Possible Causes Of Selective Lernaea Attack On Different Fish Species
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study was managed to investigate the possible causes of selective Lernaea attack in different fish species. Planned studies were conducted in five trials. During the first trial lernaea susceptibility and infestation were observed in indigenous major and exotic Chinese carps. Studies were conducted in 4 earthen ponds with two ponds per experimental group. Fishes in the both groups were fed isonitrogenous diet containing 40% crude protein formulated with different feed ingredients. Fishes were identified and examined for the presence of Lernaea species. The parasites were removed and preserved in vials containing 5% formalin. Other growth parameters i.e. average weight gain, average increase in length while physico-chemical analysis including dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Phosphates ions (PO4-2), nitrates (NO3) and secchi disk visibility were recorded. The fishes were treated with Tender, an organophasphate (DDVP (Dichlorvos) or 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) for the control of lernaea.
The results showed that C. catla is the most susceptible fish to L. cyprinacea infestation and its appropriate control for conservation of this precious and declining fish is of extreme importance. Thunder is biologically safe as it is biodegradable and degenerated after 36 h without causing any negative effect on the water quality parameters and other water flora and fauna. Treatment of L. cyprinace with 'Thunder' (0.10-0.25ppm) gives promising results without adverse effect on fish life. Though DDVP worked well in its control but its heavy infestation really weaken fish incapacitating its feeding and competing abilities with its counterparts.
In the 2nd trial, comparison of bio-chemical profile was observed on healthy and infected Indian and Chinese major carps. The experiment was managed in four earthen rearing ponds (59m x 30.5m x 1.8m). There were two-groups, one group without any treatment served as control and the second as treatment. At the outset of trial all the fish species were weighed, measured and comprehensively examined for presence of L. cyprinacea and general health condition. Fishes from both groups were dealt uniformly except administration of regular applications of DDVP (0.25ppm in treatment group while no any medication in control group. Water quality parameters DO, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, chloride ion (Cl-1), phosphate ions (PO4-2) nitrates (NO-3) and light penetration were recorded. Samples of healthy and infected fishes of each species were collected for proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat) and minerals (Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium) and phosphorous analysis.
The results showed that dry matter, fat and crude protein percentages were significantly decreased in lernaeid fishes. Moisture and ash contents of fishes increased in infected fishes as compared to healthy and treated fish. A slightly lower level of protein (12.65±0.49) and fat (7.30±0.28) in C. catla was observed than rest of the species. The protein was the highest (26.00±4.24) in L. rohita while the fats were the highest (10.55±0.92) in C. mrigala and C. carpio the second highest. Similarly looking at mineral profile there is not much difference, so it is hard to say that level and type of nutrients are solely responsible for L. cyprinacea attack. Mineral composition of infected fish indicated that minerals balance upsets during disease condition. Pathogenicity is a complex of so many factors, which encompass environmental, biological, and physiological so still lot remains to be explored before issuance of any concrete conclusion and recommendation that which factor is more active and critical in inviting and attracting this parasite.
In the third experiment, various blood indices were compared among Chinese and Indian major carps from the perspectives of their resistance against lernaeaosis that included probable role of blood and its components in reception of L. cyprinacea in some commercially important locally culturable herbivorous fish varieties while repulsion in others living under similar environment.
Healthy samples of each fish species were selected and blood was immediately drawn by puncturing gill lamellae, caudal vein and heart of both male and female of each representative experimental species. Blood parameters including Red Blood Cells (RBC, 10 -6/µL), White Blood Cells (WBC, 10-3/µL) and Platelets (10-3/µL) in blood from experimental fish species were counted by placing sample on haemocytometer grids. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC), red blood indices, blood chemistry and ESR were determined for males and females of experimental fishes.
The results revealed that females of each species have relatively higher values for blood indices as compared to males. C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. C. catla has the lowest values for the immunoglobulin Ig M as compared to the species which showed less susceptibility.
In the 4th trial, healthy fishes of major and Chinese carps were collected from commercial rearing and grow out ponds. Each fish weighed 830 ± 316 g on the average. For mucus collection, fishes were bathed in Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (8.0 ppm) to remove microbial or fungal infection/infestation. Samples were centrifuged at 12000×g at 4 ?C for 10 minutes and stored at -40?C in biomedical freezer. Bradford Micro Assay technique was applied to determine protein contents. Bradford protein solution (50 ?L) was added to each well and absorbance was recorded at 595nm. Standard curve was drawn from various but consecutive dilutions of BSA solution and protein concentrations in different samples were calculated. Electrophoresis was carried out with slight modifications. 15% separating and 4% staking buffer were used to run the SDS- PAGE under constant voltage of 120. Fermentas PageRuler™ protein ladder was used as the standard marker for non reducing protein. The gel was stained with PageBlue™ (Fermentas) stain for identification of protein bands for molecular weight determination. Lectin activity and Alkaline Phosphatase test were determined. Mucus was incubated with 4 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in ammonium bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) with 1 mM MgC12 (pH 7.8) at 30°C. The increase in optical density (OD) was measured continuously for 2 to 3 hours at 405 nm using a micro plate reader.
The results showed that lectin activity was the highest in C. idellus (109) indicative of low resistance while it was the lowest (21) in H.molitrix which was completely parasite free. Alkaline phosphatase level was the highest in C. catla, C.idella was the second highest and was the lowest in C. carpio. Protein concentrations were the highest in C. idella (3.29 ± 0.13 mg/ml) and C. catla (3.02 ± 0.57 mg/ml) while it was the lowest in C. carpio (1.80 ± 0.09). C. catla contained the highest molecular weight proteins (100 kDa) while C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup.
In the 5th experiment, the lernaea were observed in the month of June to August. Lernaeied infestation was observed in all experimental fishes except in C. carpio. After appearance of infestation fishes were treated with Thunder (DDVP- an organophasphate) to eliminate the parasite. Parasite free C. idellus, H. molitrix, L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio were collected with an average weight of 830 ± 316 g each were used for studies on whole-body amino acid composition. Triplicate samples of each species were over dried after evacuating their gut contents. Dried samples were then finely powdered, sieved and vacuum hydrolyzed in 2 ml of 6 N HCl at 1lO°C for 24 hours. Total amino acid composition was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method using an Agilent chromatograph, revers-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the essential amino acids (arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and leucine) play a major role in the immune system. It is revealed that amino acids will widely become cost-effective neutraceuticals for improving health and preventing infectious disease in animals. C. carpio have no infestation due to increased numbers and concentrations of essential amino acids when compared to other species of Indian and Chinese major carps. C. catla, C. idella and H. molitrix have the lowest number and concentration of essential amino acids and hence appeared more susceptible to lernaea attack.
Finally it was concluded from the entire study that C. carpio may have high resistance for the L. cyprinaceaea as compared to the other experimental fishes. It possesses higher values for Ig M-immunoglobulin as compared to C. catla that indicated its high immunity against the parasite. Similarly C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes (WBCs, esinophils, basophils and lymphocytes) that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus revealed that C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. This protein band may indicate the presence of lysozyme enzyme that actively participates against the invading pathogen. Essential and non-essential amino acids concentrations were also higher in the C. carpio that play a vital role in immunity especially arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, glutamic acid and aspartic acids.
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Effect Of Different Feed Ingredients On Growth, Hematology And Vital Organs In Juvenile Labeo Rohita
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: This 9-month study extending from March 1, to November, 30, 2012 was conducted to find out the effect of different feed ingredients on growth, haematology and vital organs in juvenile Labeo rohita. The experiment was performed to find out the cost-effective substitutes of fishmeal and their effect on growth, digestive enzymes activity, blood profile, histology of intestine and flesh quality was monitored. To obtain the said objectives the experimental fish, Labeo rohita was subjected through three different research trials. i. A 3-month research trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant/animal origin feed ingredients on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fingerling Labeo rohita. Fish was fed on fish meal, guar meal, corn gluten meal (30%), soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice polish, cotton seed meal, canola meal and rape seed meal individually. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, average weight gain, average length increase and specific growth rate among various ingredients. The highest average weight gain 27.162±6.950g and average length increase 6.153±0.833cm was observed in fish fed on guar meal while same was lowest 5.327±1.067g and 1.858±0.137cm, respectively in fish fed on corn gluten. However, fish showed better FCR values (2.01±0.08) when fed on guar meal while the FCR was very poor (9.57±48) for corn gluten (30%) fed group. The survival rate was highest (100%) for soybean meal fed group and lowest (70%) in canola and rapeseed meal fed group. ii. During second 3-month feeding trial, the effectiveness of individual feed ingredient from either plant or animal origin on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita was observed. The experiment was conducted in ten fiber glass tanks having size 12 ft x 4ft x 3 ft (length x width x depth). Single ingredient was considered as an independent treatment, hence guar meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal and canola meal were considered as an independent treatment and fishmeal which was considered as a superior ingredient due to its ideal nutrient balance served as control. Ten juvenile Labeo rohita having an average weight of 200±2.33 g were harvested indiscriminately from the bulk and stocked in each fiberglass tank. Two tanks were randomly allotted to each treatment and control. Each group received uniform ration @ 4% of total fish biomass twice a day. Results revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, FCR and specific growth rates among treatments. Weight gain was the highest in guar meal fed fish while the lowest on fish meal. Body composition of fish showed slight variations in fat contents with no differences in other nutrients though chemical composition of individual ingredient varies a lot. Minerals specifically Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu significantly differed (P?0.05) among treatments which might be linked with their variable release in digestive system of fish in the presence of various anti-nutritional factors. For different feed ingredients protease activity varied significantly (P<0.05) between anterior and posterior part of the intestine and also that of whole intestine when compared among various treatment groups. While amylase activity differed significantly when enzyme activity compared from the homogenate of whole intestine but not when compared partly. WBC, RBC, Hct, HB, PROT, ALB and GLOB showed significant (P<0.05) differences for blood samples of the fish fed with different feed ingredients while values of MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR remained uniform. The feed ingredients differently affected the liver and intestinal cells. No difference was observed when fried fish fed on different ingredients were compared among each other indicating that ingredients with nominal variations in chemical composition do not leave much after effects on fish flesh. iii. Third 3-month trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant-animal feed and/or plant by-product based feed on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita. Fish fed on rice polish alone served as control (T0). Previously selected potential fish feed ingredients were grouped together with two ingredients in each isocaloric test diet which served as an independent trial during these studies. Group 1(T1) contained guar meal and canola meal, group 2(T2) soybean meal and cotton seed meal, group 3(T3) guar meal and cotton seed meal, group 4(T4) soybean meal and canola meal and group 5(T5) fishmeal and canola meal. Each group including control had two replicates. 12 earthen ponds with uniform area of 0.03 ha each, were randomly stocked with 100 fish (average weight 200±4.43g) in each following standard stocking protocols. All the 12 ponds were then randomly allotted to individual treatment including control group. Experimental fish were fed @ 4% of their wet biomass twice a day except Sundays which was kept open providing fish an opportunity to clean left over feed from the previous day. Better growth rate, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in T3 than rest of the treatments including control suggest that guar meal and cotton seed meal is much better option to include in future feed formulations for maximum performance and minimum feed wastage. This preposition will minimize feed providing cleaner and healthy environment to fish ultimately enhancing stocking rate and fish production. Proximate analysis of dried and ground fish samples showed higher protein values in T4, fat in T2, moisture contents in control, dry matter in T1 and ash in T5. Mineral composition of Labeo rohita showed statistically significant (P ? 0.05) differences in Na, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content. Amylase concentration showed non-significant differences in anterior, posterior parts and the whole intestine in all the treatment and control ponds except T5 while protease concentrations were statistically significant (?0.05) in anterior and posterior part within the same group as well as among various groups. Enzymatic activity in whole intestine also varied significantly when compared among groups. Haematological parameters viz. WBC, RBC, ALB, GLOB and PROT differed significantly (?0.05) among all the treatments. Disrupted hepatic cords and hepatocytes showing pyknotic nucleus were observed in T1, moderate infiltration of fat vacuoles in T2 and, T4 caused vacuolar and hepatic cord degeneration while fish from T0 were subjected to severe vacuolation in hepatocytes. Non-significant differences in flavor, juiciness, and oiliness of fried fish from all the treatments and control ponds indicated that the sensory attributes of fish flesh were not affected by feeding fish with blend of various ingredients. It is concluded that the response of body organs varies with varying feed stuffs and the feed items have pronounced effect on enzymatic activities, hematological and histological parameters in juvenile Labeo rohita. During present study fish showed comparatively better growth when fed with guar meal as a single feed ingredient or combined with cotton seed meal than the rest of feed ingredients either offered individually or in combinations. The study provides base line information and will help aquaculture nutritionists to formulate cost-effective feeds.
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The Diversity, Distribution And Phenetic Relationships Of Herpetiles Of District Kasur
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Amphibians and reptiles (herpetiles) are cold-blooded animals. Mostly lay eggs, fertilization is external in amphibians and internal in reptiles. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis to reduce competition between larval (usually aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) stage. The reptiles are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world except some isolated islands. Diversity and abundance of herpetiles is dependent on climate and geographic position of any region and is also directly linked with some avian and mammalian species. Amphibians and reptiles are important bio-indicators of climate change and the survival of both taxa is under continuous threat due to deforestation, habitat loss, fragmentation, urbanization and pollution. Data on local distribution patterns is helpful in regional conservation planning (Petrov 2004).
Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids. They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Baig 2006 ).
Pakistan has the world’s rarest animals and plants but these are now in danger due to habitat loss, overuse and anthropogenic activities. The herpetofauna of Pakistan is represented by 219 species; 24 species of amphibians and 195 species of reptiles out of these 9 species of amphibians and 13 species of reptiles are endemic to Pakistan (Khan 2004). The herpetiles received less attention of scientific community hence these taxa remained unexplored in Pakistan. There is extreme scarcity of data on the distribution of various amphibian and reptilian species in the country (Khan 2006). The only authentic source of information till so far on herptiles in this region is the data collected and compiled by Daniel and Khan (2002, 2006).
In Pakistan arid to semi-arid climatic conditions prevail that make it, an amphibian poor country however, humid riparian conditions in the Indus Valley, streams in the northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region and water channels in the western Baluchistan highland are home to some 24 amphibians, that belong to four families viz. Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae (Khan 2011). The reptilian fauna of Pakistan is represented by 195 species belonging to 23 families viz. Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, Agamidae, Chameleonidae, Eublepharidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Uromastycidae, Varanidae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae (Khan 2004).
In Pakistan, due to over hunting the marsh crocodile is in danger and nearly extinct. Now this species only occur in small numbers in Sindh and a few areas in Balochistan. The gharial is now few in numbers and found only between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages. In addition monitor species are heavily hunted for their skins. 72 snake species found in Pakistan and out of these, 14 marine and 12 terrestrial snake species are poisonous; most well-known are the Indian cobra, common krait, saw-scaled viper and Russel's viper. The snake venom is a complex mixture of enzymes including the pro-coagulant, non-enzyme proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, amines, lipids and metal ions. The venom exertsneuro-toxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Genus monospecific Teratolepsis and Eristicophis is endemicto Pakistan. The Chagai Desert is of particular interest for reptiles, with six species of reptiles including five lizards and one snake are endemic to Pakistan and a further six species found only here and along the border of Iran. Important populations of marine turtles nest on Pakistan's southern beaches. The internationally threatened species of reptiles in Pakistan are Green and olive turtle, mugger, gharial, central Asian monitor, Indian python, central Asian cobra (Groombridge 1988).
District Kasur is located between two rivers of the Punjab province, namely river Ravi and Sutlej. This district is bounded by India from east, Okara from south, Sheikhupura from north-west and Lahore covers its north side. District Kasur is administratively divided in to four Tehsils i.e. Kasur, Chunian, Pattoki and KotRadhaKishan. The district lies 150 to 200 m above sea level and experiences extreme hot weather during summer (April -September) to severe cold in winter (November to February). The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm. Water logging and salinity has affected large area of the district making underground water brackish (Anwar 2012).
Reptiles and amphibians have historically taken less concern as components of many ecosystems. Many ecosystems support high densities of herpetofaunaas compared to endothermic vertebrates because they make efficient use of energy (Pough 1980).Moreover, high densities of reptiles and amphibians presentin many ecosystems provide major role for the trophic transfer of energy and matter except one study that shows high amphibian densities affect ecosystem processes (Wyman 1998). Moreover, the high rate of herpetofauna decline increase the interest in scientific communities for documenting the abundance and status of amphibians on a global scale (Collins and Storfer 2003).
Despite the high densities of herpetiles present in many ecosystems, it is difficult to sample them quantitatively because many snakes and several species of amphibians and lizards live in burrows making their capture difficult (Conant and Collins 1998). Furthermore, the cryptic nature of herpetiles, hibernation in winter, climatic factors affects the activity and the presence or abundance of amphibians and reptiles species (Zug et al 2001).As a result, many methods have been developed to sample herpetofauna such as drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps are a good way to maximize the number of individuals and number of herpetofauna species captured (Gibbons and Semlitsch, 1982; Enge 2001). On the other hand, drift fence surveys can be time-intensive and inappropriate applications can result in low capture rates of some species or high mortality of captured animals. Moreover, documenting the presence of all species occurring in a given area is difficult, if not impossible, and can be particularly time-intensive in systems with many rare species (Dodd 1991).
Herpetological studies carried out in Pakistan are outdated and are mainly limited to Sind and Baluchistan provinces (Minton 1966; Mertens 1969). There is paucity of data on herpetiles of Punjab, densely populated province of the country. There is dire need to explore herpetofauna of the province in general and the district kasur is specific due to geographic location and climatic condition. Present study was therefore planned to explore herpetofauna diversity and distribution patterns of various amphibians and reptiles inhabiting district Kasur.
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Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored.
Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks.
The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds.
Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus.
Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age.
Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds.
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Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the
turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226
million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US
during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared
turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the
factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the
public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the
information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds.
Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which
mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat.
Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when
compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source
of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout
of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption.
A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four
groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP
and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2
(T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with
T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight
gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth
43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length
47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were
recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3
diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters
of egg were also analyzed.
The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and
confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month
of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent
relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%),
preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility
(2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement
rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71),
preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%),
feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It
was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent
significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the
birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals,
therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M.
Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys
Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared.
There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor
treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while
in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 ×
20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to
them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected
from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared,
weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower
than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied
significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant
differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined
turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared
in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences
in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher
juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared
Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and
hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of
natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the
genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups,
each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds
were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis.
Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and
morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal
spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80%
followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects
6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability
percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%.
Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys
(Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range,
semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations
were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher
values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL,
total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L
were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher
104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical
parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07
mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing
system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds
reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations
33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing
system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were
recorded for all the three rearing systems.
Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were
recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum.
However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the
genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly
influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2530-T] (1).
Comparative Studies On Egg Quality, Hematology And Reproductive Traits In Ring Necked And Green Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Present study was planned to compare egg quality, hematology and reproductive traits in ring necked and green pheasants in captivity. Day-old chicks of both the pheasant species Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere tagged individually and maintained initially in a room for a period of 4 weeks. The chicks were then transferred to cages provided with separate feeding and drinking facilities to the individual bird. The birds were kept until the 16 weeks of life. The sex of the chicks was predicted at early stages by observing feathers and plumage and was confirmed later at adult ages.
Eggs (n = 100) of both the pheasant species i.e. Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere collected. Each egg was weighed and its length and breadth was taken. These eggs were divided into three weight groups and were classified as light, medium and heavy category. The length and breadth of each collected egg was taken and surface area, egg volume and shape index were calculated.The egg quality test was performed on freshly collected eggs in the egg quality testing laboratory periodically. The eggs were weighed carefully on electronic digital balance. The albumen and yolk height and width, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH and Haugh unit score were recorded.
During present study, chick weight in ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicusand green pheasant P. versicolorfrom day old chick to 6-month stage varied significantly. The average body weight in day old chick weight ranged from20.6±1.35g to 24.50±1.29g.Increase in chick weight in male ring necked pheasants was 24.50±1.29g to 1235.25±101.81g. Similarly increase in female ring necked pheasant was 22.47±1.79gto 1004.75±52.94g.The chick average weight was almost double during 2nd week. Body length was maximum in male green pheasant 5.00±0.81cm during 1st week. However significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight was observed during 1st to 4thweek.Higher increase in average body weight was observed during 6thweek. Significantly (p<0.05) increase in wing length and wing span was also recorded during 6th week. During 7thweek, non-significant differences in body weight were observed between male and female P. colchicus.Overall, minimum increase in chick weight was observed during 21st,22nd and 23rd week and maximum during 6th,7th and 8th week of chick age. The chick weight at hatching in light, medium and heavy egg groups were determined as 19.5g, 21.8g and 22.6g, respectively.
Lowest increase in chick body weight in green pheasants ranged from 20.6±1.35g during 1st week to 837.00±49.45g during 24thweek of its growth. During present study it was determined that hatched chick weight increases with increase in egg weight. After completion of the incubation, the infertile egg percentage was 48% in ring necked pheasant and 42% in green pheasant. Increase in wing length varied significantly in male and female and between both species from day old chick to 6-month stage. The lowest increase in chick’s wing length ranged from 5.37±1.10cm to 33.75±1.70cm in female P. versicolor. Overall minimum increase in wing length was observed during 12thweek and maximum during 2nd,3rd and 6th week of chick age.
During present study, significant differences in various hematological parameters were recorded during different ages of pheasants. RBCs values in P.cholchicusincreased with age, reached a maximum point then decreased. While in P. versicolorthe values decreasedat juvenile stage and then increased to young ages and decreased. However, maximum 4.04±0.6 values for RBCs were recorded in P. versicolorduring 3rd month. In young age,significant (p<0.05) differences in blood biochemical profile of both the pheasant species were observed.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2674-T] (1).
Construction Of Cellulolytic And Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Consortium For Enhancing Efficiency Of Cellulose-Linked Bioremedial Processes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note:
Metallic and non-metallic pollutants originating from different industries are not treated before their final discharge into the environment. Consequently, environment is being degraded very rapidly and posing serious threats to all forms of life. For remediation of the said pollutants, a number of physico-chemical treatment methods have been practiced but couldn’t found suitable due to environmentally non-compatible natures and generation of secondary pollutants.
The present study was, therefore, designed to treat artificially prepared sulfate-rich wastewater jointly with the help of cellulolytic and sulfate-reducing bacterial species while using a variety of agro-industrial wastes as cost-effective growth substrates. In order to achieve the goal, the two bacterial species were mixed in different proportions to achieve significant results of sulfate reduction.
Statistical analysis revealed that rice straw appeared as the most efficient carbon source among all the agricultural wastes because it reduced about 96% of the total added sulfate in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation. And among all the industrial wastes, animal manure appearedasthe most efficient carbon source, it could reduce 93% of sulfate. Mixture of industrial and agricultural waste reduced about 90% of the sulfate. Findings of this project will be helpful in developing an economical and environmental friendly bio-remedial technique for the treatment of metallic and non-metallic wastes simultaneously which ultimately convert the industrial wastewaters into harmless and suitable discharge to aquatic environment.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2675-T] (1).