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1. Detection Of Brucellosis In Sheep And Goats By Serum Agglutination Test (Sat) And Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr)

by Dr. Imran Zafar | Dr. M. Younus Rana | Dr. Matu-ur-Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: In the current research project, a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized by using omp 31 (outer membrane protein) DNA amplification and Serum agglutination test (SAT) was also evaluated for the species specific diagnosis of the brucellosis in sheep and goats. Blood and serum samples from two hundred and fifty sheep and goats each were collected aseptically at different sheep and goat farms of Punjab Pakistan. Before performing Serum agglutination test (SAT), Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was performed as a screening test. RBPT screening of serum revealed nine (3.6%) positive samples out of two hundred and fifty sheep and goats. Out of nine positive samples, five (55.55 %) goats and four (44.44 %) sheep were positive. RBPT positive samples were further carried to Serum agglutination test (SAT). Out of nine positive samples, six (66.66 %) remained positive when SAT was applied but other three (33.33 %) samples gave the dilution below 1:40 which is considered to be negative (Alton et., al 1988). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on the blood samples. Genomic DNA was extracted by using Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Vivantis). The PCR was performed in a 50 µl reaction mixture. The tubes containing PCR mix were subjected to amplification cycles in a thermocycler after adjusting the amplification conditions. After completion of the amplification cycles, the PCR product was characterized by 1.2 % agarose gel electrophoresis along with 100 bp DNA ladder to estimate the size of the PCR product and the gel was photographed with a Polaroid camera. PCR gave eight (3.2%) positive results. It was concluded from current study that polymerase chain reaction is a superior and sensitive test as compared to Serum agglutination test (SAT). The test is comparatively sensitive and can detect the brucella in cases of low bacteremia when they don't produce enough antibodies to be detected by other serological tests. The results of the study confirm that a polymerase chain reaction for brucellosis can provide with a sensitive and appropriate diagnostic tool. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1190,T] (1).

2. Differntial Diagnosis Of Malaria And Dengue Fever On The Basis Of Clinical Findings And Laboratory Investigations

by Aqeel Ahmad | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana | Dr. Muti ur Rehman | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: I took two hundred (200) patients in total for purpose of my study. I included all cases with pyrexia of unknown origin with chills and rigors with 6-7 days history. These cases were first evaluated for Malaria by making their thin and thick films for malarial parasites. There were thirty patients out of two hundred who were positive for malarial parasites. There complete blood picture was done that is RBC count, Heamogolobin percentage, platelet count, WBC count and ESR. The cases who were negative from malaria were further evaluated for dengue viral infection by doing capture ELISA 1gM. Before doing ELISA 1gM dengue strip method test was done and the cases who were positive on strip (Paper Chromatography) were included in 1gM ELISA study. The cases that were positive for 1gM ELISA were studied for same blood investigation which was mentioned earlier. It was also found that there had been some incidence of dual dengue infection and malaria and the incidence rate was 2%. Now after collecting the data it was analyzed by SPSS. It was inferred afterwards from the data that all the patients +ve for dengue 1gM had been facing with low platelet count increased reticulocyte count, increased hemoglobin, decreased WBC and no significant effect on ESR had been seen. About 83% of dengue 1gM patients were having decrease platelet count. This thrombocytopenia varies from person to person and an inverse relationship has been found between dengue 1gM and platelet of the patients. The intensity of thromobocytopenia was more in old age patients or in patients with poor health status or in those patients in which tire of anti dengue 1gM was very high. This thromobocytopenia can be used as a diagnostic tool in addition to clinical history in patients who live in periphery where the facility of ELISA is not available. The rise in platelet number indicates recovery of the patients and it should be monitored daily till the complete recovery of patients is achieved. The rise in hemoglobin concentration has also been noticed due to hemo concentration about 76% of patients with anti dengue 1gM positive were having elevated level of hemoglobin that is ranging from 17-19 gram/dl. The increase in RBC count has also been noticed in association with increased hemoglobin concentration a mild fall in WBC count has also been noticed i-e upto 4000 in 76% of the patients. In those patients who were +ve for malarial parasites and negative for dengue 1gM, such changes in blood pictures were not appreciated although the vector of both diseases is same but AD's mosquitoes which is the carrier of dengue virus (an ARBO virus) causes more severe form of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1198,T] (1).

3. Toxico-Pathological And Hematological Study In Japanese ( Coturnix Coturnix Japonica ) Exposed To Ochratoxin A And Aflatoxin B

by Muhammad shahzad | Dr. Muti-ur-rehman khan | Dr. kamran | Dr. M. younus rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolite toxins produced by fungi in or on grains, cereals and nuts used as feed in the poultry industry. Mycotoxicity in birds has been well documented and its severity increases in combination with other toxins. The study determined synergistic pathological responses in quail chicks when fed different level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Ochratoxin A (OTA). A total of 245 quails chicks were divided into seven groups (G1-G7) having 35 quail chicks in each. OTA mixed feed was fed to quail chicks at a dose rate of 1 and 1.5 ppm in G1 and G2 respectively. G3 were fed 2 ppm OTA + 1 ppm AFB1. AFB1 was offered in the feed at a level of 1 and 1.5 ppm in G4 and G5 respectively. G6 birds were fed 2 ppm AFB1 + 1 ppm OTA while G7 acted as a control. All the birds offered toxin free basal diet for first 7 days. Day 7 was considered zero day of experiment. At this day chicks shifted to different groups of 35 each (G1-G7). Group G7 was control group and offered toxin free diet. Birds were monitored twice daily for clinical signs. Randomly selected six birds from each group were slaughtered at day 14, 21, and 28. Blood samples with and without anticoagulant were collected for hematological and biochemical studies respectively. Morbid tissue of liver, kidney, and intestine were collected for histopathological studies. The OTA groups developed anemia manifested by a significant decrease in the red blood cell count, packed cell volume percentage and hemoglobin concentration, while increase erythrocyte sedimentation rate at the end of the experiment all groups showed significant reduction in red blood cell count. This reduction was found to increase with time proportionally to the level of OTA and AFB1 alone or in combination exposure. Clinical signs in chicks administered AFB1 and OTA included depression, decreased feed intake and decreased body weight. Severity in clinical signs was dose related. Pathological lesions in liver of these chicks were hemorrhages, fatty change, centrilobular necrosis and periportal fibrosis. Microscopically, liver showed vacuolation, fatty change, congestion and individual cell necrosis. Kidney of these chicks included pyknotic changes in the epithelium of proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Severe necrotic changes in the collecting ducts and accumulation of pink homogenous material in the lumen of tubules. Intestine showed hemorrhages, edema, degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells were observed. OTA damaged intestinal mucosa more severely than AFB1. Serum biochemical study indicated a significant decrease in total serum proteins and increase in urea and creatinine. It is concluded that AFB1 and OTA are capable of inducing hematological and histopathological alterations in quail chicks at higher dietary concentrations, either individually or in combination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1301,T] (1).

4. Clinico- Pathological Studies Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens

by Hafiz Muhammad Anwar- ul- Haq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study was carried out on total of 310 samples. Out of these samples, 200 were the blood samples (100 from the diseased birds and 100 from the apparently healthy birds), second were the tissue samples of liver which were 80 in number (50 from the ascitic birds and 30 from the apparently healthy birds). Then 20 were the water samples (10 from the source of water production and remaining 10 were from the drinking levels of the birds) and 10 feed samples. Samples were collected from randomly selected ten (10) broiler poultry farms in the district Gujranwala having the problem of ascites. The study was completed in four parts. In first part, serum biochemical parameters of liver were studied. The included parameters were total serum proteins, albumins, globulins, A/G ratio and SGPT. In second part of project, mineral profiles of serum concentrations were studied. Then in third part of the study, the collected, feed and water samples were analyzed for their dietary mineral levels. Sodium, potassium and chloride were the minerals, selected for study. Studies of the mineral profiles of feed and water samples were conducted at the Department of Nutrition, U.V.A.S. Lahore. Then the correlation was studied between the dietary mineral levels present in the feed and water, to the mineral levels exhibiting in the serum samples. On the basis of mineral levels present in the feed, water and serum samples, it was concluded that the Na and chloride may contribute to the development of ascities as the results were significant (P>0.05) but the role of K in this regard was not seemed to be significant (P<0.05) thus it may not has any significant contribution in the development of ascites syndrome. In fourth and last part of study, histopathology of the tissue samples was conducted. In this part of study, the tissue samples, collected from liver of ascitic birds and apparently healthy birds were subjected to histopathology and microscopic examination for significant changes. Histopathological studies showed that the hepatic degeneration, hepatic necrosis and fibrosis of the hepatic capsule were the common findings in the diseased group. The study elucidated the marked decrease of serum proteins including the total serum proteins and albumin while it was observed that the ascites syndrome has no significant effect on the enzyme assays of the liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1326,T] (1).

5. Histopathological Investigation Of Pleuropneumonia In Buffaloes Caused By Mycoplasma Bovis

by Ayesha Rabail | Dr. Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. M Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009-2011Dissertation note: This study was conducted by keeping in view the worldwide importance of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pneumonia and many other diseases, as it causes great economic losses to bovine industry. In the current project the incidence of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pleuropneumonia was studied, and its respective histopathological changes in lungs of the pneumonic adult buffaloes and buffalo calves were examined. 100 lung samples for this purpose (50 lung samples from adult buffaloes and 50 lung samples from buffalo calves) were collected from the Lahore Bakar Mandi Abbatoir. Samples were collected on the basis of following criteria: Red hepatization, grey hepatization, multifocal abscess, necrotic lung tissue. These samples were then divided into two portions, one half placed in 10% buffered formalin in the bottles and other half kept in sterile polythene bag. The portion of lungs for bacteriological study was kept in ice box. Histopathological procedure was performed in the pathology department of University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences Lahore. The samples were subjected to histopathological procedures and then slides were observed microscopically for the changes. Microscopically pulmonary odema, consolidation, caseous necrosis, abscess infiltration of mononuclear cells, plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils infiltration were observed. For culturing of Mycoplasma bovis PPLO broth was prepared and samples were inoculated in the broth medium. At 7th day of inoculation the yellow color of the broth medium appeared which was indicative of positive samples. 30% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 36% in buffalo calves were obtained. These samples were then inoculated on the PPLO agar plates for further precision of results. On agar plates typical colonies of the Mycoplasma were observed under bright field compound microscope and 60% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 66% in buffalo calves were obtained. Next step towards the confirmation of Mycoplasma bovis was specific acridine staining, in which positive of Mycoplasma bovis samples gave dull yellow to colorless appearance of yellow broth medium and gave egg fried colony on agar. 78% adult buffalo and 67% buffalo calves showed positive results. These samples were then subjected to final confirmatory test which was growth inhibition disk test, in which hyper immune sera was raised in rabbits and filter paper disks soaked in this sera were used to check the zone of inhibition on cultured agar plates. 70% positive samples in adult buffaloes and 75% in buffalo calves were obtained which confirmed the presence of Mycoplasma bovis. CFU/ml of the positive samples calculated between 105-108. So the incidence of Mycoplasma bovis to cause pneumonia in adult buffaloes and buffalo calves calculated was (10% and 12%) respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1335,T] (1).

6. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Perferingens (Necrotic Enteritis) In Experimentally Infected

by Arif Mehmood | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1546,T] (1).

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