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1. Evaluation Of Diet Ary Mannan Oligosa Ccharide Suplementation On Growth Performance Intestinal Microbial Ecologr and Immune Status of Rock Pigeon (Columba Livia Domestic)

by Aamir Riaz Khan | Dr.Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof.Dr.Habib-ur-Rehman | Prof.dr.Kamran | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) had been successfully used in poultry industry for decades but recent advancements in life sciences have proven that the issues like drug resistance and drug residues can only be negated if the industry would be able to replace AGPs with some non-pharmaceutical preparations; prebiotics, for example. The positive aspects of MOS, a prebiotic, according to many researchers are multi-fold in poultry. It is thought to promote the growth of beneficial microflora of the gut, helps the development of such a gut environment which is deleterious for pathogenic forms, and enhances the production, fertility and immune response. The effect of MOS supplementation has been studied in many species but a little work is done in pigeon. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of MOS supplementation when given in different concentrations, 0.1 %, 0.2 % and 0.5 % of the feed. The birds were randomly divided into four groups, each of 10, and were kept for 35 days. One of the groups was kept as control, i.e., on corn based basal diet; while others were supplemented with different concentrations of MOS as described earlier. During the trial, the birds were immunized against New Castle's disease antigen (La Sota strain), sheep RBCs and DNCB (2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene). The data collected during the trial and later, after the slaughter of the birds, was used to study the parameters including FCR, organ weight, intestinal length, microbiological parameters (CFUs of Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) and immune response against the aforementioned antigens in three MOS supplemented (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%) and control groups. The results revealed that the gizzard weights in 0.1% and 0.2% dietary MOS supplemented groups were significantly higher when compared with 0.5% dietary MOS supplemented and control groups. The small intestinal weights were also observed to be significantly increased in 0.2% dietary MOS supplemented group as compared with the others. The lengths of small and large intestines were higher in all the dietary MOS supplemented groups compared with the control group. However, no effect of MOS supplementation was observed in terms of body weight, feed conversion ratio, liver, heart, pancreas and large intestinal weights. Secondly, there was no significant increase in the number of microbes under observation (Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) in any of the MOS supplemented groups when compared to the control. Similarly, the MOS supplementation did not favor the immune response against New Castle's disease antigen in any of the dietary MOS supplemented groups compared to the control. Moreover, the birds in all groups, did not respond to sheep RBCs, therefore, no antibodies were detected. The cell mediated response against DNCB was also observed to be the same in dietary MOS supplemented and control groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1247,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Diclofenac Sodium On Angiogenesis Using Chorio Allantoic Membrance (Cam) Assay

by Iradat hussain | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr.Habib | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels in the body, has much more importance in healing and reproduction. The body controls angiogenesis as there is a natural balance between growth and inhibitory factors in healthy tissues. When this balance is disturbed, the result is either too much or too little angiogenesis. Abnormal blood vessel growth, either excessive or insufficient, is now recognized as a "common denominator" underlying many deadly and debilitating conditions, including cancer, skin diseases, age-related blindness, diabetic ulcers, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and many others. Treating angiogenesis with anti-angiogenic compounds results in safe and effective anti-angiogenic therapies. In current experiment, focus was on the effect of Diclofenac sodium on angiogenesis using chicken chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Fresh fertilized eggs were taken, sprayed with 70% ethanol and incubated at 37 °C (humidity 55-60%). At day 5 of incubation a small window was made on each egg, 4-5 ml of albumin was aspirated, windows were sealed with sterile Para-film and eggs were returned to incubator. Concentrations i.e. 0.7%, 0.5%, 0.3% were prepared in distilled water. Filtered concentrations of the Diclofenac sodium were used for experimental analysis and applied to the CAMs on day 7 of incubation. Macroscopic vascular changes were evidently observed among all treated CAMs on day 6 of incubation. There was reduction in total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels was observed after treating CAMs with Diclofenac sodium. By using SPIP (Scanning probe image processor) software, 3D surface roughness measurements, Sa (surface area ), Sq (root mean square), Ssk (surface deviation), Sku (peakedness), Sdr (ratio of increment of interfacial area of a surface over sampling area), Sci (ratio of void volume of the unit sampling area at core zone over root mean square deviation ), Sy (lowest valley), Sz (average absolute height), Ssc (arithmetic mean submit), Sdq (root mean square sloop), Spk (reduce summit height), Sku (kurtosis of surface) , Stdi (texture index), Sk (core roughness depth) were carried out which clearly elaborated anti-angiogenic effect of Diclofenac sodium on CAMs. Diclofenac sodium inhibits angiogenesis, which is a common denominator shared by various major disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1250,T] (1).

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