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1. Passive Immunization Against Canine Distermper Virus In Dogs

by Ali Ahmed Malik | Prof. Dr. Masood Babbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Canine distemper is an important, highly contagious disease of dogs, caused by morbillivirus of family paramyxoviridae. The disease occurs worldwide in variety of hosts. In the present study, data relative to breed, sex and age susceptibility in clinically suspected cases of canine distemper was collected and analyzed. The disease is mostly seen in young nonvaccinated dogs of 4 to 6 months of age when maternal anti-CDV antibodies are decreased. Immune serum was raised in experimental dogs with commercially available measles live virus vaccine. The level of antibodies in the immune serum was determined by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and an ELISA based assay. Immune serum containing 128 AGPT units of anti-CDV antibodies was effective to control the disease in infected dogs after natural exposure to canine distemper virus. Finally the effective time for passive immunization against canine distemper was determined in experimental dogs. It was noted that immune serum offered protection to canine distemper immediately after infection, during the incubation period of the disease , 48 hours after infection and early phase of the disease(at the appearance of clinical signs). Passive immunization is not rewarding in the terminal phase of the disease (when infected dogs show nervous signs of the disease).Thus it is very useful for the prevention of disease in dogs kept with infected dogs in kennels and pet shops. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0882,T] (1).

2. Amelioration Of Pathological Changes Due To Infectious Bursal Disease By The Administration Of Mentofin And Asi-Mirus In Broiler Chicken

by Muhammad Umair Shah (2011-VA-15) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ghulam Mustafa | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the second largest industry in Pakistan but despite of its rapid growth rate it is facing huge economic losses due to many infectious diseases. Infectious Bursal Disease is one of them. Huge economic losses in case of infectious bursal disease are due to immunosuppression and high mortality. In Pakistan, commercially available vaccines are abruptly used to control different viral diseases but unfortunately failure of these products occur from time to time. Hence, current study was designed to determine the immunostimulatory effect of two commercially available products (Mentofin and ASI-MIRUS) against IBD vaccine. A total 300 broiler chicks were taken, divided into six groups each having 50 birds and were replicated under controlled conditions. A, B and D groups were vaccinated with the IBD live virus vaccine. B and C groups were treated with Mentofin. D and E groups were treated with ASI-MIRUS while F group served negative control. To detect antibody titer against IBDV at every week (0-42 days of age), a commercial ELISA kit, IDEXX Flock Chek standard (IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME, USA) was used. In order to analyze gross and microscopic changes in bursa, postmortem examination and histopathology of bursa was done. The volatile oils in Mentofin and ASI-MIRUS have effective immunomodulatory effects on humoral immune response in broiler chicks. Eucalyptus and peppermint oils increase bursa to body weight (B/BW) ratio as compared to untreated birds. Results of present study indicated the highest antibody titer in group D supplemented with ASI-MIRUS and vaccinated as compared to group B supplemented with Mentofin and vaccinated. Significantly high bursa to body weight ratio also observed in vaccinated group D (ASI-MIRUS treated) comparing with other CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 35 vaccinated groups A and B. In Group B (Mentofin treated), bursal samples showed necrosis at medullary region of bursal follicle. Group D (ASI-MIRUS treated) showed the active follicle consist of lymphoid cells and shown no obvious histopathological lesion. So present study showed that ASI-MIRUS is reduced the severity of IBDV which has more beneficial effect on immune response against IBD vaccinated Broiler Chicken as compared to Mentofin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2557-T] (1).

3. Phytoremediation Of Water By Using Moringa Oliefera Seed Powder And Coriander Leaves

by Zeerak Hassan (2015-VA-1108) | Dr. Waqas Ahmed | Dr. Sana.ullah Iqbal | Dr. Ali Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Phytoremediation is an innovative technique to purify water. It is major leap forward to solve drinking water safety issue. Use of plants and plant derived products can be more effective and economical than any other chemical methods. Plants are easily available and cause no side effects in water during purification. Moringa oleifera, has already been reported as antimicrobial and dust removing agent in water. Its extract and powder form when dissolved in water kill bacteria and settles down with the dust at the bottom. Turbidity is easily cleared with moringa seed extract and powder. It is a natural dust remover which has already been proved. Other potential herb for water purification is coriander. Coriander (Coriandrumsativum) is one of the most widely used herbs in the world, it is easily available and it can grow anywhere. Coriander leaves or Cilantro have such an anatomy of cells which helps it to act as bio-sorbent; it efficiently removes metal from water. It has shown promising results so far on small scale and wide scale research is in progress regarding its use on large scale. In this research plants and extracts from plant source were used as water purifier. Water sample was contaminated with all the potential contaminants in the laboratory. Those contaminants were, coliforms, metals and dust particles. After that water quality tests was performed on the contaminated water and level of contamination was noted. Coliform contaminated water wastreated with moringa seed powder. It was incubated so that moringa could show his effect on the growth of coliforms. Water quality tests were performed on purified water and its level of contamination wasnoted. Heavy metal contaminated water was treated with coriander leave coated with moringa seed. Same water quality tests were performed before and after treatment and significant changes were observed. Result for contamination level of pre and post treatment was compared in a tabular form to checked effectiveness of the treatment. Moringa and cilantro are expected to remove or reduce the microbial load and chemical from the water respectively. Results had shown that both these plants have potential to purify water by reducing amount of microbes and metals. Water quality can be improve by using both these plants. Results are very much positive further study and research will reveal more potential of both these plants to improve quality of water. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2921-T] (1).

4. Prevalance And Distribution Of Soil-Borne Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In District Lahore Of Punjab Province, Pakistan

by Hiba Tabassum (2011-VA-421) | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh | Dr. Sehrish Faryal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. (Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni) are recognized as the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis, followed by Shigella spp. and Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC).(Control and Prevention 2010).Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) include Escherichia coli serotypes whose genomes contain one or more Shiga toxin genes. STEC infections in humans can range from mild selflimiting diarrhea to more severe disease, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Real-time PCR allows for quantification of the target. Real-time PCR perform better than the standard culture-based assays to detect pathogenic organisms. In summary, work load and work flow issues may dictate which system is best for different-sized laboratories and test volumes.PCR assays to perceive the stx1 and stx2 genes are utilized by several public health laboratories for identification and confirmation of STEC infection. Depending on the primers used, these assays will distinguish between stx1 and stx2 (Zaki and El-Adrosy 2007). Assays even have been developed that verify the specific O group of an organism, detect virulence factors such as intimin and enterohemolysin, and can differentiate among the subtypes of Shiga toxins. So there was need to analyze soil of to check the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 for avoiding fatal diseases caused by it and there was also monitored soil chemistry and its relation with bacterial growth specifically Escherichia coli O157:H7 because Different soil composition and different environmental risk factors promoted presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil. Real Time-PCR technique was opted to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the soil from distant areas of district Lahore of Punjab, Pakistan. Soil samples from 10 per cent Summary 53 villages were collected from this district and handled for genome extraction using commercially available soil DNA extraction kit. After genome extraction, the samples were keep running for Real Time-PCR at optimized conditions. The reaction was improved by variations in standard concentrations of primers, probes, DNA, Taq-polymerase and sequence of primers. The dissemination of soil borne Escherichia coli O157:H7 was mapped in mentioned district of Punjab, Pakistan using geographical co-ordinates recorded by GPS beneficiary. Relationship of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with environmental factors,soil chemistry and source of land irrigation (Canal, tubewell and rain or in combination), was resolved. Results of present project were analyzed through SPSS. The purpose of the research work was the understanding of occurrence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in district Lahore of Punjab province .It also threw light on role of soil as a reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and association of this infectious agent with various risk factors. In this study depending upon the statistical analysis data, it was depicted that Escherichia coli o157 H7 is present in soil although it can’t persist or survive. The prevalence rate of Escherichia coli O157 h7 is 3.1% in 129 soil samples of Lahore. In case of villages it is present in 2 villages of of 29.that shows it is 6.8% prevalent in villages. The presence or absence of pathogen in relation to soil chemistry and seven potential risk factors was determined through student t distribution (T-test). By observing p value of variables of positive and negative sites it comes to know that there is no significant association of these factors to the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil. Remaining all other analytes has not significant association with soil. But it can be seen Escherichia coli O157 H7 has significant association with organic matters, phosphorus, Summary 54 copper, cobalt, calcium, sodium, ferrous ion, potassium and sand form of soil ranging from (0.86-1.97), (9.7-22.5), (24.18-41.12), (0.048-0.51), (0.39-0.96), (0.08-0.16), (41.84-59.14), (51.02-69.56), (83-86) respectively. Remaining all other analytes has not significant association with soil. For further investigations it is necessary that find out those factors which cause hindrance in survival of Escherichia coli o157 h7 in soil specifically and also search out those factors which support Escherichia coli O157 h7 persistence in soil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2935-T] (1).

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