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1. Induction Of Ovulatory Oestrus In Non Cycling Buffalo Heifers During Summer

by Iqbal Rahim | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Late maturity in buffalo is one of the major problem which limits its overall productive and reproductive performance. Summer anoestrus plays role to delay the onset of puberty. The present study was therefore conducted to induce oestrus in non-cycling buffalo heifers during summer. Eighteen healthy non-cycling buffalo heifers with 431.38±41.5 kg body weight and 1190.44±170.92 days of age were utilized. These animals were randomly divided into three equal groups viz; group A, B and C; each comprising of 6 animals. Heifers in group A were inserted an ear implant containing (3 mg norgestomet) for 9 days and an injection of oestradiol valerate at implant insertion. At implant withdrawal 700 IU of PMSG was administered intramuscularly. Later these animals were inseminated twice at 12 and 20 hours after the onset of oestrus. The heifers in group B were given 2 injections of 500 pg cloprotenol (2 cc estrumate) at 11 days interval and were given fixed time insemination at 72 and 96 hours after second injection. The heifers in group C received no treatment and served as controls. The animals in oestrus from group C were inseminated at 12 and 20 hours after the onset of oestrus. The rectal palpation was performed for ovarian structures twice in a week for two consecutive weeks and at oestrus for follicular development and on day 8 and 10 after oestrus for corpus luteum. Pregnancy was diagnosed on day 60 post insemination. Blood samples were collected on day 8 and 10 after oestrus for progesterone estimation. Progesterone concentration was estimated by enzyme immuno assay technique. All the heifers in group A exhibited oestrus within 49.83 ± 12.65 hours; after PMSG injection. No animal from group B exhibited oestrus whereas only one heifers from control group C exhibited oestrus. The duration of oestrus in buffalo heifers treated with Norgestomet ear implant was 18.00 ± 0.30 hours. The only heifer from group C remained in oestrus for 20 hours. Only one animal (16.66%) conceived at induced oestrus in group A. None of the animal from group B and C became pregnant. Progesterone levels were found to be indicative of ovarian activity in experimental animals. Plasma progesterone concentration of 0.61 ± 0.16 ng/ml was observed on day 8 and 10 in animals showing inovulatory oestrus from group A whereas progesterone values of 5.2 and 0.7 ng/ml were observed in ovulating animals, exhibiting the presence of active corpus luteum. Low progesterone levels of 0.62 ± 0.17 ng/ml were observed in heifers from group B showing the non functional status of the ovarian. Plasma progesterone levels of 5.2 and 7.5 ng/ml was observed on day 8 and 10 after insemination in the only heifers from the control group C. The remaining 5 animals were having smooth ovaries with basal levels of plasma progesterone (0.53_+ 0.9ng/ml). In conculsion Norgestome treatment was found to be effective for induction of oestrus in buffalo heifers during summer. However studies whoud be undertaken to determine the reasons of lower conception rate. Prostaglandin (PGF2a) treatment was found ineffective in noncycling true anoestrus buffalo heifers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0424,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (Gnrh) On Post Partum Ovarian Activity In Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Akhlaq Tabassam | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Dr. Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Sixteen pluriparus Nili-Ravi buffaloes at 30-35 days postpartum were used. These buffaloes were randomly divided into 2 groups i.e. viz A and B GnRH treated and control group (n=8). A group received single injection of 200jg GnRH and B group served as control. Blood sample were collected on the days 0 (first day of experiment) 4 and 8 of the experiment. At day 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 in control and treated groups the average size of follicles were 0.91±0.12 and 1.2±0.28 1.1±0.2 cm, 0.6±0.2 cm and 1.9±0.2, 0.37±0.17cm 1.87±0.3, 1.36±0.27, 1.4±0.24, 1.37±0.22, 1.35±0.24, 1.26±2.0 cm respectively. The average number of follicles in GnRH treated and control buffaloes were 1.5±0.17, 1.62±0.16, 1.5±0.21, 0.62±0.32, 1.5±0.3 and 0.37±0.17, 1.5±0.18, 1.5±0.18, 1.75±0.16, 1.36±0.15, 1.37±0.27, 1.25±0.18 at day 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 respectively. Two animal from treated group responded to GnRH and showed a rise in serum progesterone concentration 0.81, 3.40, 3.44 and .101, 2.93, 3.00 ng/ml at day 0, 4 and 8 respectively. One animal from control group showed a rise in P4 at day 4 only In GnRH group animal exhibited oestrus during 76.5±6.31 days of postpartum. In control group animal exhibited oestrus at 89.7±7.32 days of postpartum. From the present study it is concluded that GnRH treatment at 35 days postpartum can initiate cyclic ovarian activity, and GnRH can be used for luteinization of large follicle present on the ovary\ reduction in calving interval and postpartum interval to oestrus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0441,T] (1).

3. Induction Of Oestrus In Non Cycling Nili Ravi Buffalo Heifers

by Hafeez Khan, A | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Twenty one non-cycling Nili-Ravi buffalo hcifers with mean (± S.E) age of 31.71 ± 1.32 months and body weight of 417.61 ± 11.26 Kg were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals in group A were injected 700 IU PMSG intramuscularly. Whereas, animals in group B (n=7) were treated with 1400 IU of PMSG. Animals in group C (n7) were administered 2 CC normal saline, which served as controls. Animals in oestrus were naturally bred with progeny tested bulls. Blood samples were collected before treatment, at oestrus and 10 days after oestrus for plasma progesterone estimation. Rectal palpations were done before treatment, at oestrus, 10 days after oestrus for ovarian structures and on day 60 post breeding for pregnancy diagnosis. All the buffalo heifers in group A and B exhibited oestrus following treatment with 700 and 1400 IU of PMSG. Three animals from group C (42.85%) showed oestrus. The time from treatment to the onset of oestrus differed non significantly and was 6.14 ± 0.56, 6.00 ± 0.45 and 6.66 ± 0.47 days for groups A, B and C, respectively. No difference was observed towards expression of oestrus symptoms with varying doses of PMSG. The behavioural symptoms and physical changes i.e. frequent urination, acceptance to male, vulvalar sniffing of other females or allowing others to sniff, mucus discharge, vulvalar swelling and uterine tone were found indicative of oestrus in experimental heifers. The duration of oestrus also differed non significantly among the groups. This duration was 22.00 ± 2.01; 27.71 ± 1 .67 and 19.66 ± 0.98 hours for groups A, B and C, respectively. Three animals from group A (n=7) conceived at induced oestrus. Whereas, no heifer from group B setteled at induced oestrus. Four animals showed next oestrus and two of them conceived. Three animals from group C exhibited oestrus and one of them conceived, rest of the animals remained non cyclic. The overall conception rates were 42.85, 28.57 and 14.28 percent for groups A, B and C, respectively. Progesterone levels were found representative of ovarian activity in all the groups. Basal levels (> 0.5 ng/ml) of plasma progesterone were observed with smooth ovaries. Higher values for plasma progesterone ranging between 0.95 ± 0.02 to 5.68 ± 0.22 ng/ml were observed in cycling and pregnant animals reprsenting functional corpus lutuem. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0461,T] (1).

4. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

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