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1. Temporal Analysis Of Crude Spectacled Cobra Venom On Various Haematiological And Serolocical

by Zainab Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Quaid Zaman | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed | Dr. Zia Ullah | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: The snake venom has both neurotoxic and haemotoxic effects. The Pakistani spectacled black cobra venom is considered to be mainly neurotoxin and there is a need to evaluate its haemotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the acute bio-physiological effects of LD50 dose of crude venom of cobraat different time intervals after I/M envenomation in mice. The crude venom was obtained from the black cobra, Naja Naja karachensis found in the region of Mian Chanuu, Punjab and the venom was lyophilized. Twenty adult male mice, approximately 20g weight, were housed in cages for one week at the animal shed of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture after general anesthesia at time 0 from the five overnight-nonfed mice injected i/m with normal saline. Remaining mice (15 in number) were injected i/m with LD50 dose (1.2mg/kg) of cobra venom. Blood samples were collected from five animals at each time intervals of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of envenomation. The hematological and biochemical parameters studied were complete blood count, estimation of plasma glucose, plasma total protein, plasma albumin, alanine aminotranferase and urea by commercially available enzymatic kits. There was a significant increase in red blood cells count and its indices (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) and platelets at 1, 1.5 and 2 hours after envenomation in albino mice compared to 0 hr.A significant decrease in the count of white blood cells was observedafter 1 hour of injection compared to 0 hr, however it was increased significantly after 2 hours of envenomation compared to 0 hour. The lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes percentageswere not changed after envenomation in mice.Plasma glucose showed a significant decrease at 1 hour of I/M injection compared to 0 hr that increased in subsequent time intervals compared to 0 hr in albino mice. The concentration of urea was significantly increased at 1, 1.5 and 2hours of envenomation in comparison with the concentration at 0 hour. The concentration of plasma total proteins showed a significant increase at 2hours of time interval as compared to 0, 1 and 1.5hours after envenomation in mice. The plasma albumin concentration at 1.5 and 2hours of time interval showed a significant increase as compared to that at 0 and 1 hour. The concentration of ALT also increased at any time interval. Therefore it is concluded that the crude spectacled cobra venom is both neurotoxin and hemotoxic in nature. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1775,T] (1).

2. Effects Of Dietary Supplementation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Powder On Redox Status, Hepatic And Kidney Function In Rats Exposed To Heat Stress

by Noor Muhammad Khan (2015-VA-07) | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: here are a number of stressors which adversely affects the normal homeostasis of the body. One of them is heat stress which has marked damaging effect on the normal physiology of an individual. Moringa oleifera is a versatile plant from Moringaceae family. Moringa oleifera is a best food plant but it also has a large potential as a medicinal plant. Due to rich source of flavonoids, Beta- carotenes, vitamin A & D, Moringa oleifera is known as a best natural anti-oxidant. The leaves of Moringa oleifera also possess hepato-protective and renal protective activities due to its rich anti-oxidant potential. Hypothesis:It was hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation will ameliorate the redox status, hepatic and kidney function in rats exposed to heat stress. Methodology: Adult male wistar rats (n= 24) were procured and housed in stainless steel cages in the experimental animal shed of department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan. After acclimatization, rats were divided in to four groups (One control and 3 MOLP treated groups). Rats were exposed to high environmental temperature (37±1°C ) for one hour daily(12.00 PM-1.00 PM) throughout the experimental period of 21 days for the induction of heat stress(Sinha. 2007). Anti-stress properties of Moringa oleifera leaf powderwere examined by measuring biochemical parameters, i.e. redox by estimating serum malondialdehyde through assay used by(Ohkawa et al. 1979) and catalase by the same spectrophotometric protocol in accordance with the study (Hadwan et al. 2016). Analysis of liver function enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase), kidney function (Blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine), serum Summary 38 glucose and lactate dehydrogenasewere carried out by using commercially available kits provided by Human Diagnostics, Germany. Results:The present study revealed that Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation during heat stress has a significant effect (P<0.05) on serum redox status. Serum malondialdehyde and catalase were significantly reduced by Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation. On the other hand, Moringa oleifera leaf powder demonstrated a non-significant effect (P>0.05) on hepatic and kidney function. Serum Glucose was also not altered by powdered leaf supplementation of Moringa oleifera. Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software. The group differences were compared by the Tukey’s Test. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) has a potent antioxidant potential without any marked ameliorative or deteriorative effect on hepatic and kidney functioning in heat stressed rats. Further studies are required to explore the potential of other portions of this plant in heat stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2783-T] (1).

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