Etiological Study Of Pancytopenic Children
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pancytopenia is a hematological condition in which there is a decrease in all three cell lines of peripheral blood i.e. erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets leading to anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Complications of anemia, repeated infections and bleeding tendencies are sometimes horrifying and may result in death of individual.
The present study was designed to analyze the underlying pathology, different clinico-haematological features and importance of bone marrow study in one hundred children presenting with pancytopenia. Present study was carried out in pediatric laboratory of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan..
Detailed history was taken in all cases. Complete blood counts were done on an automated blood analyzer (Sysmex Kx-21). For counter check of total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and platelets, smears were also prepared and stained by using Giemsa stain. Red cell morphology was done on blood smear for theconfirmation of red cell indices. A total volume of 3 ml venous blood was drawn into a syringe. Out of which 1.0 ml was delivered into EDTA containing vacutainer and remaining 2 ml blood was transferred to a plain glass tube. After clotting and centrifugation serum was obtained for screening of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus. Bone marrow aspiration was also performed where indicated.
Megaloblastic anaemia (42%) Aplastic anaemia (26%) and ALL (8%) were found to be the common causes of pancytopenia in our scenario. Less common causes of pancytopenia were infections (8%), mixed deficiency (4%), MDS (4%) and lymphoma (4%). In all above mentioned cases clinical manifestations and peripheral blood counts played an important role in their evaluation.
Two cases of haemophagocytic syndrome (2%), a rare cause of pancytopenia were also diagnosed in this study.
This study also explained the importance of physical examination, peripheral blood findings and bone marrow examinations in the management of pancytopenic patients. Peripheral blood film and bone marrow aspiration should be performed simultaneously in pancytopenia patients when the diagnosis is not confirmed. Bone marrow examination in most cases gives the specific diagnosis. However, in few cases, additional tests may be required.
Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels may be needed for confirmation of megaloblastic anemia. Serum iron, TIBC and iron staining on bone marrow smears may be required in iron deficiency anemia. In cases of leukemia flow cytometry study may be more helpful in reaching a final diagnosis. Bone marrow biopsy is mandatory in aplastic anemia.
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Patho-Morphological Studies Of Reproductive Tract Disorders In Cattle And Buffalo
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Reproductive tract disorders like endometritis, pyometra, follicular cysts, leuteal cysts etc have been reported as major causes of low conception rate and poor productivity of livestock. Reproductive tract lesions in cattle and buffaloes play an important role in animal breeding either by causing infertility or sterility of animals resulting in high economic losses. Besides of other reasons, presence of different types of bacteria inside the uterus of breeding animals causes deleterious effects on the reproductive tracts causing severe disorders and ultimately leads to failure of pregnancy. All these microbes results in the infection of uterus that ultimately affects animal's conception rate.
A total 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle (n=40) and buffaloes (n=60) were randomly collected from Lahore abattoir, Sherakot to study the impact of bacteria on the reproductive tracts, efficacy of variety of antibiotics on different bacterial isolates, gross and histopathological lesions. The swab samples for bacteriology were processed for purification and identification of bacterial isolates by doing number of conventional tests for final characterization and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity was performed. In this study seven different bacterial isolates were identified from all the samples. These include: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species, Aeromonas species, Micrococcus species and Lactobacillus species. By the analysis of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity, all eight different species of bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chlortetracycline. Contrary to these, all bacteria were 100 % resistant to Bacitracin followed by Sulphaphenazole, Ticarcillin/Clavulanic acid and Trimethoprim.
Out of the total 100 reproductive tracts of cattle and buffaloes collected randomly, 54 showed lesions with different severity. Most of the lesions were uterine hemorrhages followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, leuteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine tumors. These lesions were observed slightly higher in number in buffaloes than in cows. Tissue samples of reproductive tracts were processed for histopathology and histopathological lesions were observed under microscope at 4X, 10X and 40X.
Histopathological lesions in endometritis were hemorrhages in stratum compactum, very thick blood vessels, congestion, necrosis and degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells. While in metritis, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue, infilteration of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells in the myometrium were observed.
In pyometra samples, thick layer of exudate on the surface of endometrium, severe infilteration of mononuclear cells, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, necrosis of endometrial glands and glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissues in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, infiltration of polymorphs mononuclear cells were observed in stratum functionalis.
In uterine lymphoma, tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen.
In conclusion, out of 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle and buffaloes were examined and gross lesions were found 54% including uterine hemorrhages 20% followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, luteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine lymphoma as 17, 8, 3, 3, 2 and 1%, respectively. The bacteria isolated from reproductive tracts in cattle and buffaloes were Escherichia coli 100% followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus species, Corynebacterium species and Aeromonas species as 51, 47, 40, 34, 24 and 5%, respectively. In endometritis, PMN cells, thickening of endometrium, congestion, very thick blood vessels, degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue and hemorrhages are observed while in pyometra, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissue in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, congestion and degeneration of endometrial glands was seen. Tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen.
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Amelioration Of Pathological Effects Of New Castle Disease By Aloe Vera
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry industry has many threats from the infectious diseases. Newcastle disease is the most important disease of the poultry as it is distributed all over the world and it can cause huge economic losses in poultry industry. It is caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that can infect about 240 species of birds. Newcastle disease cause immune suppression in birds. It is reported that supplementations of Aloe vera enhances the immune status and reduce inflammation. So this research project was design to observe the effect of Aloe vera on lymphoid organs, growth performance and antibody response in Newcastle disease challenge birds. For this research a total of 120 broiler chicks were divided into four groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control group while B and C were treated with 2 percent aqueous extract of Aloe vera. Group C was also vaccinated against New Castle disease. Aloe vera was given to group B and C from day one to end of study trial. Both of the groups were challenged with ND virus at day 21. Group D was vaccinated against ND and was challenged with ND virus at day 21 without supplementation of Aloe vera. Blood samples were collected at day 1, 7, 20, 24, 26 and 28 to determine the antibody titer against ND. Highest antibody titers were observed in group C as compared to all other groups which was vaccinated against ND along with supplemented with Aloe vera. For gross pathology and histopathology, lymphoid organs were collected at day 24, 26 and 28..The average feed intake of group A and D was significantly higher than group B and C before challenge of virus but the body weight gain of 2% Aloe vera supplemented broiler was significantly (p<.05) higher than without treatment of Aloe vera. The FCR of birds supplemented with Aloe vera treatment was significantly different from the birds without Aloe vera treatment. The FCR value of group C and B was higher than A and D.
A significant difference was observed in the weight of lymphoid organs of birds treated with Aloe vera as weight of organs was less in group C followed by group B, group A and group D. This was due to anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera. Microscopic examination revealed congestion, depletion of lymphocytes, dysplasia of thymic lobules, thinning of cortex, focal necrosis, disappearance of lymph follicles and inter-follicular edema like lesions within lymphoid organ of the groups challenged with Newcastle disease virus. However, cellular hypertrophy and decreased lymphocytes population were prominent changes in lymphoid organs of broiler treated with 2% Aloe vera. To check the virucidal effects of Aloe vera, a separate experiment was conducted in which 9 day old embryonated eggs were inoculated with ND virus along with 2 percent Aloe vera gel extract after incubation at 37Cº for an hour in group A while only ND virus was inoculated in group B. Candling was performed to see the survival of embryos in both groups which revealed a significant difference i.e. 16 percent embryos were found dead in group A while 80 percent was found dead in group B. Later on the amnioallantoic fluid of the eggs was used for spot Haemagglutination test. Group A showed less agglutination activity then group B. From this study it was concluded that Newcastle disease caused immune suppression and damage of vital organs in broiler while Aloe vera have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects as it raised antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus and lowered the inflammatory processes along with inactivation of ND virus. It also promotes growth performance of broilers and helps the birds to survive against lethal ND disease.
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Pathogenesis Of Field Isolates Of Mannheimia Hemolytica In Experimentally Infected Rabbits
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Shipping fever is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of ruminants with a wide prevalence throughout the continents. The disease is characterized by an acute febrile course with severe fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Infected animals may die within a few days of the onset of clinical signs, but those which survive the acute attack may become chronically infected. Both Mannheimia and Pasteurella species are commensally resident in the respiratory tract of healthy ruminants and are capable of causing infection in animals with compromised pulmonary defense system. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly problem encountered in stocker or feedlot calves. BRD also called “shipping fever”, accounts for major economic losses to the producer by reducing average daily gain, feed efficiency, and overall performance of beef calves. The aim of present study was isolation of M.haemolytica from cattle. The identification of organism was performed through biochemical tests and confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. The nature of disease was evaluated through gross and microscopic lesions.
A total of 50 tissue samples (25 lungs and 25 pharynx) were collected from Punjab Agriculture and Meat company Lahore and brought to the Department of Pathology UVAS, Lahore and were analyzed for biochemical and molecular detection of M .haemolytica. For studying the pathogenesis of the disease, experimental infection was given to rabbits in Department of Pathology, UVAS Lahore. Rabbits were randomly divided into Group A, Group B and Group C with nine rabbits (n=9) in each group. Experimental infection of field isolated M. hemolytica was given intratrachealy to the rabbits. Rabbits of group A and B were infected with 0.5 mL bacterial inoculum having 103 and 106 CFU/mL respectively. The rabbits of Group C served as control group. Rectal temperature of each rabbit was recorded daily. On postmortem,
gross and microscopic lesions were recorded.
The results showed that rabbits of control group not showed any gross or microscopic change. There was significant increase in rectal temperature of infected rabbits as compared to uninfected rabbits. The gross lesions were specific for the organism which was prominently observed in lungs of rabbits. The microscopic lesions revealed that there was severe consolidation, congestion and fibrin exudation in lungs of rabbits of group A which were given less number of organism and they developed clear signs of disease. The rabbits of Group B showed less prominent signs compared to group A due to early death of rabbits. There were multiple hemorrhages, of varying sizes and hyalinization of myocardial cells in infected rabbits. The severity of changes was significantly more different in Group A, as compared to Group B.
It can be deduced by this study that the rabbit can be used as a model for further studies exploring the pathogenesis of the disease as the lesions resemble to shipping fever caused by M. hemolytica in ruminants. The lesions, which developed, could be descending infection resulting in typical lesions of bronchopneumonia or lobular pneumonia.
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