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1. Production, Purification And Evaluation Of Anti Tetanus Serum

by Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr | Mr. Muhammad Zubair Shabbir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: To produce anti-tetanus serum, ten female sheep of about 3 years of age are immunized with commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine (Imatet™, Amson vaccines and Pharma) for eighteen weeks to these experimental animals with two weeks interval. Serum samples of all the sheep were also collected fortnightly and stored at -20 ºC. ELISA was performed to determine the antibody (IgG) titer of all the test samples. Out of 90 samples, 20 samples showed tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 100.8 I.U. or more, while 8 samples presented tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 160.9 IU or more. Out of these 8 samples, 3 samples had tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 190.9 I.U. or more. Maximum tetanus antibody (IgG) titer was 195.4 I.U. at day 120. Three samples exhibiting maximum antibody titer (190.9 I.U., 195 I.U. and 195.4 I.U.) were mixed in equal quantities for purification of Immunoglobulins (IgG). A volume of 15 mL of aggregated serum samples was mixed with 15 ml of saturated ammonium sulfate having final concentration of 45 % in the mixture which is continuously stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Mixture was centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 30 minutes in refrigerated centrifuge machine and dialyzed against 10 changes of PBS at 4 ºC. Desalting is checked with BaCl2 solution. The purified tetanus immunoglobulins (IgG) were treated with papain to produce Fab Fragments. Then the protein content of the purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments was estimated with Bradford protein Assay. BSA standard curve was used to produce a regression equation [Y (OD Value) = 0.218 + 0.033 X (Protein Concentration)] which was used for calculation of the protein contents of the samples. The purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments were tested for purity with SDS-PAGE analysis. Then in vivo toxin neutralization test was performed in mice to check the tetanus toxin neutralization ability of the sera produced. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1420,T] (1).

2. Determination Of The Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Prevailing In The Hepatitis Suspected Patients In District Mardan,

by Suliman Qadir Afridi | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Fariha Akhtar | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1469,T] (1).

3. Efficacy Of Commercial Disinfectants Against The Water Contaminating Bacteria At Commercial Broiler Farms

by Mian Muhammad Salman | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Pfor. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Water is an important constituent for poultry. Poor hygienic conditions of water are health hazard for poultry. Many outbreaks are caused by consuming poor quality water.. Fifty water samples from different broiler farms in and around Lahore were collected from drinkers in sterile containers. Bacterial load was assessed using total viable count and coliform count. The counts were above the threshold level (50cfu/ml for coliform and 100cfu/ml for total viable count) showing that water used at poultry farms was of low microbiological quality. Five Disinfectants PHMB20% (.75ml/lit, 1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit), PHMB11% (1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (0.1ml/lit , 0.2ml/lit, 0.4ml/lit) Glutral 9.8%(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), organic acid(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit) were used and they resulted in log reduction of TVC by PHMB20% (5.83±4.36, 6.14±3.98, 9.35± 0.68), PHMB11% (9.42±0.21), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (2.45±0.97, 3.19±0.73, 6.33±0.80 ) Glutral 9.8%(6.87±1.00, 9.73±1.00,9.73±1.00), organic acid(4.75±1.21, 6.62±1.26, 6.90±1.15).PHMB20%,PHMB11%, Glutral 9.8% and organic acid were effective at normal dose, while 0.25 chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose against at normal dose. Log reduction in Coliform count at half, normal and double dose by PHMB20% (6.52±3.33, 6.96±2.46, 7.96±0.98), PHMB11% (7.89±1.01), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (3.65±0.73, 5.08±0.98, 6.27±0.97) Glutral 9.8%(8.48±0.99), organic acid(5.18±1.21, 5.93±1.26,6.46±1.15±) . PHMB20%, PHMB11%, 9.8% Glutral, organic acid were effective against coliform bacteria at half dose while 0.2% chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose. Glutraldehyde was effective at normal dose amongst all disinfectants against Total viable bacteria and coli form bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1482,T] (1).

4. Detection Of Soulfonamide Residues With Associated Histopathological Findings In The Tissues Of Cattle An Buffalo

by Mujahid Iqbal | r. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1483,T] (1).

5. Mosquitocidal Efficacy Of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae And Its Combined Therapy

by Aalia Riaz | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1489,T] (1).

6. Sources Of Salmonella Contamination In Poultry Meat During Processing And Its Resistance To Antibioties

by Atif Masood Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Veterinary and Animal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The unhealthy birds which are slaughtered at poultry retail shops may be transferring the pathogen to the healthy meat via butcher's block, clothe (used for cleaning carcass), weighing scale, table, knife and drum in which they are bled after slaughter. The tools which are used in butchers' chicken sale point ; different objects in their shop; the feed they give to birds and bird droppings ; all were analyzed and not surprising they were found heavily contaminated with Salmonellae. Salmonellae is an enteric organism and at chicken sale points contamination to objects through birds' intestine is not much surprising. Therefore a strong need to push the pressure on government to devise laws and set standards for clean premises at chicken sale points. Extensive and irrational use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary sector in the treatment, prophylaxis and as feed additive have made this organism resistant to many of the commonly used antimicrobials.These resistant organisms are being transferred to human body due to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. Therefore the Salmonellae in humans show resistance to many antibiotics. It is assumed that Salmonellae can transfer resistant genes via bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction.As a result it is becoming resistant to many antimicrobials. Therefore a strong check on irrational use of antibiotics is needed. The purpose of current study was to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonellae at chicken sale points in Lahore city. In current study 250 samples of 8 different types were collected from different poultry meat sale points in Lahore city.The selection of sale points was random. The samples included50 samples of each poultry feed and bird droppings. 150swab samples of butcher wooden blocks, table, drum( in which the birds are slaughterd), butcher's balance, knife , cloth (used to clean block, knife, table and chicken meat) were also collected from different chicken meat sale pointsin Lahore city.The Samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonellae by culturing and biochemical tests.The percentage of Salmonellae positive samples inwooden block, weighing balance, cloth, birds' droppings, drum, bird feed, knife and table surface was 44, 24, 36 ,16, 32, 8, 28, 20 respectively.Overall prevalence of Salmonellae was 23.2 %. The isolated Salmonellae were then checked for antimicrobial resistance against 18 antimicrobials by using disk diffusion method. All the Salmonellae isolates were resistant to atleast four antimicrobials. 49 different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1563,T] (1).

7. Characterization Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Isolates And Their Use In The Production Of Indigenous

by Mushtaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1564,T] (1).

8. Designing The Small Interference Rna Against Expression Of Coat Protein (Cp) Gene Of Potato Virus X (Pvx)

by Shafique Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1605,T] (1).

9. Molecular Epidemiology Of Subclinical Tuberculosis In Peri-Urban Human Population Of Lahore.

by Sadeem Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis (TB) is known to be a major health problem worldwide causing disease among millions of people every year. Major cause of tuberculosis in human is the infection with M.tuberculosiswhich usually causes pulmonary or lungs TB but an unknown number of patients are also infected with M.bovis which causes tuberculosis in humans as zoonotic agent along with its major hosts like cattle and deer. In developing countries where raw milk is used without pasteurisation there is a heavy risk of tuberculosis infection with M.bovis. TB infection with M.bovis mainly appears as extra pulmonary tuberculosis with and without specific symptoms of the disease.Diagnosis of subclinical asymptomatic tuberculosis and that of extra pulmonary tuberculosis is a difficult task and most of the time disease remains undiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to the unavailability of specific and sensitive diagnostic tool to diagnose the disease at early stage. Moreover prevalence of M.bovisinfection is not properly known. This study was designed to measure the diagnostic value of Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) for early and reliable diagnosis of subclinical extra pulmonary TB along with the molecular epidemiology of subclinical extra pulmonary TB to check the prevalence of M.bovisinfection. IGRA is a latest blood test with high specificity and sensitivity based on the principle of Interferon gamma released by effector T-Cell when exposed to M.tuberculosis antigens like ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in controlled in-vitro conditions. Eighty patients were selected for the study on the bases of the history of having day to day cattle contact along with feelings of sickness. Biopsy tissue samples of all the patients which were positive with IGRA were requested, however 24 out of 27 positive samples were collected and were first examined histologically. Twenty seven samples out of eighty were found positive with IGRA while 22 out of 24 samples were confirmed by histological examination as infected with MTB. Both IGRA and histological examination are unable todifferentiate between the specie specific infection with M.tuberculosis orM.bovis for which differential amplification of specific fragments of bothof the species was done by running a multiplex PCR using M.tuberculosis specific 185 bp pncA product and M.bovis specific 500 bp segment. Genomic DNA was extracted from previously formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues which requires pretreatment for deparaffinization. Xylene was used as deparaffinization agent. All of the twenty two samples positive with IGRA and histological study were found positive for M.tuberculosis infection and none of the sample was found positive for M.bovis infection. Results showeda close correlation among all three techniques with their specific benefits and limitations. Study concluded that T.Spot TB (IGRA) is a potentially reliable test for the diagnosis of subclinical, extrapulmonary TB.Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues may be used for TB diagnosis and other DNA based researches. Duplex PCR is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis of infection with different species of MTB complex, though none of the sample was found positive for M.boviswhich is may be due to small sample size of the study and it may further be studied in future researches. The research findings will help the clinicians to depend on IGRA testing for timely and reliable diagnosis of extrapulmonary subclinical tuberculosis and potential use of FFPE tissue samples as appropriate specimen for molecular based diagnosis of TB. Further studies are however, required to check the prevalence of M.bovis infection byincreasing sample size. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1621,T] (1).

10. Epidemiological Investigation About The Risk Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Outbreaks During Period Of 2011-2012 in commercial broilers in Lahore.

by Rubab Maqsood | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The poultry sector is one of the most systematized and vibrant divisions of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. The poultry sector has shown a vigorous growth of 8 to 10 percent annually, which reveals its distinctive potentialNewcastle disease, is an acute, contagious rapidly spreading viral disease of domestic poultry and wild bird of all ages with mortality up to 100% in the infected flocks. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype-I. This disease is major restraint to attain acceptable production levels in commercial broiler. In Pakistan ND is commonly reported disease in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks. In the current study risk factors which were associated with the outbreak of Newcastle Disease regarding farm practices were identified and recommendations can be given for the control of ND on the basis of comparing current and previous (2011-2012) farm practices in environmentally controlled commercial broiler houses. The results of this study are applicable on all the commercial broiler population which is being reared in environmentally controlled houses in Lahore District.Number of environmentally controlled houses was 128 environmentally control sheds in Lahore District. But only 96 farm managers guven consent for the visit of their farm so the sample was n= 96 environmentally controlled houses. Sampling unit was one environmentally controlled house. A questionnaire was developed about the risk factors which were considered to be associated with ND outbreak. A total n= 96 Environmentally controlled houses of commercial broiler affected and not affected by the ND outbreaks in and around Lahore District were selected with the help of convenient sampling method and their owner/manager were interviewed face to face and information was also collected from the farm record. Out of 96 ECH(Environmentally Controlled Houses) of commercial broiler 79 suffered from newcastle disease outbreak while only 17 ECH were non-infected during period of 2011-2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and odds ratio was calculated for the studied and supposed risk factors. Distance between farms less than 5Km, feed transporting vehicle, method of dead infected birds' disposal and type of labor on the farms were found as risk factors for the newcastle disease out breaks. Water quality, biosecurity, feed storage method, heat source used, farms managers, litter disposal methods showed a negative association with the spread of disease. E. coli and salmonella infection were mostly observed as secondary infections among the ND affected flocks. Avian influenza showed an association with newcastle disease. Infectious bursal disease and hydro pericardium syndrome showed no association with ND epidemics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1628,T] (1).

11. Gender Differentiation From Fingerprint Ridge Count In Pakistani Population

by Ahmed Fayyaz | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In forensic science, fingerprinting has been used for decades as an efficient tool for identification of persons linked to an illegal activity or a crime scene. Different methods for the development and analysis of the latent fingerprints have been introduced including optical, physical and chemical methods. Each method has its own importance in the development and examination of the latent prints, which are invisible to naked eye before the application of fingerprint development methods. A lot of work has been published worldwide regarding fingerprinting. It was also reported that there is a significant difference in the ridge density of males and females. Ridge count might be helpful in the gender differentiation in Pakistani population. Patent prints of 100 males and 100 females were taken on A4 size paper or card paper using pelikan black inkpad and analysis was done with the help of 10x magnification lens. The ridges were counted diagonally within a square of 5mm x 5mm. This value depicts the number of ridges per 25 mm2. Results were analyzed by using Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results of this study are used as a helpful tool for forensic expert and law enforcement. It reveals that females have finer epidermal ridge detail than males. The degree of ridge density is used as presumptive indicator of gender of unknown print left at a crime scene. First we qualitatively examine if prints appear coarse or fine and then by quickly quantifying ridge density or ridge count in a manner similar to method described in this study. The outcomes of this study will be helpful in exoneration of innocents in different crimes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1668,T] (1).

12. Immunohistochemical Detection Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Different Organs Of Experimentally Infected

by Mudassar Iqbal | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ishtiaq ahmed | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1671,T] (1).

13. Detection And Quantification Of Dna From Saaliva From Cigarette Butts In Different Genders

by Qurra-tul-Aien | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1675,T] (1).

14. Isolation And Characterization Of Auxin Producing Bacterial Strains From Plant Rhizosphere

by Kanwal Aziz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Auxins are a class of plant hormones or plant growth substances. Auxins have a cardinal role in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes in the plant. Soil samples were serially diluted and screened for auxin production by Salkowski method. Isolates that have the ability to produce auxin were identified by culture characters, morphology, and bio-chemical profile. From 150 isolates, 04 bacteria were selected (AUX-36, AUX-53, AUX-137, and AUX-142). The bacteria were identified by following the flowcharts described in “Berges Mannual of Determinative Bacteriology”, 9th addition. These isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus marinus respectively. Next, different physical and chemical parameters for growth of bacteria and auxin biosynthesis were optimized. For the optimization of bacterial growth OD values of the culture broth (at wavelength 600nm) was taken by spectrophotometer. To estimate the amount of auxin (ìg/ml) produced in the culture broth; a standard curve (concentration of auxin ìg/ml at x-axis and OD value at y-axis) was prepared by using commercially available auxin. The optimum conditions for growth and auxin production by AUX-36 was found to be pH 7, 0.98% osmotic pressure at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. If the medium is supplemented with 0.1 and 1.0% glucose, sucrose and peptone then it increased the bacterial growth which ultimately increased the auxin concentration in the broth medium. The growth and auxin Production by AUX-53 was 0.98% NaCl concentration at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH was found to be 7 but it showed good growth at acidic as well as alkaline pH. The addition of glucose and sucrose in the growth medium increased the growth as well as auxin production. The optimum conditions for the growth of AUX-137 were as follows: pH=7, 0.98% osmotic pressure, temperature 37 °C. However the isolate had good growth at 28 °C and 2% NaCl concentration as well. The bacterial cell density and auxin increased with incubation time up to 72 hours. The isolate produced highest concentration of auxin under the same conditions. Similarly, the cell density and auxin increased with the increasing concentration of glucose in the growth medium. Sucrose increased the auxin only in the culture filtrate. While the bacteria AUX-142 showed highest growth as well as auxin production at 42 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH and osmotic pressure was found to be 7 and 2% respectively. The cell density and concentration of auxin increased with the increasing concentration of peptone in the growth medium. Addition of tryptophan (1-2%) increased the auxin concentration in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Next, the seed germination test and plant pot experiment were performed of selected isolates to observe the effect of bacterial inoculation on wheat plants. In seed germination test treatment of seeds with AUX-36, AUX-53 and AUX-142 significantly increased the root length and number of root hairs as compared to non-treated seeds. In plant pot experiment comparison of various growth parameters of inoculated plants with non-inoculated plants revealed the improvement in plant growth by bacterial inoculation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1684,T] (1).

15. Isolation And Characterization Of Phytase Producing Microrganism From Soil

by Ghazal Aziz | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Phytase is an enzyme of great importance because it is added as a biofertilizer to soil and added in animal feed to increase the uptake of inorganic phosphorous. Phytase production is the property of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that harbor in rhizosphere part of the soil. These phytase producing bacteria can be utilized as biofertilizers as and can increase the soil fertility and crop production. Soil samples were collected and screened for the production of phytase (an extracellular) enzyme on phytase screening media (PSM). Six bacterial isolates (PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30) showed distinguished clear zones (> 6mm) on PSM. Isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei PHY02, Enterobactor intermedius PHY03, Bacillus badius PHY06, Escherichia coli PHY07, Shigella sonnei PHY12, and Klebsiella pneumonia PHY30. Effect of physical parameters (temperatures, pH and osmotic pressure) on growth and enzyme production by selected isolates was determined. Optimum growth and production of phytae by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 (27, 9, 19, 40, 32, and 19 IU, respectively) was at 37°C. PHY07 showed highest enzyme production, followed by PHY30 and PHY02. Isolate PHY06 showed similar growth and enzyme activity at 37°C and 42°C but it was significantly reduced at low temperature. Effect of pH on phytase production on selected isolates indicates that all isolates produces maximum amount of phytase at pH 6.5. At pH 6.5 enzyme units released by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30, were 26, 15, 19, 41, 19, and 32 IU, respectively. Production of enzyme decreased with the increase in osmotic pressure. PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 showed optimum enzyme production (27, 15, 17, 41, 18, and 32 IU, respectively) at 1 % NaCl in PSM (Figure 1C). Effects of carbon source on both growth and phytase production of isolates showed that PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12 had significantly higher (P<0.05) cell densities and enzyme production in glucose, while PHY02 and PHY30 had higher enzyme activity at 0.3% lactose. Nitrogen source in growing media also effects the growth and production of enzyme. PHY02 and PHY12 had better growth and production at 0.1% peptone, while PHY07 and PHY30 had significantly higher phytase level in media modified with peptone but at higher concentration (0.3%). Addition of tryptone in growth medium significantly enhanced the growth and enzyme production by PHY03, and PHY06. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1685,T] (1).

16. Isolation Identification & Molecular Based Investigation Of Bovine Rotavirus

by Ambreen Masood | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqoob | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Livestock is an important part of the economy of Pakistan. Calf's diarrhea due to group A bovine rotavirus causes high morbidity and mortality, which results in significant economic losses to livestock. In Pakistan overall prevalence of bovine rotavirus infection is 2.6%. As Pakistan is a developing country, survival of calves is really important to produce milk, meat and hides for propagation of livestock. The aim of current study was to isolate bovine rotavirus from faecal samples of diarrheic calves by antigen capture ELISA and molecular investigations. So, it was helpful to check the prevalence of bovine rotavirus in Lahore district. This study will be a milestone for better treatment strategies of calf diarrhea problem. It will also pave the way for better vaccine development strategies to cure the disease. A total of 100 diarrheic faecal samples of cattle and buffalo's calves less than three months of age were collected from Lahore district. Rotavirus screening was done by direct sandwich ELISA by using commercial Rotavirus detection kit (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium). ELISA confirmed 12 samples to be positive for bovine rotavirus. Among 12 positive samples, 7 were found positive in buffalo calf and 5 in cattle calf. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the PCR was done for amplification of VP4 gene of all ELISA positive bovine rotavirus samples. But only 5 samples (3 buffalo calf samples and 2 cattle calf samples) give desired product of 880 bp of VP4 gene. After sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, phylogenetic tree was constructed. It is evident that Pakistani bovine rotavirus VP4 gene (BRV/QOL/13) has maximum identity of 98% with Indian bovine rotaviruses VP4 gene. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1707,T] (1).

17. Molecular Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Salmonella Isolates From Poultry

by Saba Zeb Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Salmonella is a gram negative bacteria which can cause a number of different diseases including gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and typhoid fever, with the most common being gastroenteritis, some serotypes of it are pathogenic and cause serious food poisoning in humans and major economic losses in both chicken and turkeys. The birds can be the reservoir of Salmonella species which cause food borne infections in human. Human get such infections by ingesting contaminated products. In poultry farms, Salmonella can be introduced by means of contaminated feeds, particularly those that contain animal raw materials. Use of antibiotics in poultry has become a popular practice. Different antibiotics like tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim etc. are given in poultry via water and feed for growth and protection against diseases. Extensive and uncontrolled use of antibiotics resulted in increased development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Statistical data shows that Salmonella is resistant to many antibiotics especially tetracycline. The goal of our study was Molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance genes in Salmonella spp. and to check the prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in Salmonella isolates from poultry drinking water. Total 50 water samples were collected from different poultry farms and poultry meat shops in Lahore district.Various biochemical tests were performed to confirm the isolated strains as Salmonella. Tetracycline resistance was examined against isolates. Plasmid DNA was extracted from these bacteria. Antibiotic resistant plasmid genes were amplified by PCR. After gel electrophoresis the resulting fragments were sequenced through genetic analyzer. After sequencing the sequence thus obtained was compared with the reported sequences of tet genes in Salmonella strains in NCBI. It was found out that Salmonella isolates from the poultry drinking water are highly resistant to tetracycline, as 83% of the isolated Salmonella from poultry drinking water showed their resistance towards tetracycline.PCR amplification of tet genes indicated the presence of tetA gene in 100% of tetracycline resistant Salmonella, whereas 64% of the samples contained tetB gene. TetB gene was present only in combination with tetA gene. None of the sample contained tetC, tetD and tetGgene. This study helped to find out the prevalence of antibiotic resistant genes in Salmonella isolated from poultry drinking water, which were potential threats to human being and this study will also help us in future to develop strategies to restrict the emergence of antibiotic resistant genes and their spread. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1714,T] (1).

18. To Investigate The Morphology Of Lip Prints And Their Effectiveness In Individualization And Sex Determination

by Makhdoom Saad Waseem Ghouri | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Abu Saeed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1720,T] (1).

19. Trace Analysis Of Gun Shot Residue On Different Fabrics Using Locally Manufactured Ammunition In Pakistan

by Muneeba Butt | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1733,T] (1).

20. Molecular Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Salmonella Isolates From Diarrheic Calves

by Hania Zulfiqar | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Abu Saeed | Miss. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A number of infectious (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and non-infectious factors cause diarrhoea in calves. Salmonella bacteria are gram-negative and belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella infections in calves continue to be a major problem worldwide and are responsible of causing major economical losses. To avoid the consequences of disease caused by Salmonella drugs like pencillin, tetracyclines e.g, are given to cattle but it is observed that Salmonella show resistance against these drugs after certain period of time. Salmonella is the major causative agent of calf diarrhea. The antibiotic genes against tetracycline and ampicillin are present in slamonella isolates from calves which are suffering from diarrhea. Aim of my study was 1) Salmonella isolation and investigation of the antimicrobial resistance gene from diarrheic calves and 2) Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene of isolated salmonella species. For this purpose, salmonella antibiotic resistant isolates against ampicillin and tetracycline were selected. Antibiotic resistant plasmid genes were amplified by PCR. After gel electrophoresis the resulting fragments were sequenced through genetic analyzer. After sequencing all the sequences were viewed in Chromas Lite 2.1.1 , Sample sequences were aligned with the reference sequences obtained from NCBI by using Mega 5.05 software. Alignment results show that there is no Single Nucleotide Polymorphism found in salmonella. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1744,T] (1).

21. Level Of Amylase From Human Saliva Deposited On Fruit First Bite Mark

by Umar Draz | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Tahir | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Saliva is colorless fluid which consists of epithelial cells, enzymes, non enzyme protein and inorganic components. Saliva is secreted by three glands in mouth. One is parotid gland, second is submandibular gland and third is sublingual gland. There are two types of amylases in human. One is salivary amylase, while other is pancreatic amylase. The salivary amylase is secreted by salivary gland while pancreatic amylase is secreted by pancreas. The salivary amylase is present in saliva, perspiration and breast milk. Pancreatic amylase is present in blood, feces and urine. Saliva stain is very important at crime scene for forensic investigation. Majority of techniques used for detection of saliva are based upon the presence of salivary amylase. Human saliva can serve for identification. One can extract DNA from saliva stain and generate DNA profile, whereby individual can be identified who is a source DNA profile that is generated from saliva stain. In present study level of salivary amylase was determined from human saliva deposited on fruit with first bite mark. Apple, peach and apricot were selected for this experiment. Ten males and ten females were selected to bite on fruits. The time interval was used as variable for determining the level of amylase. The time intervals were 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours and 48 hours. Samples were collected from bite mark area on fruit. The samples collected from apples and apricot pits were positive for amylase activity till 48 hours. The samples collected from peach were positive till 12 hours. The samples collected from peach were negative after 24 hours. This research indicates that salivary DNA could be found on bite mark area on apple and apricot pit till 48 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1755,T] (1).

22. Tissue Tropism Of Velogenic-Viscerotropic Newcastle Disease Virus In Broiler Chickens

by Tasra Bibi | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: ND is an infectious, highly contagious and widespread disease of avian species and has a considerable economic impact on poultry industry. This study is a preliminary work to understand the mode of action of the recent VVNDV isolate of the UVAS, towards the tissue tropisms of both lymphatic and non lymphatic organs. One hundred chicks purchased from the local hatchery and reared for the trial including control, however, the VVNDV strain was received from the QOL, UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan. Three trials were conducted using the challenge dose 100,000 ELD50 (Group C) and 10,000 ELD 50 as (Group B) and 1000 ELD 50 as (Group A). Five chickens were selected randomly from each group and slaughtered on daily basis, including two chicks from control. These samples were used for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test. Conclusively, the study indicates that NDV induces early necrosis in the lymphoid tissues of infected chickens which is correlated with the severity of the disease caused by each dilution. Necrosis does not seem only to be the direct viral replication and indirect effects may lead to death of the animals, due to depletion of lymphoid organs. However, the peak hours were recorded 72 hours to 96 hours post infection in all lymphoid and non lymphoid organs irrespective of the dilution factor of the VVNDV. Immunohistochemistry is not a routine practice in diagnostic test, however, this study may lead to a roadmap in understanding the interpretation of the clinical/pathological picture and the tropism may be helpful in future to study some other aspects like failure of commercial vaccines and to control the outbreaks of NDV in the country an endemic as well as a devastating disease of the poultry industry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1824,T] (1).

23. Genetic And Evolutionary Characterization Of Pakistani Pigeons And Parrots Through Mitochondrial D-

by Sehrish firyal | Dr. Ali raza awan | Prof, Dr. Aftab | Prof, Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1873,T] (1).

24. Cytochrome B Gene Amplification A Novel Approach For Diagnosis Of Theileriosis In Cattle Under Field

by Muhammad Faiz rasool | Prof. Dr.Kamran ashraf | Dr.Nisar ahmed | prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1893,T] (1).

25. Physico-Chemical Factors Affecting The Growth Of Bovine Rotavirus

by Wardah sharmeen syed | Prof. Dr. Tahir yayub | Dr Muhammad Zubair shabbir | Dr.Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1924,T] (1).

26. Seroprevalence Of Bluetongue In Domestic Animals

by Farid ahmed khan | Prof..Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Ms. Sehrish | Prof. Dr Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1925,T] (1).

27. Isolation And Molecular Identification Of H9N2 Avian Influena Virus From Human In Punjab Province Pakistan

by Abdul ahad | Prof .Dr, Masood rabbani | Prof. Dr. Rana | Prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1926,T] (1).

28. Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxins Biological Control Aginst Aedes Aegypti

by Qurat ul ain hanif | Prof. Dr Tahir yayub | Dr.Sehrish firyal | Prof. Dr.Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1929,T] (1).

29. Genetic Evaluation Of Cyp19A1 As A Candidate Gene For Silent Estrus Behavior In Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Sana Imran | Miss. Maryam javed | Miss.Asma | Prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1969,T] (1).

30. Molecular Variability Analysis Of Mitochondrial Dna Hypervariable Region L And Ll In Four Consecutive Human Generations of Punjab

by M. Faaras iqbal | Prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub | DR. Sehrish firyal | Miss Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2008,T] (1).

31. Microscopic Comparison Of Human Hair Amongst Three Male Generation Of Five Castes In Punjab Pakistan

by M. Farhan khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir yaqub | Dr. Muhammad tayyab | Dr. Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2009,T] (1).

32. Production Of Hyperimmune Yolk Against K99 Enterotoxigenic E. Coli Purification Of Lgy

by Khadija abid | Prof. Dr. Tahir yayub | dr. M. wasim | Prof. Dr.Khushi muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2057,T] (1).

33. Haematological And Serum Biochemical Responses Of Nili- Ravi Buffalo Fed On Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed With And Without Toxin Binders

by Muqaddas Sardar | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2108,T] (1).

34. Development Of Lamp An Economical Molecular Diagnostic Tool For Avian Influenza H9N2 The Field

by Farhana Ehsan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr.M. Imran | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2124,T] (1).

35. Production Of Laccase By Immobilized White Rot Fungi And Its Application For The Decolorization Of Textile Effluent Dyes

by Iqra Ghulam Rasool (2012-VA-579) | Ms. Faiza Masood | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Textile wastewater effluent contains several types of dyes that are toxic, carcinogenic, and dangerous for environment (Nyanhongo et al. 2002). More than 10,000 different kinds of dyes and pigments are used in dyeing and textile industries. Approximately 8, 00, 000 tons colorant is produced annually and 10% of used dyes are enters the environment in the form of wastes. There are different types of textile dyes such as direct dyes, disperse dyes, reactive dyes, acid dyes, and basic dyes. Wastewater effluents discharge from textile industries contain more than 10-15% of these dyes (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Such wastewater effluents are being discharged into water stream without or after only partial treatments, causing water pollution and negatively affecting the aquatic life. The treatment of textile wastewater effluents are of major environment concerns (Nyanhongo et al. 2002). White rot fungi (WRF) is a wide class of fungi and it is mostly comprised of basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and lignin-decomposing fungi (Wesenberg et al. 2003). WRF are the most abundant wood degraders, and are so named because they leave a bleached appearance of the wood fibers following their attack. WRF has the ability to degrade contaminants by virtue of the nonspecific nature of its extracellular ligninolytic enzyme system (Nyanhongo et al. 2002) The white rot fungus is also known as lignin degraders because it degrades lignin effectively due to some enzymes present in it. The important enzymes involves in degradation of lignin are following: (i) lignin peroxidase: It oxidizes both phenolics and non pheolics compounds, (ii) manganese-dependent peroxidase, (iii) laccase: It oxidises phenolic compounds and produce phenoxy radicals and quinones; (iv) glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase used for H2O2 production, and (v) celloulobiose quinone oxidoreductase for quinone reduction (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Laccase (oxidoreductase, EC belongs to polyphenol oxidases group of enzymes. Copper atoms are present in the catalytic center of enzyme so it is also known as multicopper oxidases (Baldrain et al. 2006). The molecular mass of laccase is 50–100 kDa (Couto and Toca 2006). According to the mechanism of laccase, it carries out the reduction of oxygen to water along with the oxidation of its substrate. Laccases oxidize wide range of compounds such as polyphenols, methoxy substituted phenols, aromatic diamines, and other compounds (Baldrain et al. 2006). The substrate specificity of laccase is very wide and broad. In ortho and para substituted mono and polyphenolics substrate, it carries out reduction by removing hydrogen atom from hydroxyl group. In aromatic amines, it removes one electron and produces free radicals. These radical are able of many other reactions such as depolymerization, repolymerization, demethylation, or quinone formation. During lignin degradation, oxidation of methoxyhydroquinones followed by auto-oxidation of the methoxysemiquinones. Furthermore, formation of superoxide anion radicals undergoes more chemical reactions. The activity of laccase may be increased by using different kind of activators, such as ABTS (2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline- sulfonic acid), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, or compounds secreted by fungi (Abadulla et al. 2000). In the presence of ABTS, the decolorization efficiency increases up to 45% (Tong et al. 2007). Laccases have been produced from different kind of sources such as some species of fungus like white rot fungi, different kinds of bacteria, and some insects (Heinzkill et al. 1998; Diamantidis et al. 2000; Dittmer and Kanost 2010). This enzyme is widely distributed in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes, WRF is the major source for the production of laccase enzyme because this fungi is involved in metabolism of lignin (Bourbonnais et al. 1995). There are many applications of fugal laccases such as effluent decolorization discharged from industries, degradation of pulp released from paper and pulp industries, removal of phenolics compounds from alcohols, synthesis of organic compounds, biosensors, pharmaceutical sector (Yaver et al. 2001). This enzyme can also improve animal performance, increase nutrient digestibility when added to animal feed (Sharma et al. 2013). Fungal laccases have higher redox potential of +800mV as compared to plants or bacterial laccases that’s why there are several applications of laccase in biotechnology field especially in the decolorization of dyes. Enzymes can be produce in larger amount so that laccase based decolorization techniques are advantageous to bioremediation technologies (Devi et al. 2012). Pleurotus is a species of WRF and few laccases have been isolated, purified and cloned from Pleurotus species. However, the physiological significance of laccase produced by the white rot fungi is not known. Literature reports that mycelia culture of Pleurotus florida produces at least two laccases (L1 and L2), one of which appears to be linked with the mycelia growth of the fungus (Das et al. 1997). The L1 isoenzyme is dominantly involved in the dye decolorization process. Submerged fermentation (SmF) is a type of fermentation in which microorganism is grow in liquid broth and enzymes and other compounds are released in the broth. This technique used free liquid substrates such as nutrients etc. The substrates are utilized quite rapidly and constantly supplemented with nutrients. In fermentation broth, microorganisms are provided with appropriate nutrients and conditions such as high oxygen concentration for the production of microorganism in order to get desired products. In this technique, mycelium formation is takes place. Mycelium formation can lead to pellet formation which hinders the diffusion of oxygen and nutrients in the medium. In recent times, wide variety of secondary metabolites has been produced commercially by fungal fermentation. Fungi are complex microorganism that is different morphologically and structurally at different phases of their life cycles form others. It is also differ in form between surface and submerged growth in fermentation media. Nature of liquid media also effect on the growth of fungi. Different culture conditions such as temperature, pH and mechanical forces are important for fungi growth but these parameters are different for different fungi (Kossen et al. 2000). Enzymes act like catalyst and they speed up any chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction. The uses of enzymes are advantageous due to its several characteristics and features as compared to conventional chemical catalyst. However, there are some problems that can reduce the operational life time of any enzymes. These problems includes; non-reusability of enzyme, the instability of their structure, high cost of isolation, purification and characterization and their sensitivity to harsh condition of reaction. These objectionable limitations of enzymes may be reduced by the use of immobilized enzymes. There are mainly four procedures present for immobilization of any cell (Kunamneni et al. 2007). These procedures are following: adsorption, gels entrapment or polymer entrapment, covalent coupling, and cross-linking to insoluble matrices (Brouers et al. 1989). For immobilization different kinds of matrices, such as agar, calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel, etc have been used. In order to select suitable matrix and immobilization procedure, type of the cell, type of the substrate, medium conditions and products are major factors (Prasad et al. 2005). During immobilization, enzyme is fixed to or within solid matrix in order to get heterogeneous immobilized enzyme system. Naturally enzymes are bounded to cellular membrane in living cells for most cases so in order to get the natural form of enzyme, immobilization of the cell is done. This immobilized system stabilized the structure and activity of the enzyme for longer period of time. When enzymes are immobilized, they are stronger and more challenging to harsh environment changes. Immobilization also allows easy recovery of enzyme and also it’s multiple re-use in processes. The Michaelis constant of immobilized enzymes increased and their activity usually lowered when compared to free enzyme. When immobilization procedure applied, different structural changes introduced to an enzyme which leads to these alterations. Immobilization helps to maintain the structure, stability and activity of enzyme for longer time without being de-activated (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Immobilization represents an attractive option to obtain enzymatic catalyst for dyes treatment. This technique provides different advantages: (i) it prevents enzyme leakage even under harsh conditions; (ii) it facilitates enzyme use in different types of reactors like packed bed, stirred tank and continuous bed; (iii) it causes stabilization of the enzyme tertiary structure, usually as a consequence of multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the support, providing enzyme rigidity. The stabilization provided by covalent bonding is usually counter balanced by partial enzyme deactivation. This negative effect can be mitigated by carefully optimizing the immobilization conditions in order to maximize the ratio between immobilized enzyme activity and activity of the primary enzyme solution (Pezzella et al. 2014). Immobilization of laccase was extensively investigated with broad range of different techniques and substrates. Inactivation of enzyme occurs when oxidized products are absorbed on the surface of the immobilization matrix support (Kunamneni et al. 2007). Textile industries discharged wastewater effluents comprised of toxic dyes are dangerous for aquatic life and have harmful impacts on the environment. There are different methods including physical and chemical methods which are use previously to decolorized dyes. These physical and chemical methods are quite costly, prolonged, ineffective and insecure (Shang and Chi 1996; Mechichi et al. 2006). In comparison to these methods, biological processes are quite suitable and helpful. Biological processes are less expensive, safe and take less time and effective. Biological processes used microorganisms to decolorize dyes. Laccase as an extracellular oxidative enzyme produced by white rot fungi are eco-friendly and cheap. In order to decolorize dye, three day old fermentation media is used and dyes is added in the broth. To get 70-75% decolorization in fungal culture, more than 48 hours are required. Pleurotus Species produced laccase efficiently and this laccase could decolorize malachite green dye upto 70% within 24 hours (Yan et al. 2009). Laccases can degrade several dye structures such as phenol, polyphenols and diamines (Abadulla. et al. 2000) to degrade harmful compounds into less toxic compounds and may be helpful to reduce environmental pollution (Gianfreda et al. 1999). The specific features and mechanism of laccase helps to make it a versatile biocatalyst. Due to its versatility, it is suitable for several applications such as biopulping, biobleaching, and industrial wastewater treatment. Due to the severe environment legislation, the textile industry is trying to introduce new innovative technologies for the treatment of wastewater effluents discharged from textile industries. Laccase has potential to degrade dyes of various chemical structures so that development of techniques based on laccase seems an attractive and suitable solution in decolorizing dyes (Madhavi and Lele 2009). The decolorization and detoxification of the wastewater effluent would help to use it again and again in dying process in textile wet processing. The major purpose of this research is to decolorize the textile effluents dyes discharged by industries after partial treatment and cause water pollution and have negative effect on aquatic life and ecosystem. It is necessary to established most effective and efficient method to produce sufficient amount of laccase enzyme through immobilized white rot fungus and then utilized it in the process of bioremediation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2208,T] (1).

36. DNA Based Characterization Of Protease Gene From Geobacillussp.Sbs-4s

by Anam Shabbir (2012-VA-608) | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Ms. Huma Mujahid | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of proteins(Qadar et al.2004).These enzymes contribute major role in textile and leather industry,accounting 60% of the world wide enzyme market(Nascimento et al.2004).These enzymes are also being used in food ,pharmaceutical ,detergent, brewage sweet industry and as digestive additives in human and animal feed (Wilson, 2012). Proteases are produced by microbes,animal and plants but microbial proteases are preferred due to ease in production and cheaper cost (Ningthoujam et al.2010).Microbes produce a variety of proteases according to their requirement that are specific in their function (Neurath 1999).Microbes might be involved in the production of intra or extracellular proteases.Extracellular proteases help the organism to absorb and utilize hydrolytic products from proteinious substrates in order to get energy by catabolism or to synthesize the biomolecules through anabolism reactions(Ningthoujamet al.2010). Proteases can be classified in different ways.On the basis of cutting preferences these can be divided in to two groups:endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Barret and Mcdonald 1985).Exopeptidases are involved in hydrolysis of the peptide bond near N or C terminal whereas endopeptidases are responsible for the hydrolysis of peptide bond, with the chain, distant from the peptide ends(Motyan et al .2013).On the basis of catalytic residues in active site the proteases can be divided into six groups including glutamate,serine, therionine cysteine,aspartate and metalloproteases(Li et al.2013). Microorganisms occupy all possible environments including habitats that provides appropriate conditions for growth(Sharma et al.2009).Thermophiles have ability to grow at highertemperature whereas other microbes fail to survive.There has been increasing interest in thermophilic bacteria because of their thermostable enzyme(Obeidat et al.2012).Hyperthermophiles can survive in extremely hot environment. Hyperthermophiles occupy the most basal positions of the phylogenetic tree of life(Bouzas et al. 2006). About 70 species of hyperthermophilic bacteria and archea has been isolated from different terrestrial, marine and thermal areas in the world.Hyperthermophiles are very divergent in their phylogeny and physiological properties.Proteolytic enzymes from hyperthermophiles are catalytically active at high temperature and they can alsoretain their catalytic activity in the presence of detergent and other denaturing substances (Stetter et al.1993). Geobacillusis widely distributed thermophiles isolated from geothermal areas (Chalopagorn et al.2014).On the basis of16SrRNA gene sequences, Geobacillus belongs to Bacillus genetic group 5. It is phenotypically and phylogeneticallyconsistent group of thermophilicbacilli (Rahman et al. 2007).Bacillus and Geobacillus species are the dominant workhorses in industrial biotechnology. These bacteria produce a variety of extracellular enzymes, such as amylases, xylanases, proteases, phytases, carbonic anhydrases, catalases, pectinases. Bacillus and Geobacillus species hasability to grow at acidic, alkaline, neutral pH and at elevated temperature has positioned them among the most important industrial enzyme producers(Satyanarayana et al. 2012). Geobacillus are gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic,endospore-forming obligate thermophiles.The growth temperature for various Geobacillus species ranges from 37 to 75 °C and pH range of 6.0 to 8.5.The members of Geobacillusare homologus to each other and share homology 99% among them(Tayyab et al.2011). The genus Geobacillusthermophilicstrains, produce a variety of thermostable hydrolytic extracellular enzymes, such as proteases, amylases, and lipases used in various industrial applications (Wiegand et al. 2013) GeobacillusSBS-4S was isolated from a hot spring located in Gilgit, Northern areas of Pakistan.Geobacillus SBS-4S strain is Gram positive, rod-shaped bacteria and occurs in chains. That could grow at a wide range of temperature (45 to 75˚C) and pH ranging 5.5 to 9.5.Geobacillus SBS-4S produced several extracellular enzymes including amylase, protease and lipase.The comparison of the strain SBS-4S with the already reported species of genus Geobacillus showed that SBS-4S is resistant to antibiotics such as streptomycine, spectinomycin and rifampicin(Tayyab et al.2011). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2242-T] (1).

37. Efficacy Of Surface Disinfectants Against Bacterial Pathogens On Experimentally Contaminated Pathogens

by Sana Ahmed (2009-VA-241) | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Amir Ghafoor | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Surface disinfection plays a key role in the prevention, control and reduction of many communicable infections as contaminated surfaces are the major source for transmission of microorganisms. Five types of surface cleaning products (Astonish Germ Clear, Cif Floor Cleaner, Dettol Surface Cleaner, Finis Floor Cleaner and Lysol Surface Cleaner) were evaluated for antibacterial activity against three bacterial cultures (E. coli, K. pneumonia, S. aureus) through Quantitative non-porous Surface Carrier Test derived from EN 13697. Efficacy testing was performed through surface contamination techniques. Glass slides surfaces were artificially contaminated followed by recovery of the bacteria through vortex method both before and after the application of product for 5 minutes. Each of the experiment was repeated thrice and microbicidal effect (ME) values after the application of each product were calculated. Residual antimicrobial activity of the surface cleaning products was measured by applying the working solution of disinfectant on contaminated glass surfaces. Exposure time was given to the test surfaces, after each set exposure time the surfaces were treated to recover the microorganisms. Viable count from the eluant was calculated by serial dilution spread plate method. Each of the experiment was repeated thrice to find out the residual antimicrobial effect of the disinfectant products. ME values of the Finis Floor Cleaner ranged from 4.03 to 5.14, which was the maximum value among all surface cleaning products used against E. coli. Highest ME value against S. aureus and K. pneumonia was shown by Astonish Germ Clear. The ME values ranged from 4.99 to 5.10 against S. aureus and 5.34 to 6.99 against K. pneumoniae. Finis Floor Cleaner was proved to be of maximum efficiency against E. coli where as Astonish Germ Clear was most effective against Staph. aureus and K. pneumonia. The mean log10 CFU values recovered from disinfectant treated Summary 49 surfaces when they were exposed to the environment for different time periods of five minutes, six hours and 24 hours are 5.62 to 7.94, 4.17 to 6.35 and 7.16 to 10.25 respectively. The results indicated that the microbial count was reduced significantly at interaction time of five minutes, then at six hours the count was further reduced by Astonish Germ Clear, Cif Floor Cleaner and Dettol Surface Cleaner i.e. these surface cleaners were able to maintain their antimicrobial activity upto six hours. When the exposure to environment further increased to 24 hours, the microbial count started to increase, hence none of the disinfectants has shown antimicrobial activity upto 24 hours. This indicates that significant microbial count can be achieved within the interaction time of five minutes to six hours. Loss of antimicrobial activity upto 24 hours is probably because the active ingredients of cleaning agents get degraded during long interaction time. Present study emphasizes that the surface disinfection process must be repeated at regular intervals. Regular and timely use of surface cleaning agents must be considered as a crucial measure in controlling disease transmission rates. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2294-T] (1).

38. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Co-Infection Of Infectious Bronchitis (Ibv) And Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) In Experimental Chickens

by Sohail Khan (2013-VA-606) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Infectious bronchitis and colibacillosis are infectious diseases affecting chicken of all ages and breeds. They are of major economic importance in commercial chicken flocks, causing huge losses. As both in humans and animals it is well documented that preceding respiratory infection of virus predispose individual to bacterial infection. Moreover, mix infection in poultry which occur when different organisms simultaneously invade birds is a major threat to poultry industry causes highly epidemic debilitating disease with high mortality which eventually leads to economic catastrophe. In recent past prevalence studies of field, E. coli had been reported with high prevalence and exaggerated disease along with other respiratory pathogens, additionally IBV had also isolated from same flocks in same season. Although a plethora of pioneering work had been done on IBV and E. coli in the previous decades but still a window in time exist in revealing there co-infection. Looking to field scenario in our country, the present study was designed to study an ideal challenge model for IBV and E. coli, by reproducing the natural infection. 80 SPF day old broiler birds were arranged into four groups, (A, B, C and D). Each group was comprised of 20 birds. Group D served as uninoculated control while, Group A and B were challenged with IBV on 23rd day of trails, and Group B and C were inoculated with E. coli infection on day 26th. Birds, (n=3) from each group were slaughtered on various days post infection, gross and histopathological lesions were observed and serum samples for HI were taken, throughout experiment. Variable clinical signs were recorded in various groups. In IBV infected group, respiratory distress i.e., tracheal rales, coughing, sneezing and gasping were noted during early stages, later up to 10 days post infection watery diarrhea with ruffled feathers were observed. In mix infected group clinical signs manifested rapidly and were persistent with high severity. Gross lesions in mixed infection were more profound, Summary 56 including; airsacullitis, tracheitis with catarrhal exudation throughout respiratory tract; severe sepicemic lesions i.e. perihepaitis, pericarditis, pneumonia and polyserositis with swollen and pale kidneys distended by urates. 5 birds died in mix infected group revealed ascites with asphyxiation of trachea with caseous exudate. While in IBV infected group lesions were mild and confined to trachea, airsac and kidneys. Mortality was high in mix infected followed by IBV in which two birds died. While in E. coli and control group mortality were not noted. Histopathological lesions in mix infected group were aggravated markedly tracheal epithelium degeneration, deciliation and sloughing; congestion, interstitial nephritis, leukocytes infiltration, tubular degeneration and necrosis while were observed. In lungs, pneumonia of peribronchiolar area and interstitium with lymphocyte and macrophages infiltration, additionally degeneration and vacuolization of hepatocytes with focal necrotic areas were also noted. In IBV and E. coli group microscopic lesions were of mild degree. GMT of both IBV and mix infected birds were high but were not significant different (P>0.05). Among the groups, statistically significant increase in FCR of birds in mix infected group was observed followed by E. coli, with IBV infected came third in the row. On the bases of these findings we might conclude that mix infection of IBV and E. coli causes severe lesions with high morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2306-T] (1).

39. Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Wild Quails Using Mitochondrial Coi Gene

by Wajiha Shakil (2012-VA-817) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A latest taxonomic tool termed as DNA barcoding is being used to genetically characterize animals. DNA barcoding is helpful in determining evolutionary relationship among species. Being a small sized genome and agile enough to show rapid mutation, mtDNA has been used as a pertinent marker of molecular biodiversity. DNA barcode works as an efficient tool in food manufacturing industry, diet investigation, forensics analysis, preventing unlawful trade and felonious poaching. The aim of this study was to develop DNA barcode for genetic characterization of Pakistani wild quail. Pakistani wild quail is important due to its demand for eggs, meat production, experimental purposes and gaming as well. Japanese quail was also included in this study because this quail is excessively produced in Pakistani farms. Japanese quail is present throughout the year and is comparatively bigger in size than wild quail. It has longer lifespan; farmers can easily breed this species in farms. It is suitable in poultry due to better meat yield. COI gene (500bp) was used as a molecular marker for identification at species level. DNA was extracted from blood samples of ten wild quails (Coturnix coturnix and fifteen japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Reported bird universal primers were used to amplify COI region from the extracted mtDNA samples using PCR. Amplicon were then sequenced by Sanger sequencing method (Sanger et al. 1977). Forward and reverse DNA Sequences were aligned with the reference sequence using nucleotide BLAST on NCBI to observe the dissimilarity among the sequences. Consensus sequences generated were used to construct their phylogenetic tree to see their evolutionary relationship with other bird species. Japanese quail which is thought to be domesticated from Japan, its Pakistani population showed close relation with sequences Summary 90 generated in Japan for this particular species. Pakistani wild quail species showed its closest linkage with C. coturnix. In conclusion, COI barcode proved as an authentic tool for species identification and phylogenetic inference of Pakistani wild and farm grown quails. Wild quail species has been characterized using partial COI gene sequences. This study has provided a specific genetic marker which can differentiate Japanese quail from wild quail at molecular level as most of the time both species are confused with each other. It can be helpful to the farmers and bird fanciers because they can select the birds of their choice correctly. This is the first study reporting DNA barcode of this Pakistani quail species. It would help researchers to study about phylogenetic and taxonomic status and also assist quail fanciers and quail farmers to unaffectedly identify their species of interest in farming. Identification of quail species is also important for conservation of biodiversity as it helps in preservation and identification of endangered species by generating their barcodes from even minimal evidence available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2311-T] (1).

40. Mutation Analysis Of Alpha-Synuclein Gene In Patients With Parkinson Disease

by Iffat Aleem (2009-VA-566) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Ms. Huma Mujahid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parkinson disease is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a cumulative prevalence of greater than one per thousand, caused by neuronal loss, mainly affecting dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Parkinson disease is an idiopathic disorder of the extra pyramidal system characterized by tremors. Genetic factors contribute to its complex pathogenesis. A functional repeat polymorphism in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene promoter conveys susceptibility for Parkinson disease. The α-synuclein (SNCA) has been implicated in rare autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson disease. The mutations in α-synuclein were associated with severe disease progression and a typical physical signs, indicative of neuro degeneration extending beyond the substantia nigra. Mutation in α-synuclein gene may have association with dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson disease. Blood samples were collected from Parkinson disease patients. DNA was extracted by organic method. Primers were designed using Primer3 software. Amplification of gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. Sequence alignment was performed for polymorphism identification. The analysis of identified polymorphism has been done by CHROMAS software. Sequences were aligned by BLAST tool of NCBI. The results of analysis showed that no mutation found in exonic region of α-synuclein (SNCA) gene in Pakistani individuals selected for this study. Any change in exonic region of α-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a rare cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease in different populations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2325-T] (1).

41. Identification Of Genetic Variations In Toll Like Receptor 1(Tlr-1) Gene To Evaluate Its Potential For Enhanced Resistance To Bovine Tuberculosis

by Shehar Bano (2013-VA-09) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Miss Huma Mujahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease caused by the species included in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved innate immune recognition receptors that trigger adaptive immune responses. TLR1 play an important role in host defense against mycobacteria, especially by mediating the response to mycobacterial triacylated lipopeptides. The objective of this study is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of TLR1 gene to evaluate its potential for enhanced the resistance to bovine tuberculosis in Nili-Ravi buffalo breed. Fifty blood samples of Nili-Ravi breed were collected from UVAS Pattoki Campus, Research Farm B and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. Inorganic method was used for DNA extraction, for amplification of the coding region of TLR1 gene PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was used using specially designed primers and the PCR products were sequenced through Sanger’s Chain Termination method. For the analysis and alignment of sequencing the results obtained after sequencing were analyzed and aligned using the CLUSTAL W and BLAST software. After all these analysis Ten SNPs were identified in the coding region of TLR1 mentioned in table. The Ten SNPs identified in the coding region of TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR 1 were in this order P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, P9 A>G and P10 A>G. The one SNP found in the current research is in compliance with the (Sun et al. 2012) research on TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR 1 hence Nine SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. The SNPs in the exonic region that is P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, P9 A>G and P10 A>G were all transitions i.e. the conversion of purines to purines. Population genetic analysis and allelic distribution at all loci was analyzed using POPGENE 32 software indicated that at [P3=0.243009> 0.05] followed the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicating that the alleles were randomly distributed throughout the population, no migration had occurred, no bottlenecks happened and population remained large in numbers.This Non-significant and obeying HWE, so can be potential marker for genetic selection.At [P1= 0.040418< 0.05], [P2=0.033603< 0.05], [P4=0.000649< 0.05], [P5=0.000262< 0.05], [P7=0.015112< 0.05] and [P9=0.000111< 0.05] the probability value below 0.05 indicated that population at these polymorphic sites was not obeying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This indicated that at these positions alleles were not equally distributed in population. It can be concluded from my research that the SNPs identified in the current research may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programs, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national farms and the private sector. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2335-T] (1).

42. Comparison Of Antifungal Activity Of Human Salivary Histatin Between Diabetic And Nondiabetic Individuals

by Farid-Ul-Haq (2013-VA-555) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatins are antimicrobial proteins found in human saliva. These proteins have also been observed to have the ability to aid in wound healing in various organisms. The genes HTN1 and HTN3 have been studied to govern these proteins. Histatin proteins have a vast array of antimicrobial properties. While a fungus, Candida albicans or C. albicans is a part of the human normal gut flora, it is a threat to people who have a compromised immune system. An overgrowth of the fungi belonging to the Candida family leads to candidiasis in humans, and oral candidiasis has been reported to a large extent namely in diabetic patients. The antifungal activity of histatin proteins laid the basis of the current research work. In this study, the antifungal activity of saliva from a total of 64 healthy and diabetic human samples against Candida albicans has been evaluated. The samples of both healthy and diabetic human samples belong from different age ranges: 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 years in order to change in antifungal activity with respect to age of an individual. Antifungal activity was observed through both agar well and agar disk diffusion methods, with agar disk diffusion methods showing positive results. According to the outcomes of this study at least 120μL of healthy saliva sample is required to create a zone of inhibition. Saliva from diabetic individuals showed no antifungal results. This occurrence led to the next part of this study involving amplification of HTN3 gene. The nucleotide sequences of both healthy and diabetic individuals were compared together and showed that the absence of antifungal activity in diabetic individuals might have reasons other than a genetic one, according to this study. The results observed from the present study indicate that healthy human saliva possesses antifungal activity against Candida albicans. In accordance Summary 39 to these results, the naturally occurring antimicrobial activity of histatin proteins present in human saliva can have immense use in the field of medicine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2341-T] (1).

43. Antiviral Effect Of Human Saliva Against Avian Influenza Virus Strain H9n2

by Maryam Riaz (2008-VA-340) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Saliva is an important body fluid that contains a complex array of proteins, peptides and various substances that help in maintaining the health of the oral cavity. Saliva exhibits a broad-spectrum of antiviral activity against enveloped viruses as it disrupts the viral membrane. Influenza is a common virus that has been diagnosed in humans and avian species due to AIV. This study has demonstrated the naturally occurring antiviral activity of human saliva against the H9N2 influenza virus that serves as a serious threat to poultry and has been shown to possess high zoonotic potential which can cause a new pandemic. In this study saliva samples from healthy individuals were taken and the natural antiviral ability of saliva was observed against AIV (Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) of calculated EID50 106.66. Inoculum prepared from saliva and H9N2 virus was injected in 9 days old embryonated eggs using CAS route and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. A negative control (only saliva) and positive control (only virus inoculum) was also determined in the current study. The antiviral activity of saliva was observed through haemagglutination test. The HA test of harvested fluid showed that human saliva indeed possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus and can be used as a natural antiviral agent in medicine. Furthermore, the genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. HTN3 gene responsible for histatin production, was amplified using gene specific oligonucleotides. The obtained HTN3 gene sequences were analyzed using Chromas software. The sequence alignment showed 99% similarity to the available sequences in NCBI database and 100% similarity to each individual sample. To conclude, this study has demonstrated that human saliva possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus. The nucleotide sequence analysis from each sample CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 47 showed no particular change which shows that antiviral activity of glycoproteins present in saliva does not vary at a genetic level. This innate antiviral activity can open a new frontier when it comes to combating viral infections that have grown resistant to conventional drugs in both human and animal subjects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2336-T] (1).

44. Study Of Wound Healing Effects Relating To Topical Application Of Human Saliva On Rabbits

by Sanila Amin (2013-VA-281) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatin proteins present in human saliva have been observed to show natural antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as play a role in wound healing. These naturally occurring proteins can serve as effective agents when combating microbial infections of vulnerable wounds that have become drug resistant, without inducing negative side effects in the host. Focusing on these proteins can create a new outlook with regards to wound-healing medicine for both humans and animals. Subjects of this study were 30 fully grown adult male rabbits weighing 2.0 to 3.4 kg and ranging from 8 to 16 months in age. They were acclimatized for two weeks in stainless steel cages and fed commercial diets, vegetables, crushed wheat and corn all over the whole experiment. Out of all 30 rabbits 24 rabbits were experimental on which saliva was applied, three were negative control to check natural wound healing, and three were positive control on which wound healing medicine was applied. The 24 experimental rabbits were further divided into four groups with each group consisting of 6 rabbits to check the effect of age on wound healing. The age groups of human samples were divided as 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 (Verma et al. 2013). Saliva of human individuals belonging from these four age groups was applied on the wounds of experimental group. Furthermore, all age groups contained saliva from both gender i.e. each age group consisted of 3 male and 3 female saliva samples. Furthermore, DNA was extracted from blood samples of the same individuals from whom saliva samples were procured. HTN1 gene which is responsible for the production of salivary histatin protein was amplified using specific primers and PCR optimization. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY 33 The results of this study demonstrated the wound healing properties of histatin proteins present in saliva and thus, providing a basis of using the natural ability of human saliva to act as a major component in the future of medicine for wound healing and preventing wound infections in both human and animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2344-T] (1).

45. Detection Of Amantadine Resistant Variants Among Avian Influenza Viruses Subtype H9n2 Isolated In Pakistan

by Sabir Subhan (2009-VA-32) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Zubair Shabbir | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian influenza A virus subtype H9N2 is prevalent in poultry industry of Pakistan. Amantadine is an antiviral drug which is being used as prophylactic measure to control this disease despite the occurrence of resistance against this drug. There is need to monitor the resistance of amantadine in Flu viruses. In this study, we collected 100 samples of broilers birds showing mild to severe respiratory signs. Samples were collected from different locations of Punjab, Pakistan. After initial identification via Hemagglutination test, the molecular identification and confirmation of subtype H9N2 was done by multiplex PCR. To rule out the co-infection of NDV, PCR of NDV was also done. The samples which were pure H9N2 were further processed for the screening of amantadine susceptibility. To do this, titration of viruses was done on MDCK cells in the presence and absence of amantadine at the concentration of 2 ug /ml. The results of TCID5O were compared in the presence and absence of amantadine for each isolate and isolates showing difference of 2 log 10 TCID50/0.1 ml were declared resistant to amantadine as described by Masuda et al. 2000. The results of this study revealed that the viruses circulating in the poultry industry if Pakistan are resistant to this drug as we found that out 10 isolates 4 were resistant to this drug. So, there is need to monitor the usage of this drug in poultry as human cases of H9N2 viruses have been reported and virus was of avian origin. Monitoring is necessary because amantadine is recommended in flu pandemics and this virus possesses the pandemic potential and can cross the species barrier. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2457-T] (1).

46. Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Neuraminidase Gene Of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2

by Muhammad Abid (2014-VA-502) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. M. Zubair Shabbir | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The H9N2 AIV are endemic in Pakistan since 1998 and causing serious outbreaks in poultry industry leading to increased morbidity and mortality, reduced egg production and reduced weight gain thus causing great economic losses. As these viruses have segmented genome so there is a lots of antigenic shift, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment which results in the production of new AIV subtypes. Besides causing significant losses the poultry industry, the H9N2 AIV pose a significant threat to public health and this issue has been pronounced with the fact that these viruses caused infections in Chinese children in 1999. This primary focus of this study was to characterize and to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the N2 gene of H9N2 AIV prevalent in Pakistan with other H9N2 viruses. A total of 10 H9N2 AIV were isolated from 100 samples and analyzed through serological and molecular tests. N2 gene of three isolates was amplified and sequenced. The isolates showed 99% homology with the H9N2 AIV recently isolated from Pakistan and their phylogenetic analysis revealed that all belonged to the same G-1 lineage and fell in clusters of more recently and closely related H9N2 viruses. There were some amino acid substitutions in different positions of the NA gene as compared to previous H9N2 viruses of Pakistan and these substitutions were the same to other H9N2 viruses isolated in 2015 from Pakistan. Due to the mutating nature of the H9N2 AIV there is need for the continuous surveillance and characterization of the prevailing H9N2 avian influenza viruses as these virus have the potential to cause serious outbreaks in poultry and also pose a significant threat to the public health. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2458-T] (1).

47. Pathological Investigations Of Different Isolates Of H9n2 Prevalent In Broiler Chicken

by M. Furqan Shahid (2014-VA-322) | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In recent years, H9N2 virus has attained a great importance as its infection has reached panzootic proportions. AIV H9 has different antigenic variants that has made it problematic to diagnose and thus to understand the pathogenicity of this virus is also very difficult. Detection of AI H9 antibodies can be used as a complementary method for sero-epidemiological studies as an indicator of AI H9 infection. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is used routinely for subtyping and detecting an increase of antibodies to AI viruses. Surveillance and early diagnosis of AI virus is essential for poultry. It demands rapid, sensitive and inexpensive diagnostic tests. Thus, it is important to identify different antigenic variants of H9. In this study a total of seven H9 virus samples were isolated out of total 100 collected sample from field outbreaks. These isolates were confirmed by molecular methods like PCR. Then four isolates from these seven isolates were used to infect the experimental broiler chicken. Clinical signs were recorded after the inoculation of H9N2 virus to the broiler. The results of this study showed that clinical signs were more sever upto 5 DPI. The severity of signs was proved by observing the gross pathology and histopathology of organs (Lung, Kidney, Trachea and Liver) of infected birds which were collected on 5 and 9 DPI. Serum of infected birds was also collected on 7 and 14 DPI to analyze the antibody level of infected birds against experimentally used isolate of H9N2. Then cross reactivity of different isolates of H9N2 was also checked against pannel of hyperimmune sera raised against different isolates of H9N2 and their results showed different antibody level against different isolates of H9N2. The sero-biochemical study of serum of infected birds revealed that H9N2 virus has pathogenic potential on kidney and liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2459-T] (1).

48. Characterization And Phylogenetic Analysis Of Hemagglutinin Gene Of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9n2 Isolated In 2015

by Arslan Mehboob (2009-VA-76) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: H9N2 Avian influenza outbreaks has caused great economic losses to poultry industry resulting in decrease egg production, high morbidity and mortality. Due to different antigenic variants H9 has become problematic. It has the ability to cross species barrier and increase in pathogenicity. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is employed extensively for subtyping and detection of antibody titre against the virus. Continuous mutations in the HA gene transforms AIV subtype H9N2 into more pathogenic virus that may have pandemic potential and can cross species barrier. Thus, it was necessary to identify various antigenic variants of H9 virus. It was important to study the HA gene as it plays vital role in viral attachment, release of genetic material and pathogenicity. In present study, a sum of four H9 virus samples were isolated. Both serological and molecular confirmation was done. 200 samples from different areas were collected and properly labelled. They were then processed for egg inoculation in embryonated eggs. Virus was grown in embryonated eggs and harvested fluid is then proceeded for confirmatory testing. Haemagllutination and Haemagllutination Inhibition testing was done. RNA was extracted by Kit method and cDNA was synthesized. Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) was performed using specific primer sets and then the amplicon were run on agarose gel. The bands obtained was sent for sequencing and Phylogenetic analysis was obtained using software and tree was constructed. Protein analysis was also performed. The present study enabled us to characterize and construct Phylogenetic tree of HA gene of currently prevailing H9N2 Avian Influenza isolates in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2474-T] (1).

49. Studies on Pathogenesis and Molecular Diagnosis of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus In Broiler Chicken

by Beenish Zahid (2003-VA-134) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Yasin Tipu | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2510-T] (1).

50. Haqiqat-e-Jihad

by Prof. Dr. Tahir ul Qadri.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Lahore: Minhaj ul Quran; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 297.72 Qadri 21778 1st 2005 Islam] (1).

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