapeutic Studies On Diabetes Mellitus In Pet Dogs At Lahore.

by Salman Khalid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important maladies of endocrine glands in dog and cats. It is due to the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. The multi-factors such as obesity, feeding, exposure to toxic drugs etc. are involved for the onset of this chronic disease. The basic energy fuel of the body is glucose. In the absence of insulin the glucose level in the blood is increases which can be noticed as hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level). There are the three types of diabetes mellitus which includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I or IDDM), noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II or NIDDM) and secondary diabetes mellitus. The dogs play a vital role in our society. The present study was conducted on diabetes mellitus to study its prevalence, its effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of insulin therapy in pet dogs in Lahore, Pakistan. The 500 blood samples were collected from the dogs of age ?5 years, presented at Pet centre of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore and various private clinics in Lahore, and was processed in Medicine Laboratory of UVAS, Lahore. The blood glucose level was measured with the aid of glucometer. Out of 500, 16 (n=5 male & n=11 females) were positive for diabetes mellitus. The 3.2% prevalence of diabetes mellitus was recorded in pet dogs in Lahore. The study concluded that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in female dogs (68.75%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of male dogs (31.25%). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in old age dogs (>9 years) as compared with other age groups. Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent in winter season same as in human beings. The clinical signs like Polyuria (81.25%), Polydipsia (68.75%), Hyperglycemia (100%), Dehydration (43.75%), Anemia (56.25%) and cataract (18.75%) were commonly observed in diabetic dogs. In the present study the pet dog breed like Yorkshire terrier, Samoyed, Pomuranian and Cross bred were prone to have diabetes mellitus whereas German shepherd, Bull dogs, Pugs and Labrador retriever were at low risk for this malady. In the present project, the haematological study was conducted on 28 dogs (n=14 diabetic and n=14 healthy dogs). The five ml blood sample were collected from each dog directly from the cephalic vein and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml and were further analyzed through haemtological analyzer. The results showed the decreased number of RBCs (4.63±0.42) and an increased in PCV values (62.91±4.18). The results also showed dehydration and anemia in diabetic dogs. In the present study the 21 dogs (n= 14 diabetic dogs, n= 7 healthy dogs) were selected for therapeutic trials. The dogs were divided into further three groups; A, B and C. Each study group was comprised of 7 animals. Group A (comprised of diabetic dogs) was treated with Humulin-N (Insulin) @ 0.5 U/Kg, q12h, SC for 7 days. The group B (comprised of diabetic dogs) was kept as positive control while the healthy dogs were kept in group C for negative control. After the seven days treatment of group A, the blood samples were collected every 2 hr interval for 12 hrs for measuring the glucose value. The process was repeated once in a week for one month. The four blood glucose curves were made. Each blood glucose curve has its own nadir value. The time of glucose nadir value was indicated the peak action of insulin. The blood glucose curves were made to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that the Humulin-N (insulin) was much effective for management of diabetic dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1467,T] (1).

24. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichuriasis (Whi Worm) In Dogs.

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. DR. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In developing countries like Pakistan the trend of establishment of kennel clubs are increasing day by day. While the population of dogs increase the strong practice of vaccination and deworming increase as well. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. It causes great economic losses. The genus Trichiuris is one of the important nematode which affect the dogs. Therefore a study of genus Trichiuris was conducted in month of March to May, 2012. For this purpose 300 hundreds dogs of different breeds of dogs were selected for investigation of Trichiuris vulpis. Samples were collected and brought to the Clinical laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In laboratory positive samples for Trichiuris vulpis were recorded. The overall prevalence of Trichiuris vulpis was found to be 20% .The dogs positive for Trichiuris vulpis were divided into three groups A, B and C having 10 dogs in each group. Group A and B were treated with pyrantal pamoate and fenbendazole respectively. While the group C was positive control. The efficacy of both the drugs were measured by the decrease in egg per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made at day zero, 7th and 14th. The efficacy of pyrantal pamoat recorded on day 7th and 14th was 95.30 and 98.61% respectively while the efficacy of fenbendazole recorded on day 7th and 14th was 90.76 and 93.84% respectively. The obtained data was tabulated and analyzed by ANOVA. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the efficacy of payrental pamoate and fenbendazole after treatment of infected dogs at day 7th and 14th. This analysis showed that payrantal pamoate is significantly superior in its efficacy than fenbedazole. The purpose of the study for prevalence and estimation of comparative efficacy of two drugs against Trichiuriasis in dogs was accomplished. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1490,T] (1).

25. Therapeutic Studies Of Cryprosporiduim In Sheep In And Around Lahore, City

by Bushra Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Keeping in view the importance of sheep in global agricultural economy valued by humans for its multiple uses. The present study was conducted on cryptosporidiosis, and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of paromomycin and Kalvanji therapy in lambs in and around Lahore Pakistan. In this plan of research work 400 lambs, less than 1 month of age suspected for cryptosporidium infection on the basis of clinical signs were included. The fecal sample were collected from sheep presented at medicine outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and animal sciences, various veterinary hospitals in and around Lahore and was processed in medicine laboratory UVAS ,Lahore for observing the oocyst of cryptosporidium by using Ziehl-neelsen technique. The prevalence was found to be 24.25%., The 40 sheep were divided into four groups=designated as A, B, C & D. Each group was comprised of 10 sheep. In group A the infected sheep was treated with paromomycin@ 100 mg/kg orally for 5 days, Group B infected sheep was treated with Kalvanji@1/2 tea spoon for 5 days. Group C infected sheep kept for positive control, whereas healthy sheep group D were kept in negative control. After the 5 days treatment The effect of drugs were checked, by reduction of oocyst, at 0, 7 and 14 day. Oocysts of cryptosporidium were counted by using Mc Master Technique. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that paromomycin was much effective for cryptosporidiosis. we also done hematological studies on 40 sheep(n=30 sheep with cryptosporidiosis and n=10 healthy sheep) was included to see the effect of drugs on various blood parameters i.e PCV,TLC, The 5 ml blood were collected from each lamb directly from jugular vein, and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml were further analyzed through hematological analyzer . In disease condition the TLC and PCV was increased. The results showed the decrease number of TLC and PCV. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The outcome of this study would helped to control cryptosporidiosis in lambs and reduce their substantial losses rendered by cryptosporidium. It was concluded that paromomycin is much effective drug against cryptosporidiosis, as compared to Kalvanji oil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1491,T] (1).

26. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Coccidiosis In River Region

by Muhammad Shoaib Jahanzaib | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Bovine coccidiosis-is an infectious-disease affecting cattle and buffaloes resulting in great economic losses to the beef and dairy sector all over the world. Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease and usually associated with poor growth, bloody diarrhea and sometimes death of young animals. As bovine coccidiosis is commonly found in cattle and buffaloes, therefore it severely affects the production of milk and beef in Pakistan. 500 fecal samples-were collected (250 from-cattle and 250 from buffaloes) randomly to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in River Ravi Region Lahore. Overall prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded 57.2 % and 58.8 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Slightly high prevalence was found in female animals. Highest prevalence (66.66% and 70.31%) was observed in animals below 6 months of age, while lowest (44.87% and 48.91%) prevalence was found in animals above 1 year of age in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The study further revealed that highest prevalence occurs in August, followed by September and October while lowest prevalence was observed in July. The infection rate was a little high in crossbred (59.26 %) and Sahiwal cattle (57.89 %) as compare to imported breeds. Seven Eimeria species were identified from fecal-samples of cattle while Six species were identified from buffaloes, where E.bovis and E.zurnii were found most prevalent among them. Coccidiosis was prevalent significantly higher (P < 0.05)-in animals housed in confined-and dirt yard (72.13 % in cattle, 74.13 % in buffaloes) as compare to animals housed on paved (58.49 % in cattle, 61.22 % in buffaloes) and those having outdoor access. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in stall fed (71.64% and 73.68 %) as compare to grazing (28.58% and 31.91%) cattle and buffaloes. Highest (73.07 % and 72 %) prevalence was found in animals with Poor body condition (score-1), while animals with body condition score 3 (Good) were found with lowest prevalence (37.5% and 47.76%). Highest (82.35 % and 84.21 %) prevalence was found in diarrheic while lowest (36.19 % and 42.85%) prevalence was observed in animals with normal fecal score (1) both in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against coccidiosis in buffalo calves was also determined in current study. Non-significant difference-(P > 0.05)-was observed-in percentage efficacy of all three anticoccidial drugs at day 28 onward, i.e. 100 % for Amprolium (Amprovil), 99 % for Furazolidone (Furasym) and 99 % for Trimethoprim+Sulphadiazine (Trisym). All the three drugs showed satisfactory results against coccidiosis in buffalo calves and no toxic effects were found during and after treatment. The current study also determined the effects of coccidiosis on various blood parameters of buffalo calves. A significant reduction in Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC), Hemoglobin concentration, PCV, MCH, MCHC and statistically significant increase-(P < 0.05) in TLC, DLC (except Lymphocytes) and MCV was observed in infected animals. Also a statistically significant difference-(P<0.05)-was observed in mean hematological-values of infected not-treated and treated animals at day 28, where treated groups showed an improvement to the normal values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1566,T] (1).

27. In-Vetro And In-Vivo Anti-Theilerial Activity Of Medicianal Plants

by Mukhtar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In vitro study was carried out in order to estimate the anti-theileria effect of Calotropis procera and Peganum harmala. Water and chloroform extracts of each plant were used in-vitro study along with standard drug Buparvaqoune (Butalex®). For this four concentrations i.e.4, 8, 12 and 16mg/ tested solutions of each extracts of each plant were applied on cultured lymphocytes exposed to theileria parasite infection. ELISA reader findings showed that the mean OD were found less in treated theileria infected lymphocytes cell culture as compared to untreated culture wells mean OD values. The highest cell reduction (94.36%) with C. procera chloroform extract treatment was observed at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Lowest concentration (1mg/ml solution) of C. procera chloroform extract reduced non-significant (P>0.05) lymphocytes cell proliferation (40.97%) as compare to control negative group. P. harmala water extract was effective against the theileria parasite as significantly lower (P<0.05) mean OD value (1.802 ±0.341) was measured at a concentration of 4mg/ml solution and maximum inhibitory effect (92.20) was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. ELISA reader findings showed that P. harmala chloroform extract treatment failed to inhibit lymphocytes cells propagation even at highest concentration. The highest inhibitory effect (85.33%) against theileria infected lymphocytes propagation was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Plant extract was evaluated in respect of feed intake in rabbits. It showed that when administered extracts of C. procera in rabbits at dose of 3 mg and 5 mg/kg body weight, did not affect on feed intake in rabbits. However the chloroform and water extracts of both plant i.e. C. procera and P. harmala when were administered in rabbits parentally at dose 10 of mg/kg body. It showed that the feed intake of rabbits was non-significantly reduced as compared to other treatments groups. Hematological parameters such as WBC X103 count, RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl values were measured at various days. Findings showed that significantly lesser RBC X 106 count was in group A3 and D3 than control at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl measurements in all treatments groups. Kidney and liver functions were evaluated by measuring biochemical parameters, uric acid, creatinine and ALT at 0 days, 9 days and 30 days. Findings showed that serum creatinine and urea enzyme levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A3 as compare to control group at day 30 of experiment. Serum level of urea was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in group B3 and D3 at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in ALT in all treatment groups at day 30 than control. Post-mortem was performed at day 30 of experiment. Gross lesions consisting of hemorrhages, congestion, and lung emphysema were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed moderate gross lesions. Histopathology of organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and heart was performed. Toxicity lesions were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed histopathological lesions in lungs, liver and kidney. Theileria infection was studied in vivo by developing through theileria infected Hayalomma ticks in crossbred calves (n=30) through. At day 15 of infection maximum increase in mean rectal temperature (105.24 ± 0.46F) was observed, twenty four calves had pyrexia (104.1- 105.6 F) and six claves were showing pyrexia > 105.6 F. A significant increase (P<0.05) in pre-scapular lymph node enlargement score of challenged calves was seen by day 7 of infection and maximum lymph node score (grossly enlarged size) was noticed in twenty calves (Table 4.14 , Plate 4.16) with peak mean score (2.73±0.44) on day 13 of infection. The piroplasm peak score (3.80±0.83) was observed in challenged calves at 22 day of infection and remained significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.60±0.54) in untreated calves until the 36 day of infection (Fig.4.29 and Table 4.16). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean schizonts was observed in pre-scapular lymph node biopsy smear from day 7 of infection to onwards. Blood samples of challenged calves (n =30) were confirmed theileria positive through PCR test. The amplification of Theileria species were amplified at 1098 bp (Plate 4.20 and Theileria annulata was amplified at 721 bp (Plate 4.21). In order to estimate the pattern of disease severity, severity score was measured by summation of mean score of piroplasms, schizonts, lymph node swelling and rectal temperature. From day 7, mild response (3-5 score) was seen in infected calves (n=10). With increase in the severity of disease a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in mean values of the Hb g/dL amount, WBC and RBC count, Hct (%) concentration and lymphocytes percentage from day15 of infection onward to 36 day of infection. A non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the mean values of MCH pg was seen throughout the experiment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean values of MCHC g/dL along with significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean measurement of MCV fL (64.14±3.53) values was seen at day 36 of infection as compare to day 0 values, indicating macrocytic hypochromic anemia in challenged calves. These findings showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in excretory products (uric acid and creatinine) from day 15 of infection and onward as compared to day 0 values, indicating damaged kidney in infected calves. Biochemical analysis showed the significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) from day 15 infection and onward. Anti-Theileria activities of drugs were estimated by evaluating clinical manifestation of the disease and parasitological findings. Beside this treatment effect on hematological and biochemical reactions of liver and kidney functions was determined. A significant difference (P<0.05) in rectal temperature of calves groups (B and E) was observed than control positive (group F) at day 21 of post-treatment. On other hand calves treated with treatments A, C and D had a non-significant difference (P>0.05) in rectal temperature compared with untreated calves (group F). It was found that calves (n=5) dosed with C. procera chloroform extract (group A) had rectal temperature in normal range by the day 7 of post-treatment. Similarly calves (n=5) treated with Butalex were found with normal rectal temperature from the day 7 of pos-treatment. On other hand, at day 21 of treatment 40%, 20%, 40% and 80% calves were found with pyrexia in treatments groups B, C, D and F, respectively (Table 4. 46). By the day 14 of treatment, calves of treatment groups B and E showed no parasitemia (piroplams ?1). Disease severity was estimated on accumulative score of rectal temperature, lymph node swelling and parasitological findings (piroplasms and schizonts score). It was found a significant decrease (P<0.05) occurred in the disease severity of score of disease in calves of groups B and E as compare to A, C and F at day 3 of post-treatment. At day 21 of treatment all treated calves were recovered from anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1580,T] (1).

28. Epidemiological, Haematological & Serological Studies Of Leptospirosis In Dogs And Human At High Risk In And Around Lahore City

by Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance capable of causing significant subclinical and clinical syndromes both in humans and animals. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia and other signs consistent with renal and hepatic disease. Considering the significance and the substantial losses rendered by Leptospirosis, the present project was designed to study epidemiology and haematology in dogs and humans at high risk in Lahore district and its peri-urban areas. The study was accomplished in 4 phases. In phase-I, sero-prevalence both in dogs and human was studied including case fatality rate and associated risk factors through cross a sectional study. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from dogs attended at the Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and other private clinics situated in and around Lahore area through systematic random sampling technique over a period of one year (1st Dec. 2010 to 30th Nov.2011). Blood samples from every fifth un vaccinated dog were collected, but if the dog was vaccinated then the sample was collected from the next unvaccinated one. In this phase 100 sera samples from human volunteers which were at maximum risk (veterinarian, pet and livestock owners, para-vet staff) were also collected. All samples were screened out by using ELISA kits like Canine Leptospira IgG ELISA Kit Catalog no. BG-CAN11485, NovaTein Biosciences, Woburn, MA, USA and Serion Elisa Plate, Virion/Serion GmbH, Wurzburg, Germany for dogs and humans respectively at the Medicine Laboratory and University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs a total of 429 dogs were examined and it was found that out of 429 blood samples 155 were found positive for Leptospira antibodies. Thus an overall prevalence of Leptospira was recorded as 36.13%. Prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs during different months of the year was also recorded. The months of September, October and June showed ere the highest prevalence and recorded as 50%, 48.57% and 45% respectively. Although, a few cases were seen during the months of December, January and February while moderate number of cases was recorded during the rest months of the year. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of Leptospirosis during the different months of the year. Out of these 429, 93 pups and 336 adults were examined for Leptospirosis and found that 26 pups and 129 adults were positive i.e. a prevalence rate of 27.95% (26/93) and 38.39% (129/336) for Leptospirosis was recorded in pups and adult dogs respectively and this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In this study a prevalence rate of 38.49% (102/265) and 32.31% (53/164) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female dogs respectively and this difference between the sexes was also non-significant(p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 21.24% (24/113) in winter, 35.82% (24/63) in spring, 40.34% (71/176) in summer and 49.32% (36/73) were recorded in fall season and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The highest prevalence rate was observed in fall and summer seasons of the year during higher rain fall seasons of the year. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in humans, a total of 100 blood samples were examined through random sampling technique during the whole study period and overall prevalence rate of 44.00% was observed in human population. Different risk factors like different months of the year, age, sex and season were also studied and that the highest prevalence of Leptospira in humans was observed in the months of March, April and August i.e. 66.66%, 66.66% and 60.0% respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the sero-prevalence of Leptospirosis in human during the different months of the year was observed. Sex-wise prevalence rate of 48.71% (38/78) and 27.27% (06/22) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female respectively and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The results of this research project revealed a prevalence rate of 47.29% (35/74) and 34.61% (09/26) for Leptospirosis in adults and young ones respectively and this difference was again non-significant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 41.93% (13/31) in summer, 40.00% (06/15) in fall and 25.92% (07/27) in winter, while 66.66% (18/27) was recorded in spring season of the year and this difference was significant (p<0.05) and the highest prevalence rate was observed in spring. In phase-II, the effect of Leptospirosis on various blood parameters were determined in both dogs and human. The results of present study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the Hemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR), Packed cell volume (PCV), Total Leukocytic count (TLC), Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes of healthy and Leptospira affected dogs, while a non-significant difference was observed (P >0.05)among values of lymphocytes. It showed that values of Hb forthe diseased dogs were lower than healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes, were more than in normal dogs. Likewise, in humans all the studied parameters were significantly (P <0.05) different between infected and healthy ones. The values of Hb concentration in diseased humans were lower than the healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Monocytes were higher than in healthy people. A negligible change was observed in the percentage count of lymphocytes. In phase-III, the comparative efficacy of commercially available vaccines against Leptospira was studied. Two commercially available vaccines, Vaccine #1 with protection against two serotypes of Leptospira (Canicola, Icterohaemorragiae) and vaccine #2with protection against four serovars of Leptospira i.e Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Pomona were compared After six months it was observed through ELISA screening that the vaccine #2 provided better overall protection compared to the vaccine #1 to the pups as well as adult dogs against the Leptospirosis but this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In the last phase of this study the chemotherapy trial was conducted. Results found that the efficacy of Penicillin G was 70%, while in group B Amoxicillin produced 60% results and in group C Sarsaparilla proved to be 40% effective against this infection although this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that among therapeutic agents used to treat Leptospirosis in dogs, Penicillin G , Amoxicillin and Sarsaparilla are ranked in respective order of efficacies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1588,T] (1).

29. Prevalence And Molecular Diagnosis Of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis Innili Ravi Buffaloes At Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara.

by Muhammad Altaf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1484,T] (1).

30. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations Of Leaves Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) And Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Anticoccidial Drug on Coccidiosis in Pigeons (Columba livia)

by Abdul Qudoos | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The background of this study is that world health organization (WHO) reports that neurological disorders affect one billion people worldwide, including 50 million affected by epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, periodic, spontaneous and unprovoked seizures. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a heterogeneous familial condition in which family members express absence seizures initially, and then show multiple phenotypes of myoclonic epilepsy including partial or absence seizures and generalized tonic conic seizures. Molecular genetics techniques have identified various CAE associated mutations in many genes i.e. ion channels (CACNA1H, CACNA1G, CACNA1N), sodium channel genes (SCN2A, SCN1A, and SCN1B) and some GABA receptor genes (GABRG2 and GABRD). CACNA1H ion channels are the principal intermediaries of fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been frequently reported to play a significant role in a number of seizures. CACNA1H gene encodes the alpha (?) subunit and is usually located in post synaptic. Various parameters are used in the present study was aimed to investigate coding regions of CACNA1H gene for analyzing the mutations involved in epilepsy. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of CAE were collected from psychiatry departments of different hospitals of Lahore. DNA were extracted with the standard protocol and amplifications of the CACNA1H regions were done with specially designed primers. Later on, analysis of the results is done by sequencing of target fragments is carried out. Sequences are analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with the help of clustalW2 software. It has been identified by the recent study on the absence epileptic patients of Pakistan that the gene CACNA1h has SNPs in the exon 9 and 10 at the position (2025G>A) and (4867 G>T) respectively which eventually alters the protein, making it hyperactive as the mutations are in the sensor regions of the protein, thus giving a 'gain in function' property to the ion channel. In the conclusion, we must say that further study, with much larger sample number, is required to revise the effects of this polymorphism and accurately identifying the associated factors. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing epilepsy in local population of Punjab and Pakistan that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1622,T] (1).

31. Prevalence And Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Different Isolates Of Hydatid Cyst In Ruminants In Okara

by Ali Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cystic hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution. Echinococcusis cause great economic loses in Pakistan and lead to the loss of worth 276.20$ per 100 sheep and goats, as well as 165.72$ per 100 infected buffaloes, cattle and camels. It has zoonotic importance and also have well-recognized zoonosis in Pakistan and numerous cases have been reported in the medical literature. Cystic hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, (E. granulosus), tapeworms. Adult tapeworms of this specie are small in size. Their measurement revealed that they reach upto 2-11 mm in length and contain protoscolex, the cephalic end for attchment and 2-5 proglottids segments. Two rows of keratinized hooks and four number of suckers are present on scolex. The last gravid proglottids segments bear the large number of fertilized eggs, which are shed after every 7-14 days. Eggs are oval in shape, having clearly distinct oncophore and 30-36 micrometer in diameter. There are several different strains of E. granulosus, which are genetically distinct. These strains vary phenotypically and therefore, this feature can be used for the control of this parasite. 10 genotypes of E. granulosus are identified up till now. Therefore, in this study we used PCR technique for prevalence determination and molecular characterization of specific strain of E. granulosus. The primers specific for E. granulosus were used in this study. The E.g.ss1for (5¡Ç-GTA TTT TGT AAA GTT GTT CTA-3¡Ç) worked as forward primer, while E.g.ss1rev (5¡Ç-CTA AAT CAC ATC ATC TTA CAA T-3¡Ç) worked as reverse primer. For this purpose, total 200 numbers of cyst samples (100 from each district) were collected from liver and lungs of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep slaughtered at different private and public abattoirs in Okara and Jhang. An antimortem examination was performed on each animal LIV and data regarding each animal entered in data capturing form before slaughter. Whole cyst sample was collected without rupturing and preserved in ice packs. Then these isolates were transferred to laboratory and stored at -20 ¢ªC for further processing. For the genetic analysis of E. granuous (Hydatid cyst) DNA was extracted from germinal layer and cystic fluid by using DNA extraction reagent (TRIREAGENT¢ç, Molecular Research Center, Ohio, USA) according to the manufacturer.s instructions. PCR was carried out by using primers specific for G1 strain of E. granulosus. The whole three steps (Denaturation, Anealing, Amplification) of PCR was carried out in PCR thermo cycler under conditions specific for E. granulosus. The final PCR product was electrophoresed in a 1% agarose gel containing 0.5 ug/ml of ethedium bromide. Electrophoresis was completed by applying 90 volts for 40 min. After required time, gel was placed in UV trans-illuminator to visualize the band shown by specific genotype of E. granulosus. Specific bands at 254 bp confirmed the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Results indicated the prevalence of 37% in Okara and 65% in Jhang district of Punjab. While in cattle (58.00%), buffalo (76.00%), sheep (36.00%) and goats (34.00%) prevalence was observed. As well as, (44.7%) prevalence of E. granulosus was calculated in liver and (54.8%) was observed in lungs in both districts. So, this study predicted the prevalence of hydatid cystic disease in ruminants in Okara and Jhang. PCR technique was used for the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in animals. This molecular characterization technique enables us to know the specific strain of E. granulous existing in these two districts. Finally the data gathered from this study help to understand the disease structure and to develop future plan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1681,T] (1).

32. Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab

by Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1844,T] (1).

33. Comparative Efficacy Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Levamisole And Combination Of Levamisole Oxyclozanide

by Muhammad Ali Raza | Dr.Syed saleem ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1889,T] (1).

34. Therapeutic Trials Against Salmonella Enterica Prevailing In Diarrheic Lambs And Kids

by Muhammad Kashif iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1918,T] (1).

35. Effects Of Chemoimmunotherapy On Recovery Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Hasisem -ur- Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2115,T] (1).

36. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Fusobactemium Necrophorum In Dairy Cattle

by Haq Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2146,T] (1).

37. The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog

by Nadir Hussain (2006-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003). The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999). Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014). Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012). Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011). Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004). Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001). Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2185,T] (1).

38. Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology Amd Chemotherapy Of Sarcoptic Mange In Camel In Punjab

by Muhammad Irfan Zahid (2011-VA-800 | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr.Shazia Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A camel is a very hardy ruminant animal, which can survive under harsh climatic conditions very effectively by utilizing the marginal areas with excellent capabilities and produce under such conditions (Hjort and Hussein, 1986; Abbas and Tilley, 1990). Camel is an important animal as it is well adopted in unique manners in the hot, arid and semi-arid environments (Schwartz, 1992). It can survive without water and food for many days and this unique ability of camel makes it an ideal for such harsh conditions for which it is also commonly known as “The Desert Ship”. In spite of the fact that camel is an important member of a group of animals which produces food for human consumption in the shape of milk and meat, yet it is the most neglected one in the field of scientific research. It may be due to the fact that camel belongs to such areas of the world which are arid, semi-arid or rain fed in nature, having harsh climatic conditions, where poor nutrition and poor management are the major issues (Sohail, 1983). It is an established fact that diseases originating from parasites lead to the main health hazard issues in animals. These parasites survive at the expense of the host animals causing lot of health problems, like skin irritation, anemia leading to weakness and debility. Some of the parasites have zoonotic importance and may become a source for the transfer of many contagious diseases like scabies to the human beings (Dominguez et al. 1978). McClain et al. 2009, observed the scabies as a major health problem globally both for humans and animal population. Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasite which is a cause of scabies, a skin problem in the human beings worldwide and the similar species of mites do also produce a similar type of disease in a large variety of wild and domesticated mammals (Pence and Ueckermann, 2002; Fitzgerald et al. 2004). Fain, 1978, reported that more than fifteen (15) different species of Sarcoptes scabiei morphologically and genetically distinct from each other have been identified in different hosts. Introduction 2 Sarcoptic mange is the second important problematic disease of camel after Trypanosomiasis (Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986). Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is a serious & highly contagious skin problem and also economically important disease of the camels (Pegram and Higgins, 1992). Camels, which are reared with deficient nutrition, poor management and under unhygienic conditions are mostly affected by this disease (Kumar et al. 1992). A large group of people and communities living in arid diverse ecozones in the entire world, particularly in harsh climates earns their livelihoods by depending on camels. This dependence may spread to the utilization of camel milk, meat, wool and leather besides its use in transportation, riding and sports (Wilson, 1984; Snow et al. 1992). In Pakistan camels are also raised by the people for meat, milk, riding, transportation and sports purposes in the deserts, semi desert & rain-fed / warm areas of the entire country being a hardy animal as it can tolerate easily the rugged climate as well as extremes of temperatures of such areas. The natural harsh and adverse climatic conditions, particularly during long dry seasons lead to a paucity of feeding regimes resultantly the camels raised in such areas are subjected to stress conditions which lower their resistance and make them easily vulnerable to diseases (Abbas et al. 1993; Agab, 1993). Abbas & Tilley, 1990; Saint-Martin et al. 1992; Abbas and Agab, 2002; Pathak and Chhabra, 2010; while reviewing the parasites & parasitic diseases of camel population in India were of the opinion that Sarcoptic mange is a serious, debilitating, dreaded and widely prevalent disease of camels in India. Besides other infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin, camels are exposed to a wide range of internal & external parasitic infestations. Amongst other so many external parasites to which camels are exposed, the Sarcoptic mange is recognized to be one of the most Introduction 3 serious and damaging disease. This disease is caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli which belongs to genus Camelus of SARCOPTIDAE family in Veterinary Entomology. It is an extremely pruritic, contagious and debilitating skin disease which is very frequently and sudden in onset. It is also ranked as one of the most serious and important disease of the camels. Sarcoptic mange infestation is very common in the areas of thin skin, the head, neck, flanks, medial aspect of thighs or inguinal region, mammary glands and prepuce. The head is usually affected very rapidly as the animal uses its teeth for scratching the affected areas. Besides linking the occurrence of the disease with poor camel management, malnutrition and contact with infected objects, the stray & infected camels also often become a focus of infecting the healthy animals when mingling with them particularly at watering places for drinking purpose (Richard, 1987; Abdel-Rehman et al. 2001). Sarcoptes is a burrowing mite as it penetrates deeply through the skin surface of the infected camel. This burrowing of mites in the skin helps these parasites lead to intense pruritus and exudative dermatitis. In pruritus, mites penetrate deep into muscular areas, damaging the flesh and lowering the quality of meat. The early inflammatory reaction of the host body towards the mites becomes evident in the shape of small popular elevations, invasion and injuries leading to formation of hairless areas, scaly crust formation or scabs on the affected parts and the skin become dark and thickened. Skin of mangy camel show hemorrhages, and subcutaneous odema after the development of fissures in the underlying epidermis (Kumar et al. 1992; Amer et al. 2006). The fertilized female mites create winding burrows or tunnels in the upper layers of the epidermis of the skin of the host animal and feeding on the serous exudate, a liquid oozing from the damaged tissues. The female mites lay about 40-50 fertilized eggs in these tunnels which Introduction 4 hatch in 3-5 days into a six legged larvae. These larvae immediately crawl to the surface and burrow themselves in the superficial layers of the skin and create small molting pockets. In these molting pockets, the larvae molt to next stages of nymph and adult. The adult male then emerges and seeks a female either in the molting pocket or on the surface of skin. After fertilization the female produces new tunnels, either de novo or, by extension, of the molting pockets, lays eggs in these tunnels and a new life cycle starts. The entire life cycle of Sarcoptic mange is completed in 17-21 days. New hosts can be infected through direct transmission by contact between the animals, presumably from larvae, nymph or adult mites, which are commonly present on the skin surface of the infected animal. Indirect transmission of infestation can also take place through the objects or fomites having mange infection, which come into contact with the affected camel, such as harnesses, blankets, baggage tack, tents and tree trunks (Richards, 1987). The pruritus increases as the mites penetrate deeper in the skin (Al-Rawashdeh et al. 2000, Driot et al. 2011, Bekele et al. 2012). Based on the rate of infection camels can be seriously disturbed by the Sarcoptic infestation as they may stop grazing which can lead to a rapid fall in milk production, and deterioration of health condition. With the increase in the irritation due to scabies, the camel rubs, bites and scratches the affected areas in an attempt to reduce the itchiness. Due to rubbing, biting or scratching, the mites move to the periphery affecting the healthy tissues and resultantly affected area spreads. As the disease prolongs, the skin becomes excoriated, leading to hair loss and the development of scabs. These scabs in turn may be rubbed away and a red surface developed. The animal becomes restless due to severe Sarcoptic mange infestation and involvement of most of the body surface. If the diseased animal is not treated in time, the animal loses its health condition, become emaciated and within two, three weeks the acute stage of Introduction 5 disease may give way to more chronic state (Gorakh et al. 2000, Abubakar et al. 2002, Driot et al. 2011). Sarcoptic mites rarely survive long off the host under natural conditions. A continuous direct contact of animal keepers with their camels can also lead to transmission of diseased condition in human beings which is termed as pseudo scabies. Transmission of infection from camel to man usually takes place during milking, handling or riding. The main symptoms of pseudo scabies can therefore be seen in the inter digital spaces of the hands, on the wrists, forearms, the elbows, the axillary folds and inner side of the thighs. Once a herd is infected with Sarcoptic mange, continuous reinfection of the disease occurs (Schillinger 1987, Singh & Veer 2005, Premalatha et al. 2010). Sarcoptic mange is usually considered to be a seasonal disease and is often reported severe during the winter months as in cold weather the disease had an acute course. However, there is some evidence that in some countries hot weather predisposes to acute outbreaks of camel mange and in the cooler, winter season the rate of mange infestations are at the lowest. In the summer the activity of the mite seems to decline or disease becomes chronic. Dietary intake is an important factor in mange infestation. Nomadic camels on a low nutrition plan, probably carrying heavy worm burdens in hot desert conditions are likely, therefore, to be highly prone to Sarcoptes at this time (Dinka et al, 2010). During such periods of great activity, the mites are readily transmissible from one animal to other animals (Richards, 1987, Banaja & Ghandour, 1994, Tefera & Gebreah, 2001). Mange can easily be diagnosed clinically from the occurrence of pruritus, depilation, alopecia, thickened skin, folds around the joints and encrusted plaques being the main characteristics of this parasitosis. In order to control this zoonotic disease, it is essential to treat Introduction 6 both camel and man along with effective checks over other predisposing factors of the disease such as hygiene and nutritional requirements of the animals. The skin diseases like the scabies both in human beings and animals are being treated with a variety of allopathic drugs now a day, but the role of herbal plants in use since centuries in different shapes cannot be ignored at all, especially in the rural lifestyle. Further with the continuous use of different acaricidal drugs, the issue of resistance development has come across as a challenge for the researchers to find some alternatives for the purpose. Accordingly the research work on the use of traditional herbal medicines is gaining attention day by day. Although there are many reports and studies regarding the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in camel from different parts of the world, only few preliminary reports are available for Pakistan and none of them provide detailed epidemiology of Sarcoptic mange and its effect on host health. Therefore, keeping in view the importance of the mange problem in camel population of the country, the present project was designed to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange infestation, factors in its occurrence its zoonotic importance, effect on blood physiology and different treatment options in the camel population of Punjab, province in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2190,T] (1).

39. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and auste