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1. Isolation And Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria From Poultry Gastrointestinal Tract

by Nabeea Saleem (2008-VA-234) | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are heterogeneous group of bacteria which are fastidious in nature. LAB has acquired status as Generally-Recognized-as-Safe (GRAS) status. Over-use and misuse of antibiotics in veterinary and human clinical setups give rise to antibiotic resistant lactic acid bacteria in gastrointestinal tracts which act as antibiotic resistance reservoir. Acquired and transferable antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria is a newly identified safety concern in poultry. So, it is dire need of time to determine the situation of antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria of poultry gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study was conducted to isolate lactobacilli from indigenous and broiler gastrointestinal tract of chicken. For this purpose, chicken feces, cloaca and caecum samples (n=20 each) were collected from Lahore. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated on MRS medium. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics including Colonial morphology, Gram staining and Catalase test. While molecular identification of lactobacillus spp. was done by PCR at an annealing temperature of 55°C using the primers XB-5 and LbLMA-1 with an expected product size of 250bp. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cephradine, cefuroxime, ofloxacin, levofloxacin were determined by the broth micro dilution method following the EFSA guidelines. Antibiotic resistance genes, including erythromycin arm (B) and tetracycline Tet (M) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The comparison of % antibiotic resistance pattern between broiler and indigenous lactobacillus spp. against different antibiotics was analysed for chi-square test using SPSS ……………………………………………………………………………………………Summary 67 version 16.0. The study provided data on antibiotic resistance pattern of transferable resistance genes in lactic acid bacteria of poultry gut. Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that a high level of resistance was shown by lactobacillus spp. against tested antibiotics. Lactobacillus spp. were screened by PCR for known resistance genes and thus were able to determine the presence of erm(B) and tet (M) genes in all lactobacillus spp. using erm(B) and tet (M)-specific primers. All lactobacillus spp. were also phenotypically resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. Thus, the present study indicates that such erm (B) and Tet (M) genes occur among different LAB genera and species therefore it is the need of time to study other resistance determinants to ensure the safety of poultry meat and spread of resistance determinants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2282-T] (1).

2. Sero-Screening Of Camels For Different Infectious Diseases

by Mazia Khalid (2008-VA-358) | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Camel is the precious and important animal in Pakistan. Camel is the most well adapted livestock species, survives and produces in climatic extremes and is well appreciated for its significance in the pastoral economy of the province. The camel being an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. Although camel being hardiest animal is less susceptible to diseases as compared to other livestock animals but literature shows that some diseases are still prevalent in camels. In view of the significance of camel as livestock animal as well as the symbol of cultural heritage of the nomadic pastoralists, there is a need to combat different diseases to which camels are susceptible and then appropriate control strategies should be applied. Present study was designed to check the percentage positivity of different major diseases in camels that may pose serious issue relating to camel health and its importance as an important livestock animal. The diseases included in this study are Q fever, Brucellosis, FMD, CBPP and Neosporosis. ELISA is used to detect antibody prevalence by using specific kit based protocol for each disease whereas in case of Brucellosis RBPT is also used as basic screening test. And it was found that Q fever has highest percentage seropositivity in both districts as compared to other diseases whose presence in camels was found to be almost seronegative. So it was concluded that camel is still resistant to many diseases though some diseases are still prevalent in camels and these diseases should be controlled through public awareness and routine screening. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2401-T] (1).

3. Isolation And Molecular Characterization Of Causative Agent Of Equine Strangles

by Tayyaba Naz (2008-VA-235) | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zamir Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Strangles is an important infectious and contagious disease of horses that affects upper respiratory tract. This disease is very much prevalent in Pakistan. Disease can be controlled by early diagnosis, strict quarantine measures and proper immunization. Disease is characterized by nasal discharge, submandibular lymph node swelling, raised temperature and anorexia. The disease can terminate into encephalitis, purpura hemorrhagica and bastard strangles. 20 nasal swabs as samples were collected from horses showing signs of nasal discharge or swollen lymph nodes from Remount depot Sargodha, 10 samples from clinically sick horses and 10 from apparently healthy horses with the history of disease. Samples were swabbed on to blood agar with 5% defibrinated blood of sheep. Isolated hemolytic colonies were undergone biochemical testing with the help of API strep 20 kit. Samples which appeared as streptococcus equi through biochemical testing were subjected to molecular amplification by targeting two genes. Two different PCR were performed PCR 1 targeted the Sod A gene this gene is present in Streptococcus equi and PCR-2 targetted SeM gene this gene is specific for Streptococcus equi subsp. Equi only. 5 samples were confirmed positive for Streptococcus equi through biochemical and molecular testing. SDSPAGE on the isolated bacterial samples were performed and it appeared as no protein diversity was observed among different isolates. However the protein pattern varied with number of passages as less number of bands appeared from older cultures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2445-T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of H9n2 In Biotic And Abiotic Factors Post Avian Infleunza Outbreak In Different Districts Of Punjab

by Iqra Mahfooz (2010-VA-301) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Dr. Maryam Javed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Avian influenza H9N2 is not only a potential threat to the poultry industry but it is also a disease of zoonotic importance. In the past it caused very high rate of mortality in the poultry and cause huge economic loses. Present investigations were aimed to find out the uncommon resting points of avian influenza H9N2 virus in the environment. This virus is very dangerous for the poultry industry of the country so it is important to find out the hiding places of virus so that we can stop or control the future outbreaks of virus in the poultry and minimize the economic loss of the country. To rule out the above condition a total of 150 biotic and 200 abiotic samples were collected. Refrigerated samples were processed in the Influenza laboratory. Virus isolation and propagation was done through egg inoculation technique. Presence of virus was confirmed by using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biotic samples (11/150) 7.0 percent reacted positive to HA, HI and also confirmed by PCR. All the abiotic samples were found negative for any evidence of presence of avian influenza virus. This study helped us in understanding the natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus. This study design revealed the hibernation of H9N2 virus in the apparently healthy flock production of broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2563-T] (1).

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