Studies On Growth Performance, Morphology, Reproductive Traits And Behavioral Aspects Of Ring Necked Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Besides ecological importance, pheasants also have aesthetic values which mainly contribute to their decline in population due to poaching in their native habitat. Among 49 species of pheasants in the world, 5 are endemic to Pakistan with distribution in the Himalaya and remote northern parts of the country. Due to increase in human population, intrusion, poaching, and habitat disturbance pheasants are threatened. However, much of the work on captivity is based on production rather morphological, ornamentation or reproductive traits which could have important implications for the management of wild and captive populations as a whole. Some studies still remain to be explored.
Present study was conducted to find out the relationship of egg weight with egg quality parameters and growth traits of ring-necked pheasant Phasianuscolchicus. Total of 450 eggs were collected and were divided into three egg weight categories viz. light (20.0-26.0g), medium (27.0-32.0g) and heavy (33.0-40.0g) egg weight eggs. Fifty eggs for each of the egg category were reserved for the evaluation of internal egg quality parameters. External egg quality parameters i.e. egg length, breadth, egg volume and surface area varied significantly (P<0.05) between all the three egg weight categories. Similarly, significantly higher albumen and yolk weight were recorded in heavy weight egg category while non-significant relationship of egg weight was observed for shell and membrane thickness, yolk percentage, yolk index, yolk pH and albumen pH of the egg. The hatching percentage for the remaining 300 egg kept in incubator was 47.33%. Forty chicks from each of the egg weight category were selected and chick weight, wing length and wingspan were taken at the time of hatching and thereafter increase in these parameters were noted on weekly basis. The effect of egg weight on chick weight, live weight gain, wing length and wingspan was significant (P<0.05) from 1st to 12th month of age. Our studies revealed that egg weight has strong influence on external and internal characteristics of the eggs and the growth parameters in P. colchicus chicks.
The present study was planned to evaluate the time budgets of ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicus in captivity. The birds were kept in cages of 5 ft × 5 ft × 3 ft (length × width × height) and were housed in a 20 ft × 20 ft (length × width) well ventilated room at Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Captive birds were divided into three categories viz. adult male, adult female and chicks and were placed into separate cages. Behavioral parameters viz. jumping, aggression, preening, feather pecking, walking, standing, sitting, litter pecking, drinking, feeding, body shaking, voice call and feather flapping were assessed for 30 birds from each of the three categories through scan sampling. Statistically significant variations were recorded in behavioral aspects among all the three categories. Male birds spent significantly higher times in aggression (155.26±3.10 sec), preening (74.04±3.05 sec), walking (1370.93±54.45 sec), drinking (74.00±3.18 sec), body shaking (24.92 ±3.11 sec), voice call (20.08±3.17 sec) and feather flapping (15.42±2.73 sec) while female P. colchicus spent significantly higher times in sitting (364.57±3.74 sec). Similarly, the chicks spent significantly higher times in jumping (36.17±2.75 sec), feather pecking (265.19±3.17 sec), standing (1230.13±23.86 sec), litter pecking (234.89±2.97 sec) and feeding (115.44±3.11 sec) as compared to the adult female and male birds.
Fecal and blood samples of ring necked pheasants, Phasianuscolchicus were analyzed to record the parasitic prevalence in these pheasants. A total of 1000 samples, 500 blood and 500 fecal samples were collected from Captive Breeding Facilities for Birds, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Parasitic genera identified from blood samples of P. colchicus include Leukocytozoon, Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Prevalence of Leukocytozoon was 16 % while the prevalence of Haemoproteus was 14.3%. Parasitic genera identified from fecal samples of P. colchicus include Eimeria, Isospora, Trichomonas and Giardia. Eggs of five species of nematodes viz. Capillaria, Syngamus trachea andAscaridia,Heterakisisoloncheand Heterakisgallinarum were also identified from the fecal samples. The ectoparasites include one species of burrowing mite Knemidocoptesmutansand two species of chewing lice i.e. Amyrsideaperdicis and Lipeurusmaculosus.
Variations in hematological parameters during different life history stages were recorded in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) for a period of 1 year. Thirty birds were selected for analysis of selected hematological parameters viz. red blood cells count, white blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and leucocyte count. These birds were kept in cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein and variations in blood parameters were recorded on monthly basis. Significantly, lower RBC’s count was observed during 2nd month of age while during same month significantly higher WBC count was noticed. Significantly lower values of hemoglobin were observed during 1st and 2nd month of age. Significantly higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration percentage (MCHC%) was recorded during 6th and 7th month of age. Lower packed cell volume (PCV) values were observed during 2nd and 6th month of age while the total serum protein concentrations were recorded maximum during 10th month of age. Significantly, higher heterophils count was recorded during 2nd and 10th month of age while maximum lymphocyte count was observed during 2nd and 7th months of age. Significantly, higher concentrations of monocytes were recorded during 11th, 12thand 10th month of age. The eiosinophils count varied from minimum (110 ± 13.50) during 3rd month to maximum (902 ± 93.22) during 11th month of age. Similarly, significantly higher values of basophils were recorded during 1st month of age. It can be concluded from the present study that the blood profile of the pheasants changes with age.
Variations in hematological parameters for adult male and female ring-necked pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus) were recorded. Forty adult ring-necked pheasants (20 ♂, 20 ♀) were kept in separate cages, each cage having separate drinking and feeding facilities. Five birds per cage were confined and these cages were housed in a well-ventilated 20 × 20 feet (length × width) room. Blood samples were taken from ulnar vein. Different blood and serum chemistry parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb ) concentrations, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, ALP, uric acid, cholesterol, total serum protein, albumin and creatinine were determined among adult male and female pheasants. Non-significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, heterophils, eosinophils, MCHC and Hb values were observed among male and female pheasants. Significantly, higher values of lymphocytes, monocytes and PCV were observed in males while higher basophil count was observed in female as compared to male birds. Significantly higher values for ALP, cholesterol, total serum protein and creatinine were observed in males while higher uric acid values were observed in females as compared to male P. colchicus. However, non-significant differences in albumin were recorded among male and female birds.
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Assessment Of Avian And Mammalian Diversity At Selected Sites Along River Chenab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab province and the tree plantations around the
river are the part of tropical thorn forest. But as a consequence of deforestation much of the
natural forested areas have been turned to agricultural land. The main objective of study was to
assess the avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; to identify and assess anthropogenic
impacts on avian and mammalian diversity of the study area; and to explore the level of humanwildlife
conflict selected sites of river Chenab i.e. district Sialkot, district Gujrat and district
Gujranwala from May, 2013 through April. Surveys were made during dawn (5:00 am to 8:00
am) and dusk (4:00 pm to 7:00 pm).
During the waterfowl study recorded 51 species belonging to 33 genera, 16 families and 8 orders
were recorded from the study area. Throughout the year a total of 2531 birds from recorded from
head Marala, 2026 from the head Khanki and 2230 from head Qadirabad. Diversity indices were
analyzed through statistical software PAST version 2.17 C. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index
at head Marala was 2.62, at head Khanki it was 2.64 while at head Qadirabad it was 2.78. It can
be concluded from the present study that the River Chenab is waterfowl rich and should be
declared as protected site for waterfowls.
The study area was divided into different habitat types on the basis of vegetation and
urbanization and was designated as forest habitat (FH), wetland habitat (WLH), rural forest
habitat (RFH), agriculture habitat (AH), agriculture rural habitat (ARH), urban non vegetative
habitat (UNVH) and urban vegetative habitat (UVH). A linear count method was applied and
data was collected through direct and indirect observations. Habitat preference of the birds varied
f declined from forested habitats to the urban landscapes. It can be concluded from the study that
many of the avian species are habitat specific and the connection/corridors between similar
habitat types might be fruitful for the conservation of avian species.
The anthropogenic impacts and habitat preferences of mammalian species along river Chenab,
Pakistan was also assessed the mammalian diversity was recorded along forested landscapes,
cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of
various mammalian species was collected through point count method viz. direct observation
(personal count and record voices) and indirect observation (presences of carcasses, fecal pellet,
pug marks and meeting with local communities). The habitat preferences of large, medium and
small mammals varied significantly. A decline in mammalian diversity was observed from forest
habitat to urban landscapes. Indian wild boar, Asiatic jackal, Indian fox, jungle cat, Indian
pangolin and long eared desert hedgehog preferred forested areas as well as slightly modified
habitats while Northern palm squirrel, house mouse, house shrew and rat species preferred
human habitations. Similarly, few species such as the small Indian mongoose, Soft-furred field
rat, short tailed mole rat, Asiatic jackal and Indian gerbil preferred cultivated areas. It can be
concluded that many of the mammalian species are habitat specific and corridors and
connections between different landscapes are important for the conservation of mammalian
Medicinal and cultural significance of avian species along the River Chenab were assessed
through Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP). One hundred and nine
persons were interviewed and data regarding socio-economic status of the respondents,
qualitative data on cultural significance from three selected districts. The compiled data are
analyzed using different quantitative tools, such as relative frequency of mention (RFM),
fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level RPL and rank order priority (ROP). Out of total 155
avian species recorded from the study area, 28 have medical importance while local people were
using feathers of almost all the bird species for making different toys. Ten species were most
popular and highest RFM values (0.58) were recorded for house sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Similarly, highest FL values (100%) were recorded for house sparrow (P. domesticus) and
domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). These studies indicated that the area is rich in avian diversity
and many of these species have medical and cultural significance for the locales.
Mammals are source of food and medication for humans from ancient times. A survey was
conducted along the Rver Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan and 109 persons were interviewed to
investigate the extent of human dependency on mammalian species of the area. A total of 30
mammalian species were recorded from the study area. Highest relatively frequency of mention
(RFM) values (0.5) were observed for desert hare, Lepus migricollis dayanus while maximum
(100%) fidelity level (FL) was recorded for cow Bos gaurus, sheep Ovis aries and cat Felis
domesticus. Seven species were most popular. It can be concluded from present survey that local
people have strong association with mammalian species of the study area and dependent for
food and medicines on these species. In depth studies are recommended to explore medicinal
importance of the species.
The study area was part of tropical thorn forest but a larger portion has been changed into
agricultural land or human habitations. Data regarding socio-economic value of area, financial
losses to crops and livestock, peoples’ attitude and tolerance towards wildlife, protection
methods for livestock and crops from predators and profile of 150 respondents were collected
through a questionnaire. The age of the respondents was between 20 to 65 years, out of them
54% were literate, 99% were Muslims and all these respondents were from different professions
viz. farmers (32%), livestock managers (37%) and others (31%). Most of the respondents (52%)
were unaware about the role of wild species in ecosystem, certain respondents (28%) disliked
wild species in their areas and 20% respondents had positive view about wildlife in the area. The
collected data revealed that crops are mostly damaged by the Indian wild boar (42%), Asiatic
jackal (34%), diseases (11%), Indian crested porcupine (6%) and others (7%) including rats,
squirrels, crows and sparrows. Similarly, the livestock animals are affected mostly by diseases
(36%), Asiatic jackal (34%), jungle cat (10%), Indian fox and others (6%) including raptor birds.
Most of the respondents were of the view that wildlife is declining in the area.
The River Chenab is an important wetland of Punjab, Pakistan. Water of the river is becoming
pollutedt due to anthropogenic impact i.e. industrial waste, urbanization, agriculture
intensification. The main objectives of the study were to know the diversity and distribution of
fish species of river Chenab. Both, direct and indirect methods were applied to find out fish
diversity of the area. The diversity indices were analyzed through statistical software PAST
version 2.17 C. During the sampling 34 species was recorded from the river Chenab. The
diversity indices indicate that higher diversity is present at the head Qadirabad than head Khanki
and Marala. The reason is that there is present large number of natural and manmade ponds;
during the flood these pond fishes move to the river further eggs and fingerlings move to rivers
through birds and fisherman.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2520-T] (1).
Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the
turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226
million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US
during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared
turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the
factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the
public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the
information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds.
Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which
mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat.
Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when
compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source
of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout
of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption.
A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four
groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP
and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2
(T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with
T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight
gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth
43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length
47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were
recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3
diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters
of egg were also analyzed.
The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and
confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month
of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent
relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%),
preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility
(2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement
rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71),
preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%),
feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It
was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent
significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the
birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals,
therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M.
Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys
Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared.
There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor
treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while
in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 ×
20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to
them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected
from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared,
weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower
than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied
significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant
differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined
turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared
in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences
in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher
juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared
Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and
hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of
natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the
genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups,
each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds
were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis.
Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and
morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal
spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80%
followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects
6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability
percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%.
Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys
(Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range,
semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations
were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher
values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL,
total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L
were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher
104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical
parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07
mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing
system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds
reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations
33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing
system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were
recorded for all the three rearing systems.
Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were
recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum.
However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the
genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly
influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2530-T] (1).
Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) Of Malakand Division, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 in three districts (Malakand, Dir and Swat) of Malakand Division. A total of 49 stations were sampled for bats where total 1982 bats were recorded. A total of 21 species of bats belonging to six families, fourteen genera were recorded. These includes the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus), the greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx), the fulvous fruit bat (Rousettus leschenaultia), the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum), the lesser mouse tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickii), the greater false vampire (Megaderma lyra), the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), the Blyth‟s horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus Lepidus), the fulvous leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros fulvus), the Hodgson‟s bat (Myotis formosus), the Asian barbastelle (Barbastella leucomelas), the Asiatic greater yellow house bat (Scotophilus heathii), the Asiatic lesser yellow house bat (Scotophilus kuhlii), the serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), the javan pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus), the coromandel pipistrelle (Pipistrellus coromandra), the least pipistrelle (Pipistrellus tenuis), the Dormer‟s bat (Pipistrellus dormeri), the desert yellow bat (Scotoecus pallidus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) were recorded throughout the study area.
M. formosus was common to all the three districts while B. leucomelas and P. pipistrellus were captured only from Dir district. The Hodgson‟s bat (M. formosus) and the Schreiber‟s long-fingered bat (M. fuliginosus) were captured from Malakand and Swat districts. The skeleton of C. sphinx was recorded only from adjacent area of Malakand district. The Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was not previously recorded from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while it has been reported from Punjab and Sindh province of the country. There are only six species which has
previously been reported from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while thirteen bats were newly recorded from the study area. Only two bats were newly recorded for the first time in the country.
The mean forearm length of the three P. giganteus was 152.23 mm ± 3.72 (SD). The mean greatest skull length was 65.96 mm ± 1.42 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 24.91 mm ± 0.84 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 50.78 mm ± 0.87 (SD) and 27.41 mm ± 0.66 (SD), respectively.
The thumb and forearm length of one C. sphinx was 25.80 mm and 65.48 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull was 32.20 mm. The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 10.86 mm and 12.64 mm. The mandible was 24.75 mm long.
The mean forearm and thumb of R. leschenaultii was 80.23 mm ± 3.26 (SD) and 27.79 mm ± 1.22 (SD), long, respectively. The mean greatest skull length was 36.97 mm ± 1.11 (SD). The mean mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 28.95 mm ± 0.90 (SD), 14.08 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 15.51 mm ± 0.47 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of three R. microphyllum was 8.80 mm ± 0.95 (SD) and 67.45 mm ± 4.60 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull was 20.15 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 7.30 mm ± 0.18 (SD), 8.11 mm ± 0.11 (SD) and 14.38 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. hardwickii was 8.23 mm ± 0.38 (SD) and 59.90 mm ± 1.21 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the four specimens was 18.20 mm ± 0.48 (SD). The maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were 6.08 mm ± 0.07 (SD) and 6.72 mm ± 0.13 (SD), respectively. The mandible length was measured as 12.38 mm ± 0.0.23 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. lyra was 11.80 mm ± 0.44 (SD) and 70.06 mm ± 0.69 (SD), respectively. Mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 29.60 mm ± 0.46
(SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 11.40 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 11.94 mm ± 0.04 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 20.04 mm ± 0.03 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of R. ferrumequinum was 4.01 mm ± 0.01 (SD) and 60.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 23.35 mm ± 0.20 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 9.18 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.86 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.33 mm ± 0.13 (SD).
The mean thumb and forearm length of R. lepidus was 3.87 mm ±0.13 (SD) and 38.02 mm ± 0.63 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 15.94 mm ± 0.15 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.86 mm ± 0.02 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.57 mm ± 0.64 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 10.34 mm ± 0.04 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of H. fulvus was 4.91 mm ± 0.17 (SD) and 41.41 mm ± 0.97 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the thirteen specimens was 18.45 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.50 mm ± 0.14 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 6.96 mm ± 0.18 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 11.73 mm ± 0.14 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. formosus was 9.26 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 48.74 mm ± 2.02 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the three specimens was 17.81 mm ± 0.12 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.15 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.80 mm ± 0.05 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.85 mm ± 0.07 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of B. leucomelas was 5.65 mm and 42.88 mm, respectively. The tragus height was 10.32 mm. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 15.87 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.91 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.43 mm. The mandible length was measured as 10.02 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. heathii was 9.06 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 62.25 mm ± 1.76 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the nine specimens was 23.12 mm ± 0.46 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.87 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 8.93 mm ± 0.16 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 16.62 mm ± 0.19 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. kuhlii was 7.01 mm ± 1.41 (SD) and 50.06 mm ± 7.13 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the two specimens was 19.24 mm ± 0.71 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 6.49 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 7.42 mm ± 0.01 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 13.78 mm ± 0.47 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of E. serotinus was 8.92 mm ± 0.32 (SD) and 53.37 mm ± 1.39 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the fifteen specimens was 21.40 mm ± 0.70 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 7.84 mm ± 0.21 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 9.28 mm ± 1.95 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 15.51 mm ± 1.94 (SD).
Thumb and forearm length of P. pipistrellus was 4.01 mm and 31.06 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 12.14 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.22 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 4.45 mm. The mandible length was measured as 8.27 mm.
Thumb and forearm length of P. javanicus was 4.02 mm and 32.01 mm, respectively. The greatest length of skull of a single specimen was 13.13 mm. The maxillary toothrow length was 4.60 mm. The mandibular toothrow length was 5.20 mm. The mandible length was measured as 9.46 mm.
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. coromandra was 4.70 mm ± 0.45 (SD) and 32.28 mm ± 1.17 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the eight specimens was 12.67 mm
± 0.40 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 4.44 mm ± 0.24 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.74 mm ± 0.23 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 9.13 mm ± 0.46 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. tenuis was 4.43 mm ± 0.47 (SD) and 29.24 mm ± 1.03 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the 23 specimens was 11.56 mm ± 0.25 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 3.87 mm ± 0.09 (SD). The mandibular toothrow length was 4.10 mm ± 0.06 (SD). The mandible length was measured as 7.89 mm ± 0.60 (SD).
Mean thumb and forearm length of P. dormeri was 5.28 mm ± 0.70 (SD) and 34.30 mm ± 1.25 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of the skull was 13.77 mm ± 0.11 (SD). The mandible, maxillary and mandibular toothrow length were measured as 10.53 mm ± 0.09 (SD), 5.33 mm ± 0.02 (SD) and 5.56 mm ± 0.07 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of S. pallidus was 6.26 mm ± 0.41 (SD) and 36.83 mm ± 0.42 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the twenty two specimens was 15.00 mm ± 0.26 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.66 mm ± 0.10 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 11.35 mm ± 0.23 (SD) and 6.11 mm ± 0.12 (SD), respectively.
Mean thumb and forearm length of M. fuliginosus bat was 6.61 mm ± 0.43 (SD) and 37.59 mm ± 5.37 (SD), respectively. The mean greatest length of skull of the six specimens was 14.48 mm ± 0.58 (SD). The maxillary toothrow length was 5.32 mm ± 0.39 (SD). The mandible and mandibular toothrow length were 10.54 mm ± 0.65 (SD) and 5.71 mm ± 0.49 (SD), respectively.
1. Bat surveys. This is the first extensive exploration of that small portion of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which comprises of only three districts of Malakand Division i.e. Malakand, Dir and Swat. Although more focus remained towards Malakand district, six families, fourteen genera, twenty one species were identified. Moreover, two new country
records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) were also explored. Further bat surveys in poorly surveyed parts of the country especially in KPK and Baluchistan may result in identification of some other new bat taxa. More bat surveys involving greater field efforts may also confirm the presence or absence of those already described from the country.
2. Distribution ranges and species specific habitat analysis. Presence of thirteen new locality records (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinopoma hardwickii, Megaderma lyra, Rhinolophus Lepidus, Hipposideros fulvus, Barbastella leucomelas, Scotophilus heathii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus javanicus, Pipistrellus dormeri and Scotoecus pallidus) and two new country records (Myotis formosus and Miniopterus fuliginosis) gives credence to the idea that distribution ranges of most of the bat species has change over the past sixty years. Thus serious scientific studies are needed to redefine distribution ranges and identify species specific habitats using global positioning system and radio-telemetric studies.
3. Reconfirmation of bat taxonomy. Genetic analysis of none of the bat species of the country has been made using molecular markers thus leaving behind a chance to doubt identification of cryptic bat species. Thus molecular genetic studies of all the bat species of the country is highly recommended which may also lead to the discovery of such bat taxa which are new to science.
4. Bat call library. The only bat detector (Patterson D 1000X) present in the country fell down from my hand in a water body and became out of order. So none of the bat could be recorded. Bat call analysis has boosted bat identification throughout the world but the
lack of such sophisticated equipment in the country has become a major bottle neck in the establishment of a bat call library.
5. Awareness campaigns. Majority of the countrymen are unaware of the ecological services rendered by bats. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the major fruit growing region of the country. Based on misperceptions, the locals consider all bats as vermin and kill them ruthlessly. Conservation education to highlight the significance of bats must be included in the curriculum of children at primary school level so that they may adopt a pro-conservation attitude in the first few years of their personality building.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2610-T] (1).