The Diversity, Distribution And Phenetic Relationships Of Herpetiles Of District Kasur
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Amphibians and reptiles (herpetiles) are cold-blooded animals. Mostly lay eggs, fertilization is external in amphibians and internal in reptiles. Amphibians undergo metamorphosis to reduce competition between larval (usually aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) stage. The reptiles are found in a variety of habitats throughout the world except some isolated islands. Diversity and abundance of herpetiles is dependent on climate and geographic position of any region and is also directly linked with some avian and mammalian species. Amphibians and reptiles are important bio-indicators of climate change and the survival of both taxa is under continuous threat due to deforestation, habitat loss, fragmentation, urbanization and pollution. Data on local distribution patterns is helpful in regional conservation planning (Petrov 2004).
Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids. They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Baig 2006 ).
Pakistan has the world’s rarest animals and plants but these are now in danger due to habitat loss, overuse and anthropogenic activities. The herpetofauna of Pakistan is represented by 219 species; 24 species of amphibians and 195 species of reptiles out of these 9 species of amphibians and 13 species of reptiles are endemic to Pakistan (Khan 2004). The herpetiles received less attention of scientific community hence these taxa remained unexplored in Pakistan. There is extreme scarcity of data on the distribution of various amphibian and reptilian species in the country (Khan 2006). The only authentic source of information till so far on herptiles in this region is the data collected and compiled by Daniel and Khan (2002, 2006).
In Pakistan arid to semi-arid climatic conditions prevail that make it, an amphibian poor country however, humid riparian conditions in the Indus Valley, streams in the northern Himalayan sub-mountainous region and water channels in the western Baluchistan highland are home to some 24 amphibians, that belong to four families viz. Bufonidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae (Khan 2011). The reptilian fauna of Pakistan is represented by 195 species belonging to 23 families viz. Cheloniidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Testudinidae, Trionychidae, Crocodylidae, Gavialidae, Agamidae, Chameleonidae, Eublepharidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Uromastycidae, Varanidae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae (Khan 2004).
In Pakistan, due to over hunting the marsh crocodile is in danger and nearly extinct. Now this species only occur in small numbers in Sindh and a few areas in Balochistan. The gharial is now few in numbers and found only between the Sukkur and Guddu barrages. In addition monitor species are heavily hunted for their skins. 72 snake species found in Pakistan and out of these, 14 marine and 12 terrestrial snake species are poisonous; most well-known are the Indian cobra, common krait, saw-scaled viper and Russel's viper. The snake venom is a complex mixture of enzymes including the pro-coagulant, non-enzyme proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, amines, lipids and metal ions. The venom exertsneuro-toxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Genus monospecific Teratolepsis and Eristicophis is endemicto Pakistan. The Chagai Desert is of particular interest for reptiles, with six species of reptiles including five lizards and one snake are endemic to Pakistan and a further six species found only here and along the border of Iran. Important populations of marine turtles nest on Pakistan's southern beaches. The internationally threatened species of reptiles in Pakistan are Green and olive turtle, mugger, gharial, central Asian monitor, Indian python, central Asian cobra (Groombridge 1988).
District Kasur is located between two rivers of the Punjab province, namely river Ravi and Sutlej. This district is bounded by India from east, Okara from south, Sheikhupura from north-west and Lahore covers its north side. District Kasur is administratively divided in to four Tehsils i.e. Kasur, Chunian, Pattoki and KotRadhaKishan. The district lies 150 to 200 m above sea level and experiences extreme hot weather during summer (April -September) to severe cold in winter (November to February). The difference between day and night temperatures is considerable. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm. Water logging and salinity has affected large area of the district making underground water brackish (Anwar 2012).
Reptiles and amphibians have historically taken less concern as components of many ecosystems. Many ecosystems support high densities of herpetofaunaas compared to endothermic vertebrates because they make efficient use of energy (Pough 1980).Moreover, high densities of reptiles and amphibians presentin many ecosystems provide major role for the trophic transfer of energy and matter except one study that shows high amphibian densities affect ecosystem processes (Wyman 1998). Moreover, the high rate of herpetofauna decline increase the interest in scientific communities for documenting the abundance and status of amphibians on a global scale (Collins and Storfer 2003).
Despite the high densities of herpetiles present in many ecosystems, it is difficult to sample them quantitatively because many snakes and several species of amphibians and lizards live in burrows making their capture difficult (Conant and Collins 1998). Furthermore, the cryptic nature of herpetiles, hibernation in winter, climatic factors affects the activity and the presence or abundance of amphibians and reptiles species (Zug et al 2001).As a result, many methods have been developed to sample herpetofauna such as drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps are a good way to maximize the number of individuals and number of herpetofauna species captured (Gibbons and Semlitsch, 1982; Enge 2001). On the other hand, drift fence surveys can be time-intensive and inappropriate applications can result in low capture rates of some species or high mortality of captured animals. Moreover, documenting the presence of all species occurring in a given area is difficult, if not impossible, and can be particularly time-intensive in systems with many rare species (Dodd 1991).
Herpetological studies carried out in Pakistan are outdated and are mainly limited to Sind and Baluchistan provinces (Minton 1966; Mertens 1969). There is paucity of data on herpetiles of Punjab, densely populated province of the country. There is dire need to explore herpetofauna of the province in general and the district kasur is specific due to geographic location and climatic condition. Present study was therefore planned to explore herpetofauna diversity and distribution patterns of various amphibians and reptiles inhabiting district Kasur.
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Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored.
Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks.
The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds.
Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus.
Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age.
Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds.
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