The Diversity, Distribution And Phenetic Relationships Of Herpetiles Of District Kasur
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Amphibians and reptiles (herpetiles) are cold-blooded animals. Mostly lay eggs, fertilization is external in amphibians and internal in reptiles. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis to reduce competition between larval (usually aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) stage. The reptiles are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world except some isolated islands. Diversity and abundance of herpetiles is dependent on climate and geographic position of any region and is also directly linked with some avian and mammalian species. Amphibians and reptiles are important bio-indicators of climate change and the survival of both taxa is under continuous threat due to deforestation, habitat loss, fragmentation, urbanization and pollution. Data on local distribution patterns is helpful in regional conservation planning (Petrov 2004).
Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids. They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Baig 2006 ).
Pakistan has the world’s rarest animals and plants but these are now in danger due to habitat loss, overuse and anthropogenic activities. The herpetofauna of Pakistan is represented by 219 species; 24 species of amphibians and 195 species of reptiles out of these 9 species of amphibians and 13 species of reptiles are endemic to Pakistan (Khan 2004). The herpetiles received less attention of scientific community hence these taxa remained unexplored in Pakistan. There is extreme scarcity of data on the distribution of various amphibian and reptilian species in the country (Khan 2006). The only authentic source of information till so far on herptiles in this region is the data collected and compiled by Daniel and Khan (2002, 2006).
In Pakistan arid to semi-arid climatic conditions prevail that make it, an amphibian poor country however, humid riparian conditions in the Indus Valley, streams in the northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region and water channels in the western Baluchistan highland are home to some 24 amphibians, that belong to four families viz. Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae (Khan 2011). The reptilian fauna of Pakistan is represented by 195 species belonging to 23 families viz. Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, Agamidae, Chameleonidae, Eublepharidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Uromastycidae, Varanidae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae (Khan 2004).
In Pakistan, due to over hunting the marsh crocodile is in danger and nearly extinct. Now this species only occur in small numbers in Sindh and a few areas in Balochistan. The gharial is now few in numbers and found only between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages. In addition monitor species are heavily hunted for their skins. 72 snake species found in Pakistan and out of these, 14 marine and 12 terrestrial snake species are poisonous; most well-known are the Indian cobra, common krait, saw-scaled viper and Russel's viper. The snake venom is a complex mixture of enzymes including the pro-coagulant, non-enzyme proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, amines, lipids and metal ions. The venom exertsneuro-toxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Genus monospecific Teratolepsis and Eristicophis is endemicto Pakistan. The Chagai Desert is of particular interest for reptiles, with six species of reptiles including five lizards and one snake are endemic to Pakistan and a further six species found only here and along the border of Iran. Important populations of marine turtles nest on Pakistan's southern beaches. The internationally threatened species of reptiles in Pakistan are Green and olive turtle, mugger, gharial, central Asian monitor, Indian python, central Asian cobra (Groombridge 1988).
District Kasur is located between two rivers of the Punjab province, namely river Ravi and Sutlej. This district is bounded by India from east, Okara from south, Sheikhupura from north-west and Lahore covers its north side. District Kasur is administratively divided in to four Tehsils i.e. Kasur, Chunian, Pattoki and KotRadhaKishan. The district lies 150 to 200 m above sea level and experiences extreme hot weather during summer (April -September) to severe cold in winter (November to February). The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm. Water logging and salinity has affected large area of the district making underground water brackish (Anwar 2012).
Reptiles and amphibians have historically taken less concern as components of many ecosystems. Many ecosystems support high densities of herpetofaunaas compared to endothermic vertebrates because they make efficient use of energy (Pough 1980).Moreover, high densities of reptiles and amphibians presentin many ecosystems provide major role for the trophic transfer of energy and matter except one study that shows high amphibian densities affect ecosystem processes (Wyman 1998). Moreover, the high rate of herpetofauna decline increase the interest in scientific communities for documenting the abundance and status of amphibians on a global scale (Collins and Storfer 2003).
Despite the high densities of herpetiles present in many ecosystems, it is difficult to sample them quantitatively because many snakes and several species of amphibians and lizards live in burrows making their capture difficult (Conant and Collins 1998). Furthermore, the cryptic nature of herpetiles, hibernation in winter, climatic factors affects the activity and the presence or abundance of amphibians and reptiles species (Zug et al 2001).As a result, many methods have been developed to sample herpetofauna such as drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps are a good way to maximize the number of individuals and number of herpetofauna species captured (Gibbons and Semlitsch, 1982; Enge 2001). On the other hand, drift fence surveys can be time-intensive and inappropriate applications can result in low capture rates of some species or high mortality of captured animals. Moreover, documenting the presence of all species occurring in a given area is difficult, if not impossible, and can be particularly time-intensive in systems with many rare species (Dodd 1991).
Herpetological studies carried out in Pakistan are outdated and are mainly limited to Sind and Baluchistan provinces (Minton 1966; Mertens 1969). There is paucity of data on herpetiles of Punjab, densely populated province of the country. There is dire need to explore herpetofauna of the province in general and the district kasur is specific due to geographic location and climatic condition. Present study was therefore planned to explore herpetofauna diversity and distribution patterns of various amphibians and reptiles inhabiting district Kasur.
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Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored.
Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks.
The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds.
Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus.
Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age.
Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds.
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Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the
turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226
million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US
during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared
turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the
factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the
public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the
information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds.
Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which
mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat.
Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when
compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source
of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout
of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption.
A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four
groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP
and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2
(T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with
T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight
gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth
43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length
47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were
recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3
diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters
of egg were also analyzed.
The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and
confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month
of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent
relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%),
preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility
(2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement
rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71),
preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%),
feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It
was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent
significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the
birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals,
therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M.
Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys
Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared.
There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor
treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while
in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 ×
20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to
them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected
from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared,
weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower
than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied
significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant
differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined
turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared
in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences
in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher
juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared
Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and
hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of
natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the
genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups,
each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds
were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis.
Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and
morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal
spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80%
followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects
6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability
percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%.
Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys
(Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range,
semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations
were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher
values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL,
total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L
were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher
104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical
parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07
mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing
system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds
reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations
33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing
system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were
recorded for all the three rearing systems.
Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were
recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum.
However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the
genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly
influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo.
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