Some Clinical Manifestations And Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Santonin Levamisole And Piperazine Against Poultry
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1984 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0093,T] (1).
Epidemiology And Economic Importance Of Various Diseases Of Cattle And Buffalo In Mohmand Agency (Fata)
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2000 Dissertation note: An active surveillance study was conducted in 16-(I0%) of 1 60 villages of Mohmand Agency for one year period (June 1998 to May 1999) on epidemiology and economic importance of various diseases of cattle and buffalo. The informations were recprded on a questionnaire. Fecal samples were collected from 320 animals and sent to V.R.T, N.W.F.P. Peshawar for detection of parasite infection.
The data were analysed and the following conclusions were drawn, about the morbidity, mortality and case fatality of various diseases and their economic impact.
Black quarter disease was recorded only in cattle with an incidence rate of 42(0.83%) of 5067 in young and 179 (1.9%)out of 9427 total adult cattle population. The over all incidence was 1 .52%. The case fatality rate was 100% for all. Foot and mouth disease occurred in 14.67% young and 13.13% in adult buffalo population. In cattle the morbidity mortality and case fatality due to FMD vas recorded as 15.95%, 0.098% and 0.62% in young and 13.19%. 0.01% and 0.08% in adult cattle. Occurrence of haeniorrauic septicaemia was higher in buffalo than in cattle. In Buffalo the incidence in young and adult was 2.17% and 2.98% Case fatality was 100% for both the age groups. In cattle the incidence in adult was 0.026% with 100% fatality rate. In buffalo 16.85% young and 955% adult population was affected by endoparasite while in cattle 47.01% young and 25.34% adult population was affected.
Morbidity, mortality and case fatality of diarrhoea in young and adult buffalo was 19.02% and 12.83%, 7.06% and 0.6%, 37.14% and 4.65% respectively while in cattle these valuefor young cattle were 13.02%, 1.89% and 14.57% and in adult cattle 9%, 0.46% and 5.36% respectively. Ectoparasite affected 4.89% young and 5.07% adult buffalo population while cattle were affected by 8.82% young and 8.2 1% adults. Incidence, mortality and case fatality of milk fever in buffalo was 4.9%, 0.7% and 14.28% and in cattle 2.47%, 0.67% and 27.27% respectively, Repeat breeding occurred in 0.7% buffalo and 8.6% cattle. Incidence, mortality and case fatality of P.P. haemoglobinuria in buffalo was 1.4%, 0.35% and 25% and that in cattle 1.13%, 0.63%, and 55.8% respectively. Mastitis occurred in 9.12% buffalo and 4.55% cattle. Incidence of abortion in buffalo was 1 .4% and in cattle 2.58%. The incidence, mortality and case fatality olmetritis in buffalo was 6.66%, 1.4% and 21% and in cattle 3.38% 0.66% and 19.53%. Dystochia occurred in 2.8% buffalo and its incidence, mortality and case fatuity rates in cattle were 2.11%, 0.79, 37.5% respectively, 1.05% buffaloes and 3.73% cows retained placenta. The incidence mortality and case fatality of post-parturn prolapse in buffalo was 2.8%, 0.7% and 25% and in cattle 0.75% 0.22% and 29.8%, respectively. Anthrax occurred only in cattle with an incidence rate of 0.73% in young and 0.275% adult cattle with 100% case fatality rate in both the age groups.
Three-day-sickness affected 0.08% young and 3.28% adult cattle sudden deaths occurred 1.08% in young and 0.3% in adult buffalo and 0.24% in young and 0.17% in adult cattle. Monetary losses of Rs. 2 1650863/- annually were estimated due to various diseases of cattle and buffaloes in Mohmand Agency during one year (June 1998-May 1999).
Most of the villages are not in access to avail hospital facilities, for timely and appropriate treatment of their live - stock. Awareness about dewonning, vaccination, management and feeding of live stock was poor in the area.
Suggestions and Recommendations
The following suggestions are put forward to the live stock health and production policy maker which vi1l help in minimizing the disease prevalence in live stock and thus affect to minimize the economic loses due to these diseases.
1. Raising awareness in the farmers through mass media e.g. Radio, TV., newspapers and through extension workers about the deworming, vaccination, management, breed improvement, feeding.
2. Provision of high and appropriate quality vaccine well in time he fore an outbreak occurs.
3. Installation of new hospitals with the provision of quality health, Al. services, and diagnostic laboratories.
4. Check on import of live stock to prevent introduction of new diseases.
5. Strict enforcement of slaughter house rules to prevent spread of the diseases.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0652,T] (1).
Comparative Study Of Primary And Secondary Bloat In Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Bloat (tympany) is the abnormal distension of rumen and reticulum caused by excessive
gases of fermentation, either in the form of persistent foam mixed with rumen contents
or as free gas separated from the ingesta.
The experimental study on bloat was conducted at outreach clinic of university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas. There were 500 buffaloes, out of these cases 86 were diagnosed to be suffered from bloat (60 were suffering from primary bloat, 2o were suffered from secondary bloat as shown in the table No 5 and table No 6). Six animals were expired from primary bloat as shown in the table No 10. They were expire without any treatment. Thus the disease percentage recorded was 17.4
A systemic clinical examination of each animal was conducted. The age, breed, sex and general heath of the animal was also recorded. Complete history of each affected animal was recorded. Diagnostic confirmation between primary bloat and secondary bloat was done through stomach tube. Primary bloat was easily recognizable and there were no other diseases of reticulorumen that result in ruminal tympany. Secondary bloat was differentiated from causes of failure of eructation including esophageal obstruction,chromic reticuloperitonitis, vagal indigestion, tetanus, injury and rumen impaction.
Treatment trials were carried out on the basis of grouping of animals. The buffaloes which are under attack of bloat were classified into two main groups i.e. group A and group B, which were further divided into four sub groups, which were A1, A2, B1 and B2.Animals suffered from primary bloat were kept into Group A1 and A2. While the animals suffering from secondary bloat were kept into Group B1 and Group B2. Treatment trials for Group A1 and Group B1 were same, while for Group A2 and Group B2 were same. The efficacy of drug was evaluated on reversal of clinical signs. The bloat affected buffaloes recovered with in 2 to 3 hours after the administration of medicine. No Side effects of these drugs, if any, was recorded the animals was examined for 24 hours after medication.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1194,T] (1).
Detection Of Mycoplasma Synoviae By Pcr And Its Histopatholohical Studies In Poutry Breeder In District Abbottabad
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Poultry, an important sub-sector of livestock, has emerged a cheaper source of protein for human consumption. Mycoplasmas are the smallest known bacteria, 300-800 nm in diameter and are capable of replicating outside the cell. Mycoplasma synoviae is a member of the class Mollicutes, order Mycoplasmatales, family Mycoplasmataceae. Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is considered economically to be most important pathogen. Mycoplasma synoviae infections occur in poultry worldwide, affecting poultry and causes diseases like respiratory distress, synovitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma is transmitted from infected to healthy birds both by horizontal and vertical routes. Horizontally disease is transmitted via infected and healthy carrier birds, hatchery, housing, equipments, feeding and during transportation.
To have an insight on pathogenesis and reliable diagnostic techniques, the present project was designed to know comparative sensitivity of rapid agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction for MS diagnosis and to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes in chicken joints produced by MS.
The birds showing clinical signs that included respiratory i.e. tracheal rales, conjunctivitis, coughing, sneezing, ocular and nasal discharge and infectious synovitis were selected for sample collection. Initially the collected sera samples were examined by Rapid Serum Agglutination test. RSA and PCR tests were used in order to confirm the pathogenic agent. RSA and PCR positive samples were further processed for histopathological study in order to identify the lesions in tissues produced by causative organism. In field visits it was observed that the suspected birds were with pale comb, mild to severe lameness, dull, depressed, ruffled feather, conjunctivitis, oculo-nasal discharge, tracheal rales and greenish or sulfur faeces. Birds hock joints, toe joints and paws pad were swelled. The infected birds were occasionally found with generalized infection. The infected birds complicated with other diseases of poultry such as Newcastle and infectious bronchitis causes infection airsacculitis.
Rapid serum agglutination test was conducted at 14 broiler breeder farms. The birds at a farm were showing respiratory and infectious synovitis signs and symptoms, suspected to Mycoplasma synoviae. The tests were performed at the spot. A total of 239 sera samples were examined out of which 63 (26.35%) sera samples were positive for MS. The clinical samples were identified and confirmed as Mycoplasma synoviae infection by PCR. The amplified PCR product was given about 211 bp size while PCR buffer was used as negative control. A total of 213 samples were subjected to PCR and 65 (30.52%) revealed PCR positive results for tracheal swabs, 28.16% (20 samples out 71) showed positive results. For tracheal and lung 33.38 % (24 out of 71) and 29.57% (21 out of 71 samples) were positive, respectively. The PCR test successfully amplified the DNA of MS clinical positive samples. Sixty five out of 213 Mycoplasma synoviae isolates were positive in MS specific PCR while the other 148 samples were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of molecular method Polymerase chain reaction was 100 percent.
For histopathological studies the samples of different organs including trachea, lungs, liver, hock joints (articular cartilage, piece of synovial membrane) and foot pad were further processed. The trachea was examined. There was epithelial degeneration, desquamation. congestion, haemorrhages and inflammatory cell infiltration. The lungs were examined and it was revealed that there was marked congestion, haemorrhages, necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. Liver showed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Articular cartilage showing chondrocytes degenration. Synovial membrane was thickened due to infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cell. Foot pad showed hyperkaratosis and thickning of epidermis, acanthosis, degeneration of cartilage, infiltration of both mononuclear and plasma cell.
It is concluded from findings of present study that PCR is more appropriate technique than RSA for timely diagnosis of Mycoplasma synoviae. However combination of findings of both techniques may be utilized for accurate detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from broiler breeder in district Abbottabad.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1316,T] (1).