Passive Immunization Against Canine Distermper Virus In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: Canine distemper is an important, highly contagious disease of dogs, caused by morbillivirus of family paramyxoviridae. The disease occurs worldwide in variety of hosts. In the present study, data relative to breed, sex and age susceptibility in clinically suspected cases of canine distemper was collected and analyzed. The disease is mostly seen in young nonvaccinated dogs of 4 to 6 months of age when maternal anti-CDV antibodies are decreased. Immune serum was raised in experimental dogs with commercially available measles live virus vaccine. The level of antibodies in the immune serum was determined by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and an ELISA based assay. Immune serum containing 128 AGPT units of anti-CDV antibodies was effective to control the disease in infected dogs after natural exposure to canine distemper virus. Finally the effective time for passive immunization against canine distemper was determined in experimental dogs. It was noted that immune serum offered protection to canine distemper immediately after infection, during the incubation period of the disease , 48 hours after infection and early phase of the disease(at the appearance of clinical signs). Passive immunization is not rewarding in the terminal phase of the disease (when infected dogs show nervous signs of the disease).Thus it is very useful for the prevention of disease in dogs kept with infected dogs in kennels and pet shops.
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Amelioration Of Pathological Changes Due To Infectious Bursal Disease By The Administration Of Mentofin And Asi-Mirus In Broiler Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the second largest industry in Pakistan but despite of its rapid growth rate it is facing huge economic losses due to many infectious diseases. Infectious Bursal Disease is one of them. Huge economic losses in case of infectious bursal disease are due to immunosuppression and high mortality.
In Pakistan, commercially available vaccines are abruptly used to control different viral diseases but unfortunately failure of these products occur from time to time. Hence, current study was designed to determine the immunostimulatory effect of two commercially available products (Mentofin and ASI-MIRUS) against IBD vaccine.
A total 300 broiler chicks were taken, divided into six groups each having 50 birds and were replicated under controlled conditions. A, B and D groups were vaccinated with the IBD live virus vaccine. B and C groups were treated with Mentofin. D and E groups were treated with ASI-MIRUS while F group served negative control. To detect antibody titer against IBDV at every week (0-42 days of age), a commercial ELISA kit, IDEXX Flock Chek standard (IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME, USA) was used. In order to analyze gross and microscopic changes in bursa, postmortem examination and histopathology of bursa was done.
The volatile oils in Mentofin and ASI-MIRUS have effective immunomodulatory effects on humoral immune response in broiler chicks. Eucalyptus and peppermint oils increase bursa to body weight (B/BW) ratio as compared to untreated birds. Results of present study indicated the highest antibody titer in group D supplemented with ASI-MIRUS and vaccinated as compared to group B supplemented with Mentofin and vaccinated. Significantly high bursa to body weight ratio also observed in vaccinated group D (ASI-MIRUS treated) comparing with other
vaccinated groups A and B. In Group B (Mentofin treated), bursal samples showed necrosis at medullary region of bursal follicle. Group D (ASI-MIRUS treated) showed the active follicle consist of lymphoid cells and shown no obvious histopathological lesion. So present study showed that ASI-MIRUS is reduced the severity of IBDV which has more beneficial effect on immune response against IBD vaccinated Broiler Chicken as compared to Mentofin.
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Prevalance And Distribution Of Soil-Borne Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In District Lahore Of Punjab Province, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. (Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni) are
recognized as the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis, followed by Shigella spp. and
Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC).(Control and Prevention 2010).Shigatoxigenic
Escherichia coli (STEC) include Escherichia coli serotypes whose genomes
contain one or more Shiga toxin genes. STEC infections in humans can range from mild selflimiting
diarrhea to more severe disease, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic
Real-time PCR allows for quantification of the target. Real-time PCR perform better
than the standard culture-based assays to detect pathogenic organisms. In summary, work
load and work flow issues may dictate which system is best for different-sized laboratories
and test volumes.PCR assays to perceive the stx1 and stx2 genes are utilized by several
public health laboratories for identification and confirmation of STEC infection. Depending
on the primers used, these assays will distinguish between stx1 and stx2 (Zaki and El-Adrosy
2007). Assays even have been developed that verify the specific O group of an organism,
detect virulence factors such as intimin and enterohemolysin, and can differentiate among the
subtypes of Shiga toxins.
So there was need to analyze soil of to check the presence of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 for avoiding fatal diseases caused by it and there was also monitored soil chemistry
and its relation with bacterial growth specifically Escherichia coli O157:H7 because
Different soil composition and different environmental risk factors promoted presence of
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil.
Real Time-PCR technique was opted to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the soil
from distant areas of district Lahore of Punjab, Pakistan. Soil samples from 10 per cent
villages were collected from this district and handled for genome extraction using
commercially available soil DNA extraction kit. After genome extraction, the samples were
keep running for Real Time-PCR at optimized conditions. The reaction was improved by
variations in standard concentrations of primers, probes, DNA, Taq-polymerase and sequence
The dissemination of soil borne Escherichia coli O157:H7 was mapped in mentioned
district of Punjab, Pakistan using geographical co-ordinates recorded by GPS beneficiary.
Relationship of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with environmental factors,soil chemistry and
source of land irrigation (Canal, tubewell and rain or in combination), was resolved. Results of
present project were analyzed through SPSS.
The purpose of the research work was the understanding of occurrence and
distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in district Lahore of Punjab province .It also threw
light on role of soil as a reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and association of this
infectious agent with various risk factors.
In this study depending upon the statistical analysis data, it was depicted that
Escherichia coli o157 H7 is present in soil although it can’t persist or survive. The prevalence
rate of Escherichia coli O157 h7 is 3.1% in 129 soil samples of Lahore. In case of villages it
is present in 2 villages of of 29.that shows it is 6.8% prevalent in villages.
The presence or absence of pathogen in relation to soil chemistry and seven potential
risk factors was determined through student t distribution (T-test). By observing p value of
variables of positive and negative sites it comes to know that there is no significant
association of these factors to the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil.
Remaining all other analytes has not significant association with soil. But it can be
seen Escherichia coli O157 H7 has significant association with organic matters, phosphorus,
copper, cobalt, calcium, sodium, ferrous ion, potassium and sand form of soil ranging from
(0.86-1.97), (9.7-22.5), (24.18-41.12), (0.048-0.51), (0.39-0.96), (0.08-0.16), (41.84-59.14),
(51.02-69.56), (83-86) respectively. Remaining all other analytes has not significant
association with soil.
For further investigations it is necessary that find out those factors which cause
hindrance in survival of Escherichia coli o157 h7 in soil specifically and also search out
those factors which support Escherichia coli O157 h7 persistence in soil.
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