Patho-Morphological Studies Of Reproductive Tract Disorders In Cattle And Buffalo
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Reproductive tract disorders like endometritis, pyometra, follicular cysts, leuteal cysts etc have been reported as major causes of low conception rate and poor productivity of livestock. Reproductive tract lesions in cattle and buffaloes play an important role in animal breeding either by causing infertility or sterility of animals resulting in high economic losses. Besides of other reasons, presence of different types of bacteria inside the uterus of breeding animals causes deleterious effects on the reproductive tracts causing severe disorders and ultimately leads to failure of pregnancy. All these microbes results in the infection of uterus that ultimately affects animal's conception rate.
A total 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle (n=40) and buffaloes (n=60) were randomly collected from Lahore abattoir, Sherakot to study the impact of bacteria on the reproductive tracts, efficacy of variety of antibiotics on different bacterial isolates, gross and histopathological lesions. The swab samples for bacteriology were processed for purification and identification of bacterial isolates by doing number of conventional tests for final characterization and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity was performed. In this study seven different bacterial isolates were identified from all the samples. These include: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species, Aeromonas species, Micrococcus species and Lactobacillus species. By the analysis of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity, all eight different species of bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chlortetracycline. Contrary to these, all bacteria were 100 % resistant to Bacitracin followed by Sulphaphenazole, Ticarcillin/Clavulanic acid and Trimethoprim.
Out of the total 100 reproductive tracts of cattle and buffaloes collected randomly, 54 showed lesions with different severity. Most of the lesions were uterine hemorrhages followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, leuteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine tumors. These lesions were observed slightly higher in number in buffaloes than in cows. Tissue samples of reproductive tracts were processed for histopathology and histopathological lesions were observed under microscope at 4X, 10X and 40X.
Histopathological lesions in endometritis were hemorrhages in stratum compactum, very thick blood vessels, congestion, necrosis and degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells. While in metritis, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue, infilteration of inflammatory cells and mononuclear cells in the myometrium were observed.
In pyometra samples, thick layer of exudate on the surface of endometrium, severe infilteration of mononuclear cells, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, necrosis of endometrial glands and glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissues in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, infiltration of polymorphs mononuclear cells were observed in stratum functionalis.
In uterine lymphoma, tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen.
In conclusion, out of 100 reproductive tracts of slaughtered cattle and buffaloes were examined and gross lesions were found 54% including uterine hemorrhages 20% followed by pyometra, para-ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, luteal cysts, follicular cysts and uterine lymphoma as 17, 8, 3, 3, 2 and 1%, respectively. The bacteria isolated from reproductive tracts in cattle and buffaloes were Escherichia coli 100% followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus species, Corynebacterium species and Aeromonas species as 51, 47, 40, 34, 24 and 5%, respectively. In endometritis, PMN cells, thickening of endometrium, congestion, very thick blood vessels, degeneration of endometrial glands, glandular tissue fully filled with mononuclear cells, completely destroyed secretary epithelial cells, intact endometrial mucosa, proliferation of connective tissue and hemorrhages are observed while in pyometra, sloughing of endometrial mucosa, glands filled with heavy population of mononuclear cells, proliferation of fibrous connective tissue in between endometrial glands, many macrophages are also present, congestion and degeneration of endometrial glands was seen. Tumor tissue was in follicular pattern, neoplastic cells variable in size and having round nucleus, many mitotic figures present, and stroma consisted of broad irregular bands of collagen.
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