A Clinico Epidemiiological Study Of Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Sheep And Goats
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: In Pakistan sheep and goats production is playing a very important role in bridging the protein gap among our population. Sheep and goats not only provide us high quality meat for our consumption but also wool fibre and high quality leather. In Pakistan every year there is lot of mortality due to respiratory tract infections in sheep and goats especially due to pneumonia which results from a variety of causes' namely, bacterial, viral, parasitic, mycoplasmal and fungal etc. It causes high economic losses due to increased rate of mortality. This study was carried out on two hundred sheep and goats of either sex including all age groups brought to out door hospital of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore during February 1997 to June 1997. In the present study isolation and identification of bacterial and parasitic etiological agents of the respiratory tract problems in sheep and goats was carried out. According to this study many bacterial agents causes respiratory problems in sheep and goats, out of 132 positive nasal samples Pasteurella multocida was isolated from 32 (24%), . haemolytica 43 (33%), Corynebacterium 26 (20%), 23 (17%), Streptococcus 18 (14%) and Escherichia ççjj 20 (15%) from affected sheep and goats. Similarly many lungworms cause respiratory problems, out of 82 positive faecal samples Dictvocaulus filaria was isolated from 76 (92.6%) and Protostrongvlus rufesence 6 (7.3%) from affected sheep and goats. The haematological study of the infected and non infected animal showed that there were decreased values of total erythrocytic count, packed cell volume and differential leucocytic count and increased values of total leucocytic count and erythrocytic sedimentation rate of affected animals.
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Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed.
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Detection Of Variants In Lipoprotein Lipase Gfne Affecting Milk Production In Nili-Ravi And Azakheli Buffalo Breeds
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials Against Bovine Fasciolosis In And Around Okara
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Agriculture sector plays a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan. At present it
participates 11.4% to GDP. Agriculture provides 45% employment to labour of our country
and contributes in the development of other sectors of the economy. The livestock sector
occupies a distinguishing position in the National Agenda of economic development. It
provides net source of foreign income. In the history livestock has been dominated by small
holders to meet their needs of milk, food safety and cash earnings on daily basis. Besides,
livestock is considered a source of employment generation at rural level. It plays an important
role in poverty mitigation and keeps in elevating the socio-economic situation of our rural
commonalities. Livestock share approximately 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added
and 11.9 percent to national GDP during 2013-14. Anonymous (2013-14).
Parasitism is one of the major problems lowering livestock productivity round the
earth Vercruysse and Claerebout et al. (2001). The significance of helminthes infections is
increased manifold in developing countries like Pakistan where 65.2% population is rural
(Population Census Organization (2007) depending upon livestock for their incomes and
where parasitism acts as a serious trouble for livestock economy Chaudhry et al. (1984).
Among helminthes infections, fasciolosis commonly called as liver fluke disease is of vital
importance due to its wider spectrum of ultimate hosts Rondelaud et al. (2001) causing acute
and chronic infections Sampaio-Silva et al. (1996). The disease is primarily caused by
Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica Soulsby et al. (1987). Fasciolosis is a parasitic liver
infection of wild and domestic ruminants caused by genus Fasciola, which has worldwide
distribution Soulsby et al. (1986). Fasciolosis causes economic losses as a result of
mortalities, abortions, retard growth, reduced milk and meat production, condemnation of
infected liver and emaciated carcasses and cost of animal treatment Gracey and Collins et al.
(1992). Fasciolosis caused by F. hepatica is a cause of important economic losses in
ruminants. The disease is widely spread throughout in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Although
mostly a problem of young stock, the disease is also found in older animals where it
adversely affects health, growth rate and development. Apart from its great veterinary
importance throughout the world, fasciolosis caused by both F. hepatica and F. gigantica has
recently been shown to be a re-emerging and wide spread zoonosis affecting a number of
human populations Mas-Coma and Bargues et al. (1997); Esteban et al. (2003).
Prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes is 49.01%. The infestation of
fasciolosis was optimal from January to September, while least during October to December.
Fecal samples indicated F. hepatica prevalence 65%. Whereas prevalence of F. gigantica
was observed higher in adult cattle as compared to cattle calves by fecal egg counts Khalil et
al. (2009). 4% Buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Availability of intermediate host and
the grazing habits of the final host determines the epidemiology and seasonal pattern of
infection with trematodes Pfukenyi et al. (2005); Bhutto et al. (2002). The life cycle of F.
hepatica includes many stages which develop in the environment or the intermediate host.
Metacercariae which is the infective stage encysted and ingested by grazing herbivores.
Temperature and rainfall are the important factors affecting the life cycle and the prevalence
of F. hepatica infection McCann et al. (2010). Many studies revealed that F. hepatica is
endemic in buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Pakistan Ijaz et al. (2009); Iqbal et
al. (2007); Khan et al. (2010) and Qureshi et al. (2005).
Fasciolosis is the disease by which about 250 million sheep and 300 million cattle are
potentially affected worldwide Boray et al. (2005), and more significantly infects all
ruminants Iqbal et al. (2007). F. hepatica and F. gigantica are the two liver flukes commonly
reported to cause fasciolosis in ruminants Walker et al. (2008). Infected cattle can exhibit
poor weight gain and dairy cattle have lower milk yield, and possibly metabolic diseases
Mason et al. (2004). Losses due to fasciolosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland alone are
more than ￡18 million a year Mulcahy and Dalton et al. (2001); €52 million a year or €299
per infected animal in Sweden Schweitzer et al. (2005); 0.26 million USD annual due to
fasciolosis associated liver condemnations in cattle slaughtered in Kenya Kithuka et al.
(2002). In Pakistan, 35697 USD (3141360 PKR) are reported in only one tehsil of Punjab
province, the Sargodha T.U. Rehman et al. (2013). While Fasciolosis is prevalent in whole
Punjab province of Pakistan but the marshy areas such as regions of Gujranwala, Lahore,
Multan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Sheikhupura, and Sargodha are of major concern.
Fascioliasis in ruminants causes substantial economic losses, estimated at US$ 2
billion per annum worldwide, to rural agricultural communities and commercial animal
producers due to death of infected animals, condemnation of affected livers and production
losses associated with reduced feed conversion efficiency Urquhart et al. (1996); Spithill and
Dalton et al. (1998). In tropical countries, fascioliasis is prevalent up to 90% and is
considered the most important helminthes infection of cattle Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998).
Most important, human can also become infected with Fasciola spp. and the disease is
referred to as human fasciolosis. It is estimated that 2.4 million people in more than 60
countries are infected and the number of people at risk is more than 180 million throughout
the world Haseeb et al. (2002); Mas-Coma et al. (1999); Ishii et al. (2002). Khalil et al.
(2009) recorded 49.01% prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes. He also observed
that optimum infestation was seen from January to September, while minimum during
October to December. Whereas Bhutto et al. (2002) recorded 4% buffalo calves infested with
Morphological identification of Fasciola species requires significant parasitological
skills and is not an accurate method of characterization, especially for the ‘intermediate’ form
Kendall et al. (1965); Lin et al. (2007); Le et al. (2008). Hence, different molecular tools have
been developed during the last decade for the accurate identification of Fasciola spp.
Marcilla et al. (2002); Velusamy et al. (2004); Cucher et al. (2006); Magalhaes et al. (2008);
Ai et al. (2010). Conventional techniques like fecal examination used for its diagnosis are not
comprehensive because of Species similarity in distribution in many countries of East and
North Africa, and Southeast and Central Asia, and are similar in egg morphology.
Coprological methods continue to be the most widely used approach for the detection and
quantification of Fasciola and other helminth eggs in laboratory animals, domestic and
sylvatic animals and humans Cringoli et al. (2004, 2010); Bergquist et al. (2009), with a more
recently developed method that is currently undergoing broad-scale validation the FLOTAC
techniques Cringoli et al. (2010) for the detection and quantification of F. hepatica eggs in
feces obtained from experimentally-infected rats before and after drug administration.
FLOTAC has been used successfully in the diagnosis of F. hepatica infections in naturallyinfected
sheep, which underwent treatment with standard Cringoli et al. (2006). However
PCR based diagnosis using specie-specific primers has been proved more accurate and
successful in diagnosis and distinction of Fasciola species Le TH et al. (2012). The molecular
technique such as PCR is used for the recognition of parasite. These molecular techniques are
largely accepted all over the world. These are more exact methods than traditional in
epidemiological studies Heckeroth and Tenter et al. (1999).
Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases and medicinal plants
have been used to treat fasciolosis among these Nigella sativa and Allium sativum have been
used to treat the worm infestation. No report of resistance development to plant anthelmintic
although many have been used in veterinary medicine for many years Ashaal et al. (2010);
Waller et al. (1995); Koko et al.(2000); Thienpont et al. (1979); Keiser et al. (2011). Herbal
(indigenous) drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases, and several medicinal
plants have been used to treat fasciolosis Satyavati et al. (1987). Among these, Nigella sativa
has been used to treat worm infestation Nadkrani et al. (1954; Said et al. (1969); Akhtar et al.
(1988). N. sativa can be used as a therapeutic agent against helminthes Khan et al. (2013).
Neem leaf powder can be used as therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal parasites of
camel, equine, cattle, buffalo and small ruminants Mehmood et al. (2013). Garlic powder can
also be used as herbal product against the gastrointestinal helminthes of livestock Ijaz et al.
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Seroprevalence Of Dengue Fever In Tehsil Jatoi District Muzaffargarh, Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Dengue is caused by single stranded RNA virus that belongs to genus flavivirus and is a mosquito born disease. There are four serotypes of dengue virus DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. Signs and symptoms of dengue virus are high fever, severe headache, rash, muscle pain, retro-orbital pain and leucopenia. Incubation period is 4-7 days. There are three type of dengue fever named as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhage fever and dengue shock syndrome. More severe form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).
Hypothesis of this study was that dengue virus is prevalent in Tehsil Jatoi District Muzaffargarh. Data was collected from individual in a face to face interview. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster seven (7) elementary unit (individuals) were sampled. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and blood samples were collected from individuals by using aseptic technique. The blood was drawn from the antecubital vein, from elbow or from the back side of a hand. Swab was applied to avoid bleeding.
A total of 210 apparently healthy individuals were sampled from thirsty clusters and serum was observed through ELISA for confirmation of Dengue fever disease. 27 were found positive and 183 were negative for DF out of 210 sera samples.
The data analysis was done by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome. Overall weighted seroprevalence was recorded as 13.54 %, (95% CI, 8.144-18.92). This means that DENV was circulating in Tehsil Jatoi district Muzaffargarh, while data on risk factors were obtained through
a detailed predesigned questionnaire from participants in a face to face interview translated into local language (Saraiki) after taking written consent from the individual.
To identify the risk factors for Dengue fever disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that age (OR: 3.084, 95% CI: 1.180-8.061) was risk factors for dengue fever and anti-mosquito spray (OR: 0.349, 95% CI: 0.122-0.997) was protective (OR<1) factor against dengue fever disease. Variable with significant univariable relationship at P < 0.25 were selected for inclusion in the final model
The study had provided successful estimate about the risk factors and seroprevalence of Dengue Fever. The finding of above study will be published. These finding could be utilized by the policy maker to control the epidemic of DF in population.
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Prevalence And Risk Analysis Of Coxiella Burnetii In Soil Of Sheikhupura And Attock Districts Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Background:
Besides nutrients and minerals, soil is aggregate of number of pathogens. Many of them are of
zoonotic importance and have significant threat to public health. Of these is Coxiella burnetii
that has been reported from other countries including the neighboring to Pakistan. Its occurrence
in soil, clinical significance and importance to human and animal health has been reported;
nevertheless nothing is known of C. burnetii in Pakistan particularly in rural setup where human
and animals are in close proximity to each other as well as the fact that how different risk factors
can be implicated in its spread and survival in the soil. PCR helps to identify the organism on the
basis of its genome and it is highly preferable over other conventional detection assays.
PCR technique was used to identify C. burnetii in the soils of Sheikhupura and Attock
districts.Soil samples were collected from each village of the both districts and processed for
genome extraction using commercial soil DNA extraction kit. Following genome extraction, the
samples were run further for PCR analysis followed by standard gel electrophoresis technique.
Later the pathogens prevalence has mapped in relation to roads, canals, rivers and drains for both
Contribute to the understanding about previously unrevealed prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in
soil of district Sheikhupura and Attock together with risk factor analysis implicating possible
health significance as well as survival in the soil. The distribution among two districts showed a
close association of gene IS1111 positivity and the land use. Positive samples were mostly found
along the roads and water bodies (canals, drains, river etc.).
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Comparative Efficacy Of Various Immunopotentiating Agents In Subclinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Mastitis, an important disease of dairy animals influences the quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis, the inflammation of the udder regardless of the cause, is the most costly disease of dairy cows. It affects the milk quality and production of cow along with changes in the composition of milk and the extent to which various compositional changes occur depends on the inflammatory response. There is also fluctuation in complete blood count (CBC).
The study was conducted in dairy cow at different government and private dairy farms in and around Lahore Total n=30 cows were included in study trials and for treatment trials n=24 cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were taken and divided into 5 groups, 1st group was
Vit E + Se 2nd group was Garlic, 3rd group was Black pepper and 4th group was Lemon having n=6 cows in each group randomly. A 5th group was formed comprising of n=6 healthy cows served as negative control. The drug trials showed that it Vit E+ Se and Garlic were the most effective drugs by boosting immune system by increasing the hematological parameters and improving the milk compositional contents and after that Lemon showed the good results while treating subclinical mastitis. The Black Pepper showed significant role by enhancing immunity nut didn’t cure as much of subclinical mastitis.
The data on chemotherapy, hemogram and milk composition and milk sodium chloride level was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired T test using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
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Prevalence Of Cpb2 In Clostridium Perfringens Isolated From Livestock In Punjab Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The current study designed for the microbiological and molecular characterization of
C. perfringens. C. perfringens is Gram positive rod shape, spore forming bacteria and these are free living bacteria. It is suggested by different studies that the C. perfringens has ability to producing different disease in intestine wall of bovines.
Mostly C. perfringens has ability of producing different variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for severe myo-necrotic lesions. C. perfringens is divided into five groups (A-E) on the basis of ability for producing the major toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota). A total of 100 fecal samples cattle (n=50) and buffalo (n=50) were collected and analyzed to determine the prevalence of C. perfringens contamination. The samples were enriched in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM), purified on Reinforced Clostridium Medium (RCM) agar and were identified by their culture characters, morphology and biochemical profile. For confirmation of C. perfringens biochemical test, hemolysis on blood agar, lecithinase activity, gelatine liquefaction test and nitrate reduction test were performed. C. perfringens was successfully isolated from 17 out of 100 samples with an overall positivity ratio of 17 percent. Seven out of 50 were positive for C. perfringens in cattle while this was 10 in buffalo showing slightly higher percentage of C. perfringens in buffalo. Confirmed C. perfringens isolates through biochemical test were subject for DNA extraction by boiling method and kit method both. Isolates of C. perfringens confirmed through biochemical testing were subject for PCR to confirm cpb2 toxin gene. Zero prevalence was found from PCR results.
The study reveals that there is high prevalence of C. perfringens among buffalo than cattle. C. perfringens is prevalent in our local animals but beta2 toxin gene not found in the C. perfringens.
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Association Study Of Gdf9 Gene With Litter Size In Kajli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Genetic characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is of great concern now a days. The GDF9 gene is known as a candidate gene for fecundity, development and growth of livestock especially small ruminants (sheep and goats) because it plays its major role in increasing ovulation rate, growth and differentiation of oocytes. The variations in the coding region of GDF9 gene and its relationship with ovulation rate and litter size have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants worldwide, but there is a very little exploration about the role of GDF9 gene in sheep breeds of Pakistan. As Kajli sheep is well known meat type sheep breed of Punjab, Pakistan so, this study aimed to characterize the genetic variations and their association with litter size in Kajli sheep.
A total of 80 adult female (> 2.5 years old ) animals belonging to Kajli sheep breed were randomly selected from the flock maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Khizerabad Sargodha. 5 ml blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15 ml falcon tube containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. A primer set reported by Barzegari et al. (2010) was used to amplify the exon-1 of GDF9 gene. Variation in PCR product was detected using RFLP technique. The outcomes of this study reported homozygosity for GDF9 exon 1 Hha1 SNP.
From this study, it has been concluded that fecundity may depend on several other features such as season of lambing, age of ewe and nutrition or maybe there is/are some other major gene/s in Kajli sheep and there is a great need to explore some other genomic regions that might found with variants associated with litter size or multiple ovulation in Kajli sheep.
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Phytoremediation Of Landfill Leachate Water Contaminants By Floating Bed Technique
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Under present study the effectiveness of the two aquatic plants water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were tested for the removal of five heavy metals Zinc, Copper, Lead, Iron and nickel by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Biological Oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand and pH of landfill leachate before and after treatment were also investigated. The reduction in the pH after the treatment with both these plants was > 1 percent, average reduction of BOD and COD by P. stratiotesE. crassipes was 35% to 45%. Results revealed revealed E. crassipes as the more proficient candidate for the removal of chosen heavy metals followed by P. stratiotes. Pistia stratiotes was able to accumulate highest concentration for Zinc and Cu with the removal efficiency of 79% and 78% respectively, meanwhile Eichhornia crassipes verified as best accumulator as it shows highest efficiency for the selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Fe i.e 89%, 88%, 86%, 85% and 84% respectively. Translocation factor was also calculated from root to shoot concentration. TF calculation revealed higher accumulation of heavy metals in roots then shoots of the tested plants. Significant correlation exists between the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants and the metal concentration in final leachate wastewater. Both these plants accumulate heavy metals inside their body without showing any reduction in growth and showing tolerance to all the chosen metals. Thus the results obtained from the study suggest that aquatic plant can be better candidate for phytoremediation technology due to the cost effectiveness.
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