Effects Of Infectious Bursal Desease Vaccine And Vaccination Schedule In Imunity Induceds By Newcastle Disease
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The study was carried out for verifying the interference of infectious bursal
disease vaccines conmonly used in Pakistan on the immunity to Newcastle disease vaccines. Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a viral disease producing suppression in humoral immune response causing degeneration of bursa of Fabricius. Different vaccines are available in the market for mass scale immunization of chickens. The study was carried out to compare the immunosuppressive effects of intermediate strain, hot strain and complex IBDV vaccines on immunity induced by NDV vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was studied by measuring the induced humoral antibody level using HI (Haemagglutination inhibition) test for NDV and indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) (Kirkegaard' & Perry Laboratories - KPL) to detect antibodies against IBDV.
The parameters used to evaluate the effects of IBDV vaccine on broiler chicks were immune response to NDV vaccination, weight of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen, post virulent NDV challenge and FCR. The results showed that IBDV vaccinated groups A, B, C, D and E had lower HI antibody profile, higher bursa, spleen and thymus body weight ratio, poor FCR and higher post challenge mortality than NDV vaccinated group F. The HI serum antibody profile revealed that the groups vaccinated with IBDV hot strain had significantly lower antibody titer as compared to the intermediate strain of IBDV vaccinated birds. In addition to that hot strain vaccine found to be more damaging to the bursa, spleen and thymus than the intermediate strain vaccine. The hot strain had adverse effects on the feed conversion ratio of birds as well. The challenge with virulent NDV revealed that IBDV vaccine treated groups were overall higher mortality than the only NDV vaccinated chickens.
The study suggested the use of intermediate strain as vaccine since it had least interference with the antibody production against ND. However, hot strain used in this study had adversely affected the NDV HI. titer and caused more damage to the lymphoid organs and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR).
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Detection And Taxonomy Of Zoonotic Soil-Borne Helminths Of Cats And Dogs In Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: To find out the prevelance of parasitic eggs/larvae of zoonotic importance, 160 faecal samples, 80 soil samples and 80 herbage samples from each of the selected park during four months i.e. from 1St June to 30th September 2007 were collected and examined. The public parks included; 1) Nasir Park, 2) Iqbal Park. Thus in total 640 samples were examined for prevelance of parasitic eggs/larvae of zoonotic importance including faeces, soil and herbage. At the same time 160 faecal samples of pet dogs and cats were collected from the Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and were examined for the presence of zoonotic parasites. These samples were processed and examined according to the techniques i.e. direct smear method, flotation and Baerman techniques. Five samples of each material were collected every week. The effect of meteorological data was also studied. Overall infection of the parks showed that 118 (37%) out of 320 faecal samples, 44 (27.5%) out of 160 soil samples and 81(51%) out of 160 herbage samples were found positive for parasitic eggs/larvae whereas 243 (38%) out of total 640 samples were found positive for parasitic contamination. One hundred and eighteen (37%) out of 320 faecal samples were found positive in which 72 (61%) were positive for A ncylostoma caninum, 23 (19%) for Toxocara canis, 15 (13%) for Diplidium caninum and 8 (7%) were found positive for others. Out of 160 soil samples 44 (27.5%) were found positive for parasitic infection. Amongst these 31 (70%) were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, 9 (20%) were positive for Toxocara canis and 4 (10%) were positive for other nematodes. Eighty one (51%) out of 160 samples was positive for parasitic infection. Amongst these 48 (59%) were positive for Ancylostoma caninum, 21 (26%) for Toxocara canis and 12 (15%) for others were found positive. The total 243 (38%) out of 640 were found positive for parasitic contamination. Amongst those 53 (22%) were positive for Toxocara canis, 151(62%) for Ancylostoma caninum, 15 (6%) for Diplidium caninum and 24 (10%) for others including Tinia saginata, Strongyloids etc. To find out the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in pet dogs and cats 160 faecal, 80 for dogs and cats each, samples were collected form the pet centre of University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Among dogs 25 (31%) out of 80 faecal samples were positive for parasitic eggs/larvae and while in cats 23 (29) out of 80 samples were positive for parasitic eggs/larvae. Overall 48(30%) out of 160 faecal samples were found positive for parasitic infection.
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Inter Population Variation In The Indian Flying (Pteropus Giganteus)Of Nwfp And Punjab-Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the morphometric variations in the Indian flying fox populations inhabiting NWFP and Punjab. Intensive field efforts resulted in finding out three roosts of Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) at NWFP (one each in Peshawar, Charsadda and Mardan districts and two in Punjab (one each in Gujranwala and Kasur districts). Four specimens each, from the three bat roosts of NWFP and, three specimens each from two bat roosts of Punjab were captured and euthanized to study the inter-population variations in the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).
The results of the inter-population variations revealed that bat samples collected from Charsadda district were not significantly different from those collected from Peshawar district. They were also not different significantly from those collected from Kasur district. The Peshawar bats also showed no significant variation with respect to their cranial depth, breadth of upper incisors, maximum dentary length and mandibular tooth row with those collected from Gujranwala as well as other districts of Charsadda, Mardan and Ksur too.
The bat sample collected from Charsadda district were also not significantly different from those collected from Mardan district with respect to their body weight, length of 3 metacarpal, length of l phalanyx on third metacarpal, length of 2' phalanyx on metacarpal, length 41 metacarpal, wingspan and length of femur, respectively.
Whereas these specimens were not different from Gujranwala specimens in all the norphometric parameters measured. Mardan bat specimens were also not difibrent from Gujranwala bat specimens with respect to their mastoid breadth, length of the incisor of the upper jaw and mandibular tooth row, respectively.
The specimens collected from Kasur district were not significantly different from Peshawar, Mardan, and Gujranwala with respect to the length of the desired parameters taken. Inter- population variations in all other comparisons were statistically similar.
Combined inter-populations variations in the body weight, external body and cranial measurements of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) captured from Punjab and NWFP. Of the 22 parameters studied, both populations were not significantly different ft)r any parameter. There were also no significant variations in the length of the Claw (C), Length oF the 5th metacarpal (5tI1 met) and the Condylobasal length (CBL). While the cranial depth (CR1)).
Breadth of the incisors of upper jaw (J2J2), maximum dentary length (MDL) and mandibular tooth row length (MBTR) were also not different significantly in these specimens captired from two populations of Punjab and NWFP. A comparison of the two populations revealed that NWFP population had no significantly broader ear, longer femur, and deeper cranium, broader incisors of the upper jaw, longer dentary bone and longer mandibular tooth row with respect to Punjab.
The body weight, external body and cranial measurements of the male and female Indian flying fox (Pleropus giganteus) populations captured from Punjab and NWFP were also had no 1significant variations in all the 22 parameters measured.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Billroth-1,Billroth-11 And Roux-En-Y Procedures As Remedy To Pyloric Stenosis in Dogs
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The dog's stomach is a sac-like structure designed to store large volumes of food and begin the digestive process. Where the stomach empties into the duodenum, there is a circular valve-like muscle called the pyloric sphincter. The stomach can be divided into cardia, fundus, body, antrum, and pylorus. Gastric glands provide all the secretions.The stomach wall is made up of different layers, which are (from lumen outwards). The mucosa, the submucosa, two layers of muscularis, with an outer longitudinal and an inner circular layer the serosa.
Nonspecific, self-resolving acute gastritis or gastroenteritis is the most common GI disease seen in small animals. Congenital pyloric stenosis caused by congenital muscular hypertrophy also leads to pyloric outflow Obstruction. Acquired pyloric stenosis may be the result of external compression of the pylorus, caused, for example, by a pancreatic or hepatic tumor. Pyloric obstruction is common in humans and dogs. The only conclusive diagnostic test for pyloric stenosis is a satisfactory response to surgery, Ramstedt's pyloromyotomy being the simple and safest procedure. Various surgical procedure have been described for the relief of pyloric stenosis. Pyloroplasty (Heinekemukulicz procedure) , Y-U pyloroplasty, gasttroduodenostomy, gastrojejunostomy , and the procedures including the various bypass operations.
In the view of above the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Biliroth I, Biliroth II, and Roux-en-y resection procedure as a treatment of pyloric stenosis in dogs with special emphasis on the effectiveness of procedures used in the terms of physical evaluation, healing of wound, radiography, and postmortem studies. Twenty four mongrel dogs were selected and divided into four groups comprising six animals each.
In group A, group B, and group C, Biliroth I, biliroth II, and roux-en-y resection procedures were used respectively. Group D was kept as a control group.
The operations were conducted in aseptic condition. The stomach was exposed through the celiotomy incision to proceed the three surgical procedures in dogs of group A, group B, and group C. The incision was closed in routine manner. Clinical evaluation was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the techniques and postmortem was performed to see the gross changes in the stomach and abdomen cavity of dog. The results of this study suggested that all the three procedures are effective roux-en-Y resection procedure was more effective and useful. Although Roux-en-Y resection procedure is more difficult procedure to perform but it is more effective than Biliroth - I and Billroth - II procedures regarding clinical evaluation (vomiting, diarrhea, healing of wound) delayed gastric emptying time and least postoperative complications and postmortem studies.
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