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1. Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity

by Sana Ashraf | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Khalid Mehmood Anjum | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored. Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks. The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds. Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus. Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age. Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2350-T] (1).

2. Assessment Of Avian And Mammalian Diversity At Selected Sites Along River Chenab

by Muhammad Altaf (2008-VA-725) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Dr. Waseem Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab province and the tree plantations around the river are the part of tropical thorn forest. But as a consequence of deforestation much of the natural forested areas have been turned to agricultural land. The main objective of study was to assess the avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; to identify and assess anthropogenic impacts on avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; and to explore the level of humanwildlife conflict selected sites of river Chenab i.e. district Sialkot, district Gujrat and district Gujranwala from May, 2013 through April. Surveys were made during dawn (5:00 am to 8:00 am) and dusk (4:00 pm to 7:00 pm). During the waterfowl study recorded 51 species belonging to 33 genera, 16 families and 8 orders were recorded from the study area. Throughout the year a total of 2531 birds from recorded from head Marala, 2026 from the head Khanki and 2230 from head Qadirabad. Diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index at head Marala was 2.62, at head Khanki it was 2.64 while at head Qadirabad it was 2.78. It can be concluded from the present study that the River Chenab is waterfowl rich and should be declared as protected site for waterfowls. The study area was divided into different habitat types on the basis of vegetation and urbanization and was designated as forest habitat (FH), wetland habitat (WLH), rural forest habitat (RFH), agriculture habitat (AH), agriculture rural habitat (ARH), urban non vegetative habitat (UNVH) and urban vegetative habitat (UVH). A linear count method was applied and data was collected through direct and indirect observations. Habitat preference of the birds varied f declined from forested habitats to the urban landscapes. It can be concluded from the study that Summary 152 many of the avian species are habitat specific and the connection/corridors between similar habitat types might be fruitful for the conservation of avian species. The anthropogenic impacts and habitat preferences of mammalian species along river Chenab, Pakistan was also assessed the mammalian diversity was recorded along forested landscapes, cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of various mammalian species was collected through point count method viz. direct observation (personal count and record voices) and indirect observation (presences of carcasses, fecal pellet, pug marks and meeting with local communities). The habitat preferences of large, medium and small mammals varied significantly. A decline in mammalian diversity was observed from forest habitat to urban landscapes. Indian wild boar, Asiatic jackal, Indian fox, jungle cat, Indian pangolin and long eared desert hedgehog preferred forested areas as well as slightly modified habitats while Northern palm squirrel, house mouse, house shrew and rat species preferred human habitations. Similarly, few species such as the small Indian mongoose, Soft-furred field rat, short tailed mole rat, Asiatic jackal and Indian gerbil preferred cultivated areas. It can be concluded that many of the mammalian species are habitat specific and corridors and connections between different landscapes are important for the conservation of mammalian diversity. Medicinal and cultural significance of avian species along the River Chenab were assessed through Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP). One hundred and nine persons were interviewed and data regarding socio-economic status of the respondents, qualitative data on cultural significance from three selected districts. The compiled data are analyzed using different quantitative tools, such as relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level RPL and rank order priority (ROP). Out of total 155 Summary 153 avian species recorded from the study area, 28 have medical importance while local people were using feathers of almost all the bird species for making different toys. Ten species were most popular and highest RFM values (0.58) were recorded for house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Similarly, highest FL values (100%) were recorded for house sparrow (P. domesticus) and domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). These studies indicated that the area is rich in avian diversity and many of these species have medical and cultural significance for the locales. Mammals are source of food and medication for humans from ancient times. A survey was conducted along the Rver Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan and 109 persons were interviewed to investigate the extent of human dependency on mammalian species of the area. A total of 30 mammalian species were recorded from the study area. Highest relatively frequency of mention (RFM) values (0.5) were observed for desert hare, Lepus migricollis dayanus while maximum (100%) fidelity level (FL) was recorded for cow Bos gaurus, sheep Ovis aries and cat Felis domesticus. Seven species were most popular. It can be concluded from present survey that local people have strong association with mammalian species of the study area and dependent for food and medicines on these species. In depth studies are recommended to explore medicinal importance of the species. The study area was part of tropical thorn forest but a larger portion has been changed into agricultural land or human habitations. Data regarding socio-economic value of area, financial losses to crops and livestock, peoples’ attitude and tolerance towards wildlife, protection methods for livestock and crops from predators and profile of 150 respondents were collected through a questionnaire. The age of the respondents was between 20 to 65 years, out of them 54% were literate, 99% were Muslims and all these respondents were from different professions viz. farmers (32%), livestock managers (37%) and others (31%). Most of the respondents (52%) Summary 154 were unaware about the role of wild species in ecosystem, certain respondents (28%) disliked wild species in their areas and 20% respondents had positive view about wildlife in the area. The collected data revealed that crops are mostly damaged by the Indian wild boar (42%), Asiatic jackal (34%), diseases (11%), Indian crested porcupine (6%) and others (7%) including rats, squirrels, crows and sparrows. Similarly, the livestock animals are affected mostly by diseases (36%), Asiatic jackal (34%), jungle cat (10%), Indian fox and others (6%) including raptor birds. Most of the respondents were of the view that wildlife is declining in the area. The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab, Pakistan. Water of the river is becoming pollutedt due to anthropogenic impact i.e. industrial waste, urbanization, agriculture intensification. The main objectives of the study were to know the diversity and distribution of fish species of river Chenab. Both, direct and indirect methods were applied to find out fish diversity of the area. The diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. During the sampling 34 species was recorded from the river Chenab. The diversity indices indicate that higher diversity is present at the head Qadirabad than head Khanki and Marala. The reason is that there is present large number of natural and manmade ponds; during the flood these pond fishes move to the river further eggs and fingerlings move to rivers through birds and fisherman. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2520-T] (1).

3. Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems

by Irfan (2008-VA-724) | Dr. Arshad Javid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226 million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds. Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat. Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption. A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2 (T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth 43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length 47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were Summary 90 recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3 diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters of egg were also analyzed. The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%), preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility (2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71), preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%), feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals, therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M. gallopavo. Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared. There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 × 20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to Summary 91 them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared, weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared turkeys. Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups, each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis. Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80% followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects 6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%. Summary 92 Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL, total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07 mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations 33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were recorded for all the three rearing systems. Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum. However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2530-T] (1).

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