Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Mannanoligosaccharide On Reglamation Of Gastrointestinal Physiology In Dogs
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide in small bowel resection. Intestinal resection is conducted in various pathological conditions, which is necessary in alleviation of the anomaly but produces ill effects related to the physiological functioning of the resected part. Various post-operative treatments have been suggested in this regard. Prebiotics can serve as an important dietary and clinical nutritive substance with potential to stabilize aftermath. Dogs with jejunal resection were used as an experimental animal and were divided into three groups in this study. Groups were Control (con), MOS-lower dose (MOS-LD) fed 2g MOS and MOS-higher dose (MOS-HD) fed 4g MOS in addition to 400g standard diet daily. Dogs were assessed for glucose, cholesterol, white blood cell counts on day 0, 1 5, 30, 45 of MOS supplementation. Ammonia, microbiological analysis for E.coli, total aerobes and ('lostridium per/ringens were done on fecal samples collected between day 24 and 28 of MOS supplementation. Fecal scoring system was used to study alleviation of diarrhea in two periods with each of 5 days. Period 1 was from day 18 to day 22 and period 2 was from day 41 to day 45 of MOS supplementation. Repeated measures and one way ANOVA was used for analysis of data. Positive effects of MOS were evident on relieving diarrhea and increasing blood lymphocytes. Total aerobes and clostridium count decreased significantly. This study paved way for further studies in the assessment of potency of MOS and other Prebiotics in gastrointestinal surgeries and their inclusion in management of short bowel and the therapeutic arsenal.
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Temporal Analysis Of Crude Spectacled Cobra Venom On Various Haematiological And Serolocical
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: The snake venom has both neurotoxic and haemotoxic effects. The Pakistani spectacled black cobra venom is considered to be mainly neurotoxin and there is a need to evaluate its haemotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the acute bio-physiological effects of LD50 dose of crude venom of cobraat different time intervals after I/M envenomation in mice.
The crude venom was obtained from the black cobra, Naja Naja karachensis found in the region of Mian Chanuu, Punjab and the venom was lyophilized. Twenty adult male mice, approximately 20g weight, were housed in cages for one week at the animal shed of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Blood was drawn by cardiac puncture after general anesthesia at time 0 from the five overnight-nonfed mice injected i/m with normal saline. Remaining mice (15 in number) were injected i/m with LD50 dose (1.2mg/kg) of cobra venom. Blood samples were collected from five animals at each time intervals of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours of envenomation. The hematological and biochemical parameters studied were complete blood count, estimation of plasma glucose, plasma total protein, plasma albumin, alanine aminotranferase and urea by commercially available enzymatic kits.
There was a significant increase in red blood cells count and its indices (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) and platelets at 1, 1.5 and 2 hours after envenomation in albino mice compared to 0 hr.A significant decrease in the count of white blood cells was observedafter 1 hour of injection compared to 0 hr, however it was increased significantly after
2 hours of envenomation compared to 0 hour. The lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes percentageswere not changed after envenomation in mice.Plasma glucose showed a significant decrease at 1 hour of I/M injection compared to 0 hr that increased in subsequent time intervals compared to 0 hr in albino mice. The concentration of urea was significantly increased at 1, 1.5 and 2hours of envenomation in comparison with the concentration at 0 hour. The concentration of plasma total proteins showed a significant increase at 2hours of time interval as compared to 0, 1 and 1.5hours after envenomation in mice. The plasma albumin concentration at 1.5 and 2hours of time interval showed a significant increase as compared to that at 0 and 1 hour. The concentration of ALT also increased at any time interval.
Therefore it is concluded that the crude spectacled cobra venom is both neurotoxin and hemotoxic in nature.
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Effects Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Supplementation On Serum Biochemical Profile In Broilers
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Zinc is a component of about three hundred enzymes of all six enzyme classes. Zinc oxide nano particles (ZNOPs) improve the antioxidant status of broilers. By using ZNOPs, the bioavailability increases due to its smallest size and large surface area. Up to the best of our knowledge, no research work has been conducted on supplementation of ZNOPs in poultry in Pakistan and very little has been documented worldwide.
ZNOPs improve the anti-oxidant health status of broilers at low concentrations compared with bulk zinc oxide.
The study was consist of 100 day-old broiler chicks and randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consists of five replicates (n= 5 in each replicate). Group A was control fed with basal diet (BD) only, Group B was supplemented with 80 mg ZnO/kg BD, Group C and D was supplemented with 40 and 80 mg ZNOPs/kg BD respectively for 35 days. The parameters were delayed type hyper sensitivity, malondialdehyde, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, creatinine, bilirubin, urea and uric acid.
Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20 USA). The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA.
The results of serum glucose concentration was found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Group B and Group C compared to the Group A but was found similar to Group D Delayed type hyper sensitivity, Serum Anti-oxidant status, Serum Proteins, Serum
thyroid hormone level, Kidney Function Tests, Serum Bilirubin Concentration were found non-significant (P < 0.05) in all the groups compared to the control group.
ZNOPs do not cause nephrotoxicity hence they are safe for kidney .These particles does not disturb the thyroid hormones. However their antioxidant and protein effects were not observed in our study. That could be due to low dose of ZNOPs.
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Effect Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles On Serum Lipid Profile And Liver Function Test In Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is most common disorder affecting almost 25% of the world's population. Many researchers reported the role of metals in glucose metabolism and their defficiency cause the diabetes. Zn is found in all cells of body and play role to maintain blood sugar level and in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin. Zn supplementation shows protective effect on total lipid, cholesterol, HDL and atherogenic index. Nanotechnology affects on the all parts of human life, animal, environment, and industrial life. In the present study I evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ZnONPs and also the dose dependent anti-diabetic effects of medicine in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Twenty five adult male rats were divided into five groups; Negative control, Positive control, and 3 groups for different treatment dose of ZnONPs (15 mg/kg BW), ZnONPs (25mg/kg BW) and ZnONPs (50 mg/kg BW). Diabetes induction had done in four groups, other than negative control, by subcutaneous administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg BW). Treatment was given to groups for 21 days. BW was recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected from animals of each group on 21 days after induction of diabetes by cardiac puncture to measure serum glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver function test. Data was analyzed by using SPSS software. Data was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. The group differences were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Differences was considered significant at P < 0.05.
The obtained results showed that ZnONPs has efficiency to control the diabetes mellitus by reducing blood glucose levels as well as the increasing dose decreased the serum glucose level. Only ZnONPs 50mg/kg BW dose is efficient to reduce the muscle wastage due to diabetes in alloxan induce diabetic rats. This dose also works to maintain the serum ALT, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C levels. But this dose is not effective for body weight, AST, ALP, VLDL-C, cholesterol and AI.
The data obtained from this study also showed the dose dependent anti-diabetic activity of medicine as the dose of 50mg/kg BW is more effective to control the diabetes as compared to other two doses; 15mg/kg BW and 25mg/kg BW.
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Effect Of Sub-Chronic Exposure Of Bisphenola On Serum Minrals And Bone Health In Rats
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous compounds present worldwide. Endocrine hormone production, release, transport, binding, action or elimination is enhanced or interrupted by EDs and hence affect homeostasis, development, reproduction and behaviour of organisms. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most important EDs used extensively in consumer products such as beverage, food can lining, dental sealants and thermal paper and water pipes. BPA binds to estrogen receptors and enhance or interrupt the endocrine system. BPA have negative effectson bone health and serum minerals in rats.
A total of 48 adult rats were divided in three main groups i.e. (16 rats in each group). Each group was sub-divided into male (8 rats) and female (8rats). Control Group: Basal rat diet was provided to control group. Group A: BPA 1mg/kg body weight daily along with basal rat diet was given to group A. BPA was dissolved in 10 % ethanol and was diluted with distilled water. Group B: BPA 0.1mg/kg body weight daily along with basal rat diet was given to Group B. BPA was dissolved in 10 % ethanol and was diluted with distilled water. Trial duration was 3 months and at the end rats were killed to obtain the bones and muscles to observe their bone characteristics (bone length, width, and medullary canal diameter) and serum minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) analysis.Data wasanalysed using two ways ANOVA through SPSS version (SPSS Inc. version 20, Chicago, Illinois) and was presented as mean± SEM.
Femur bone length was found to be significantly higher in male rats treated with BPA 0.1mg/kg and 1mg/kg compared to control. The femur bone length was not affected in female rats. Rest of the parameters in bone health of tibia and femur were not affected by treatment. Bone minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn) were also not affected by the treatment irrespective of treatments.Serum calcium was significantly higher in mal rates treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control; whereas it decreased significantly in female rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Serum zinc concentrations also decreased significantly in female rats treated with BPA 1mg/kg compared to control. Muscle copper concentration was significantly higher in male rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Iron muscle concentration was significantly increased in male and female rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control. Muscle calcium concentration was significantly decreased in male rats treated with 1mg/kg BPA compared to control.
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Protective Role Of Montelukast In Methotrexate Induced Toxicity In Rats
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate drug which is used to treat a variety of Autoimmune Diseases e.g rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and different types of cancers. However, MTX toxicity limit its use which include oxidative stress in causing toxicity on the liver, kidney, heart and other organs.Montelukast is a leukotriene antagonist.Recent evidence suggests that montelukast possessesantioxidant and anti-inflammatoryactivity.Thirty (n=30) adult albino ratswere selected and housed in stainless steel cages in the Experimental Animal shed, Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The rats were randomly divided into five groups having six rats in each group. Animals were treated by following treatment plan;
Group 1: (Negative Control) injected I/P with physiological saline from day zero to day four and then injected with 2 % ethanol from day four to day ten.
Group 2: (MK positive control) injected I/P with MK (10mg/kg body weight, BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days.
Group 3:(MTX positive control) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) per ten days.
Group 4:(MTX-MK 5) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) and then injected I/P with MK (5mg/kg BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days.
Group 5: (MTX-MK 10) injected at day zero I/P with a single dose of MTX (20mg/kg BW) and then injected I/P with MK (10mg/kg BW) from day four to day ten for consective seven days.
Data was analyzed by one way analysis of variance using SPSS software (SPSS Inc. version 20, Chicago, Illinois). The group differences werestudied by using Duncan’s multiple range tests. The P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Data was presented as mean ± SD. Body weight and feed intake was analyzed by using repeated measure analysis.
The current study showed reduction in feed and water intake and shows diarrhea like symptoms which ultimately results in gradual reduction in body weight in MTX treated groups when compared with control group. While non MTX treated groups shows increase in feed consumption and ultimately increase in body weight. BUN and creatinine level were increased after MTX administration which was reduced after MK treatment. MK10mg/kg BW dose administered to G5 after MTX was more effective compared to 5mg/kg BW dose of MK administered to G4 after MTX treatment. Enzymatic level of MDA and catalase in serum, liver and kidney tissue were increased after MTX administration in G3, G4 and G5.There was no highly significant results found after MK treatment due to Low dose of MK which was unable to maintain the enzymatic level after induction of imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant level.
Conclusion: From our study we have concluded that montelukast administration after methotrexate induced toxic effect on renal function test and hematological parameters, it can significantly normalize the level of BUN and creatinine also shows significant improvement in Hb and RBCs level. While there was no significant effect found on oxidative stress due to insufficient dose of MK.
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