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1. Comparative Studies On Egg Quality, Hematology And Reproductive Traits In Ring Necked And Green Pheasants In Captivity

by Qurat Ul Ain (2014-VA-963) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Ali Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Present study was planned to compare egg quality, hematology and reproductive traits in ring necked and green pheasants in captivity. Day-old chicks of both the pheasant species Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere tagged individually and maintained initially in a room for a period of 4 weeks. The chicks were then transferred to cages provided with separate feeding and drinking facilities to the individual bird. The birds were kept until the 16 weeks of life. The sex of the chicks was predicted at early stages by observing feathers and plumage and was confirmed later at adult ages. Eggs (n = 100) of both the pheasant species i.e. Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere collected. Each egg was weighed and its length and breadth was taken. These eggs were divided into three weight groups and were classified as light, medium and heavy category. The length and breadth of each collected egg was taken and surface area, egg volume and shape index were calculated.The egg quality test was performed on freshly collected eggs in the egg quality testing laboratory periodically. The eggs were weighed carefully on electronic digital balance. The albumen and yolk height and width, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH and Haugh unit score were recorded. During present study, chick weight in ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicusand green pheasant P. versicolorfrom day old chick to 6-month stage varied significantly. The average body weight in day old chick weight ranged from20.6±1.35g to 24.50±1.29g.Increase in chick weight in male ring necked pheasants was 24.50±1.29g to 1235.25±101.81g. Similarly increase in female ring necked pheasant was 22.47±1.79gto 1004.75±52.94g.The chick average weight was almost double during 2nd week. Body length was maximum in male green pheasant 5.00±0.81cm during 1st week. However significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight was observed during 1st to 4thweek.Higher increase in average body weight was observed during 6thweek. Significantly (p<0.05) increase in wing length and wing span was also recorded during 6th week. During 7thweek, non-significant differences in body weight were observed between male and female P. colchicus.Overall, minimum increase in chick weight was observed during 21st,22nd and 23rd week and maximum during 6th,7th and 8th week of chick age. The chick weight at hatching in light, medium and heavy egg groups were determined as 19.5g, 21.8g and 22.6g, respectively. Lowest increase in chick body weight in green pheasants ranged from 20.6±1.35g during 1st week to 837.00±49.45g during 24thweek of its growth. During present study it was determined that hatched chick weight increases with increase in egg weight. After completion of the incubation, the infertile egg percentage was 48% in ring necked pheasant and 42% in green pheasant. Increase in wing length varied significantly in male and female and between both species from day old chick to 6-month stage. The lowest increase in chick’s wing length ranged from 5.37±1.10cm to 33.75±1.70cm in female P. versicolor. Overall minimum increase in wing length was observed during 12thweek and maximum during 2nd,3rd and 6th week of chick age. During present study, significant differences in various hematological parameters were recorded during different ages of pheasants. RBCs values in P.cholchicusincreased with age, reached a maximum point then decreased. While in P. versicolorthe values decreasedat juvenile stage and then increased to young ages and decreased. However, maximum 4.04±0.6 values for RBCs were recorded in P. versicolorduring 3rd month. In young age,significant (p<0.05) differences in blood biochemical profile of both the pheasant species were observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2674-T] (1).

2. Construction Of Cellulolytic And Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Consortium For Enhancing Efficiency Of Cellulose-Linked Bioremedial Processes

by Ali Hasan (2014-VA-939) | Dr. Waseem Ahmad Khan | Dr. Arshad Javid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Metallic and non-metallic pollutants originating from different industries are not treated before their final discharge into the environment. Consequently, environment is being degraded very rapidly and posing serious threats to all forms of life. For remediation of the said pollutants, a number of physico-chemical treatment methods have been practiced but couldn’t found suitable due to environmentally non-compatible natures and generation of secondary pollutants. The present study was, therefore, designed to treat artificially prepared sulfate-rich wastewater jointly with the help of cellulolytic and sulfate-reducing bacterial species while using a variety of agro-industrial wastes as cost-effective growth substrates. In order to achieve the goal, the two bacterial species were mixed in different proportions to achieve significant results of sulfate reduction. Statistical analysis revealed that rice straw appeared as the most efficient carbon source among all the agricultural wastes because it reduced about 96% of the total added sulfate in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation. And among all the industrial wastes, animal manure appearedasthe most efficient carbon source, it could reduce 93% of sulfate. Mixture of industrial and agricultural waste reduced about 90% of the sulfate. Findings of this project will be helpful in developing an economical and environmental friendly bio-remedial technique for the treatment of metallic and non-metallic wastes simultaneously which ultimately convert the industrial wastewaters into harmless and suitable discharge to aquatic environment.   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2675-T] (1).

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