Your search returned 33 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. Antiviral And Cytotoxiv Oroperties Of Solybum Marianum Chenopodium Album And Nigella Sativa Against Peste Des

by Abid Ali | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1361,T] (1).

2. A Comparative Study Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Acacia Nilotica Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants

by Rizwana Raheel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1449,T] (1).

3. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Allium Sativum, Allium Cepa And Zingiber Officinale Against New Castle

by Azeem Ahmed Iqbal | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1453,T] (1).

4. In Vitro Evaluation Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Ginseng Root, Leaves Of Tulsi And Aloe Vera Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Misbah Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1457,T] (1).

5. Docking-Based Virtual Screening And Pharmacophore Studies To Explore Highly Selective Nuclear Factor Kappa

by Sher Muhammad Zaman | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1465,T] (1).

6. In Vitro Antiviral Activity Of Leaves Extracts Of Azadirachta Indica, Moringa Oleifera And Morus Alba Against Foot

by Ishrat Younus | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The project was designed to assess in vitro antiviral and cytotoxic activity of leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (AI), Moringa oleifera (MO) and Morus alba (MA) against Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV). Ethanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of each plant were obtained by soxhlet apparatus. Chloroformic extracts were dissolved in cell culture media with the help of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Eight concentrations 1 µg/ml, 6 µg/ml, 12 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml of each plant were used for both assays. Confluent BHK - 21 cells were grown in 96 well cell culture plates. Cells were treated by each concentration of extracts and extracts containing FMDV for cytotoxic and antiviral assay respectively in triplicate manner. Positive control (BHK-21 cells & cell culture media) and negative control (BHK-21 cells, FMDV & cell culture media) were kept for antiviral assay. For cytotoxic assay, positive and negative controls were kept as BHK-21 cells plus media and BHK-21 cells, media plus DMSO (20%) respectively. Cells viability and cytotoxic activity were determined by MTT assay for antiviral and cytotoxic assay respectively. Each extract was analyzed as cell survival percentage and expressed as means ± S.D. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA. Seven plants extracts out of nine, exhibited antiviral activity against FMDV at a concentration non toxic to BHK-21 cell line. Ethanolic AI extract showed strongest anti-FMDV activity. Chloroformic MO leaves extracts showed significant antiviral activity. Chloroformic and aqueous MA leaves extract had no remarkable antiviral activity. At higher concentrations most of the plant extracts were cytotoxic Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1478,T] (1).

7. Cytotoxic And Antiviral Evaluation Of Different Opuntia Species Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus In Vitro Cell

by Faryal Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1493,T] (1).

8. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Screening Of Tannery Effluent Wastewater

by Lubna Shakir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Over the last decade or so the chromium based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However the rule and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for the processing of effluent discharged by the tanneries. Consequently tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding area. This project was designed to evaluate the hazardous effects of tannery effluent wastewater (TEW) through various bioassays. During the first phase of the project, composition of the TEW samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Besides this, we have also investigated the impact of TEW on trace element content of ground water in Kasur tannery area. The ground water from shallow tubewells (100 to 300 ft) in the area has shown very high content of chromium while the ground water from the deeper tubewells (upto 600 ft) generally does not contain the toxic elements except for one outlet of the water supplied by the Muncipal Corporation. This could be due to corroded pipes in the tannery area. Microbial load was determined during second phase of this research project by viable count method. The detected viable count was 7.5 X 104 to 3.0 X 107CFU/ml. Various strains of chromium tolerant bacilli were isolated and they were found tolerant up to 2600 µg/ml supplemented chromium sulphate. During the third phase of this research plan, dilutions of TEW were evaluated for their effects on angiogenesis using CAM assay. TEWD1 and potassium dichromate were found highly anti-angiogenic. Moreover, dilutions of TEW and potassium dichromate have demonstrated significant toxicity when assessed through marine shrimps mortality assay and phytotoxiciy assasy. Chronic toxicity study on Wistar rats was conducted in the last phase. Chronic exposure of TEW for three months to rats leads to the development of various lesions in lung, liver, kidney and heart of rats. In short, TEW and contaminated ground water of Kasur is imposing a great threat not only to local inhabitants of the city but also to the population of far distance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1531,T] (1).

9. Vitro Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Testing Of Artemisinin, Digoxin And Silymarin

by Saran Siddique | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three drugs artemisinin, digoxin and silymarin were evaluated against vero cell lines in this study. Thesolution of drugs was prepared in phosphate buffer saline(PBS) after dissolving in DMSO. For cytoticity dilutions of these drugs were applied in triplicate manner on Vero cells that were confluent in 96 well cell culture plates. MTT (3-[4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide)assay was used for the cytotoxicity testing of these drugs and the cytotoxic doses of these drugs was 100µM for artemisinin, 100nM for digoxin and 380 µM for silymarin. After the cytotoxicity testing we also evaluated the genotoxic potential of these drugs against the same cell lines. For the genotoxicity testing we have used alkaline comet assay.For that base slides was prepared with normal melting agar and then a layer of pretreated cell suspension in low melting agar is used and after that another layer of low melting agar is coated on the last layer on the slides.Then lysis was carried out of the cells in lysing solution after that electrophoresis was done after that the slides was washed with neutralizing buffer and after that ethedium bromide stain is used and then slides were viewed under fluorescent microscope and we have observed that artemisinin showed genotoxic potential at 250µM, digoxin had shown genotoxic potential at 1000nM and silymarin have showngenotoxic potential at 500µM. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1568,T] (1).

10. Docing-Based Virtual Screening Studies For Ets-1 Inhibitors Using Indian Plant Anticancer

by Sara Mehreen | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study is designed to screen drug molecule against phosphorylation site of transcription factor Ets-1. Molecular docking was carried out by using AUTODOCK 4.02. One compound (Picrocrocin) was selected with binding energy of -4.23kcal/mol, making 3 hydrogen bonds with active site residues after molecular docking. Picrocrocin is present in saffron. Ethanolic extract of saffron stigmas was prepared and preserved in laboratory. CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) assay was performed. The aqueous solutions of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3%, 6%, and 12% of ethanolic extract of saffron were prepared. All of eight concentrations were applied to CAMs on fifth day of incubation of chick embryos. One group was treated as control receiving distilled water without any extract. The diameters of primary, secondary, tertiary blood vessels of control were 12µm, 8µm, 6µm respectively, for 2% treated samples values were 2µm, 1µm, 0.3 µm respectively and for 3% treated samples diameter was 3µm, 2 µm, and 1 µm respectively. Area of abbott curves for control, 2% and 3% treated samples were 0.0545 mm², 0.0538 mm² and 0.0540 mm² respectively. At 25 & 3% concentrations, values roughness parameters were lowest of all other samples. The present study results with discovery of novel antiangiogenic compound that is constituent of plant saffron. Inhibitory effect of saffron on cell reproduction, cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenic effect presents saffron as efficient candidate in cancer chemotherapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1572,T] (1).

11. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Terminalia Citrina Fruit In Mice.

by Ammara Saleem | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1589,T] (1).

12. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Fruit Of Grewia Asiatica

by Bushra Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1591,T] (1).

13. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory And Analgesic Potential Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Thuja Orientalis In Albino Rats

by Muhammad Zahid Tanveer | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study in vivo anti-inflammatory assay, central analgesic assay and peripheral analgesic estimation of methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis was performed by using carrageenan induced paw oedema model, hotplate test and acetic acid induced writhing test on albino rats, respectively. For anti-inflammatory assay, the experimental animals were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals and three groups of six animals were arranged each for central and peripheral analgesic evaluation. In all groups of animals in antiinflammatory assay, oedema was produced by using 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan. The group II served as standard control group and was additionally treated with 10mg/Kg p.o indomethacin (a standard drug). The Groups III, IV and V received 50, 100 and 300 mg/Kg p.o of aqueous methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis (TO-Cr) respectively. All the treatment groups (II, III, IV and V) were treated 1 hour before injection of carrageenan. The volume of paw of rats was measured at 0 h and 3 h and the results of all treatment groups were compared with group I. In the present work, central analgesic study was done by using hot plate method. Tramadol was used as the standard drug in positive control group. Peripheral analgesia was determined by acetic induced writhing test using aspirin as standard analgesic drug. In the writhing test 1 % solution of acetic acid at dose of 0.1 ml / 10 grams was injected intra peritoneal. All the groups were pre treated 30 min before chemical stimulus with the standard drug and extract dose. Number of writhings was counted for 20 min. after injection. The statistical analysis of these values showed that results at 0 hour are non significant as P > 0.05 (Table 3).But it is evaluated from the study of paw volumes after 3 hours that there was significant decrease in oedema in group treated with standard drug i.e. indomethacin (79.70 % decrease) as compared with the 60 negative control (Fig. 11). The response of the extract under study was dose related. There was 13 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 50 mg / kg dose of TO-Cr (Table 7). Similarly there was 34 % and 59.57 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 100 mg / kg and 300 mg / kg doses of TO-Cr (Table 7). In central analgesic model of hotplate, there was significant increase in latency time in treatment group at 60 min interval (Table 15) and then it remained almost same after 90 min (Table 18). In peripheral analgesia of acetic acid induced writhing test, there was significant decrease in the number of writhings in positive control (7.33+1.63) and Thuja orientalis extract (12.50+2.35) also decreased the number of writhings significantly as compared with the negative control group (20.67+2.16) (Table 22). It is concluded from the results that aqueous methanolic extract of the fruit of Thuja orientalis has significant anti-inflammatory activity and produced dose dependant reduction in inflammation and it also has both central and peripheral analgesic properties. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1599,T] (1).

14. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Meloxicam In Mice.

by Ghulam Fatima | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of meloxicam was evaluated. For the evaluation of effect of meloxicam on cellular immunity the delayed type hypersensitivity assay (DTH) and cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay were performed while for humoral immunity haemagglutination assay and mice lethality test was performed. In each assay 15 mice were used, all mice were divided into 3 groups, each group was consist of 5 mice. Two groups were treated with two different doses of meloxicam (5mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) and the one group (control group) was only being administered with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally. In DTH assay, 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg meloxicam treated groups of mice showed a significant reduction in skin thickness ( P<0.05) as compared to control group at 24hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after the challenging dose of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay meloxicam at 10mg/kg showed a significant percentage of reduction in total leukocytes (TLC) and two types of differential leukocytes (DLC i.e lymphocytes, and neutrophils except monocytes). This significant reduction was less in 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group which in turn was less than the control group. In addition, it was observed a dose dependent reduction response in haemagglutination (HA) titre. The order of reduction in HA titre was 10mg/kg meloxicam treated group > 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group > the control group. The mortality ratio of mice in the control group, 5mg/kg meloxicam and 10 mg/kg meloxicam treated groups was 20%, 80% and 100% respectively. All the results of present study suggest that meloxicam has suppressive effect on cellular as well as on humoral component of immune system. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1656,T] (1).

15. The Immunomodulatory Activity Of Flurbiprofen In Mice.

by Maaz Bin Nasim | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1672,T] (1).

16. Genotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Metformin And Aspartame Alone And In Combination

by Amna Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1690,T] (1).

17. Evaluation Of Cellular And Humoral Responses Of Piroxicam In Mice

by Bushra Zahoor | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1721,T] (1).

18. Chemical Characterizaton And Toxicological Screening Of Auto-Rickshaw Emissions Particulate

by Khaleeq Anwar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Vehicular air pollution is a mounting health issue of the modern age, particularly in urban populations of the developing nations. Auto rickshaws are not considered eco-friendly as to their inefficient engines producing large amount of particulate matter (PM), which poses a significant environmental threat. Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and CNG powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA)are major sources of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of PM to the environment. In this study, during the first phase, the PM of TSA and FSA was characterized by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, Na, S and Si were also observed exceeding the recommended NIES limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but the data obtained from this study clearly shows that emissions from FSA are comprised of potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to the metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. The second phase of this study was conducted to ascertain toxic effects on angiogenesis, embryo development, embryonic movement and phytotoxicity of the PM from TSA and CNG powered FSA. Based on high amounts of aluminum quantified during PIXE analysis of PM from TSA and FSA, different concentrations of aluminum sulfate were also tested to determine its eco-toxicological potential. The PM solution from FSA, TSA and Aluminum sulfate exhibited anti-angiogenic potential with reduction in total area of CAM. Morphological evaluation of embryos exhibited varying degrees of hemorrhages in different groups. In case of phytotoxicity screening using Zea mays, the results demonstrated that all three tested materials were equally phytotoxic at higher concentrations in seed germination(p<0.001). Aluminum sulfate proved to be a highly phytotoxic agent even at the lowest concentration examined. During the last phase, of the study, the MTT assay demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) dose dependent cytotoxic effect for TSA, FSA and aluminum sulfate on the BHK-21 cell line, establishing that the PM from FSA is a highly cytotoxic material. Mutagenicity was assessed by fluctuation Salmonella reverse mutation assay adopting TA100 and TA98 mutant strains with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. Despite the fact that different concentrations of PM from both sources i.e. TSA and FSA were highly mutagenic (p<0.001) even at lower concentrations, the mutagenic index was higher in TSA. The chronic toxicity study revealed that chronic exposure to PM emitted from FSA and TSA resulted in peribrochiolitis, emphesema and infilteration of leukocytes in lung tissues. On the other hand liver, cardiac and kidney tissues exhibited degeneration and necrosis. The data shows that all tested materials are equally ecotoxicand if the existing trend of atmospheric pollution by auto-rickshaws is continued, air-borne metals/heavy metals will seriously affect the normal growth of local inhabitants and increased contamination of agricultural products, which will amplify the dietary intake of toxic element and could result in genetic mutation or long-term health implications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1795,T] (1).

19. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Allium Sativum, Allium Cepa, Zingiber Officinale Against Avian Influenza H9

by Sadia Nazir | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Plant products play an important role because of their medicinal activity. A wide variety of active phytochemicals peptides have been found to possess therapeutic applications against various functionally and genetically diverse viruses. Influenza A viruses (IAV) causes acute respiratory diseases in humans, birds, and other mammals, representing one of the major threats to public health. In this study, the antiviral activity of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Avian Influenza H9 virus was evaluated in ovo. The aqeous extracts of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe were prepared by using macerate technique. From the macerate, nine different dilutions i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml of the extracts were prepared in normal saline. For each plant extract; Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe 100 embryonated chicken eggs were assigned to 20 groups, each group containing 5 embryonated chicken eggs (nine for antiviral activity, nine for cytotoxic activity, and two groups were kept positive and negative control respectively) and marked them with lead pencil. The different concentrations of the plant extracts were mixed with virus and 0.2 ml inoculum was inoculated to 9th to 10th day embryonated chicken eggs along with positive and negative controls containing only virus and normal saline respectively. The embryonated chicken eggs were incubated at 37oC and were checked after 12-72 hrs. After 72 hr post inoculation, all the eggs were chilled in refrigerator at 4oC for 12 hrs and the allantoic fluid was harvested. The antiviral activity was calculated as embryo survival percentage, positive or negative spot Hemagglutination activity and determination of virus titre by Hemagglutination Test. The cytotoxicity of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracts was evaluated by only inoculating the extracts of respective concentrations as used for antiviral activity in embryonated chicken eggs and incubating for 72 hrs. The results were analyzed by ANOVA by means of SPSS. All the concentrations of Allium sativum L. were non toxic while three concentrations showing antiviral activity were 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml and 2000 ƒÊg/ml. While in case of Allium cepa L. all the concentration i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml were non cytotoxic and five concentrations i.e. 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml and 500 ƒÊg/ml show potent antiviral activity. In case of Zingiber officinale Roscoe two concentrations 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml were virucidal and all concentration 8000 ƒÊg/ml, 4000 ƒÊg/ml, 2000 ƒÊg/ml, 1000 ƒÊg/ml, 500 ƒÊg/ml, 250 ƒÊg/ml, 125 ƒÊg/ml, 62.5 ƒÊg/ml and 31.25 ƒÊg/ml were non cytotoxic. So the present study suggested the presence of antiviral activity of plant extracts of Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, so they can be used for prevention and treatment of various viral diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1836,T] (1).

20. Evaluation Of Ynergistic Efficacy Of Quinolones, Amino Glycosides, Cephalosporin And Co-Trimoxazole

by Tyyaiba Azam | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Background Opportunistic pathogens represent the type of pathogens which infects only those individuals with impaired immune system and lead to diseases that can be severe, debilitating and difficult to treat in immunocompromized host. These opportunistic pathogens include different bacteria, viruses and fungi. This study was designed to identify the opportunistic bacterial pathogens pseudomonas and Citrobecter in immunocompromized chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. This study was performed to analyze sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens to commonly used antibiotics quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and co-trimoxazole and to evaluate the synergistic efficacy of different combination s of antibiotics. The study was conducted on different CLD patients admitted in different medical wards of Sir .ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. Aim By using blood and urine culturing technique and different biochemical tests opportunistic pathogens Pseudomonas and Citrobecter in CLD immunocompromized patients belonging to different age group were determined. Combination therapy of quinolones, aminoglycosides, cephalosporin and sulpha drugs were effective against the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas and Citrobecter. Material and Methods Clinical sign and symptoms of all the CLD patients who were admitted in the hospital were noted at the time of admission The patients who start showing sign and symptoms (Fever, burning micturation, pain) of suspected infection on 2nd and 3rd day of their admission were included in this study. Blood and urine samples were collected from infected CLD patients with CHAPTER – 6 SUMMARY suspected sign and symptoms by using all necessary aseptic precautions with the assistance of trained professionals. The pathogens were isolated, identified and purified by selective culturing methods, which were subjected to active growth, during which sensitivity to different antibiotics was checked. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted on pure culture isolates employing the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method for the commonly used antibiotics. The diameters of growth inhibition around the discs was measured and interpreted by using Clinical Laboratory Standards Interpretations (CLSI). Statistical Analysis The collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test on SPSS software (16) . Results Pseudomonas and Citrobecter pathogens are now proved to be a multi resistant pathogens and use of combinations of antibiotics against these pathogens found to be more effective. This study was performed to evaluate the synergistic effect of different antibiotics combinations against Pseudomonas and Citrobecter pathogens, so that the chances of recurrent infections among the immunocompromized hospitalized patients were minimized. It will help to improve the quality of life of immunocompromized patients through providing information about effective antibiotic treatment. The effects of different combinations of antibiotics were also analyzed in CLD patients through evaluating the improvement in infectious disease. It was found during study that combination of ceftriaxone and amikacin prove to be more effective in clinical settings but in vitro studies shows the combination of cephradine with gentamycin was 97% susceptible. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1841,T] (1).

21. Evaluation Of Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses Of Betamethasone In Mice

by Saima Batool | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1881,T] (1).

22. Evaluation Of Analgesic Anti-Inflammatory And Anti-Pyretic Activity Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Jatropha Gossypifolia in Rats

by Mohsin Ahmad Ghauri | DR. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1988,T] (1).

23. Genotoxic Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Potential Of Metformin And Celecoxib Alone And In Combination

by Asad ullah | Prof/ Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1989,T] (1).

24. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Tenoxicam In Mice

by Fatima nasim | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Dr. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2025,T] (1).

25. Evaluation Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Parthenium Hysterophorusagainst Peste Des Petits

by Aina asghar | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2051,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Gemifloxacin On Cellular And Humoral Immune Response In Mice

by Muhammad Umair | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2088,T] (1).

27. Toxicity And Immunomodulatory Activity Of Ketoprofen In Vitro And In Vivo

by Dawood Ahmad Hamdani | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2090,T] (1).

28. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Aceclofenac In Mice

by Hammad Asif | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2125,T] (1).

29. A New Inclination Of Derived Tetrahydro-Carbazole Towards Anti-Inflammatory Analgesic And Antipyretic Activity

by Kinza Kanwal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Mr. Malik Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2136,T] (1).

30. Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus And Efficacy Of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Essential Oils

by Sarwat Ali Raja | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Tayyaba Ijaz | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A Cohort study (prospective and observational) was performed to study the prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the healthy individuals of community, hospitalized patients and associated health-care workers and indigenous plants essential oils were screened as new, improved & potent antibacterial/s against resistant strains of MRSA. The method involved isolation and identification of MRSA from surgical wounds of hospitalized patients & associated health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore and healthy volunteers from the community. Plant essentials oils & extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against selected MRSA isolates. Oils were recovered by steam distillation using an all-glass distillation assembly. Then in vitro sensitivity and MICs of plant essential oils were determined using vancomycin and linezolid as commercial standards. The essential oils were screened further for the active constituents by column chromatography using various solvents and identification of compounds were performed by GC/MS analysis and the fractions which showed prompt results were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against the MRSA isolates in quest to find new therapeutic options. Finally effective essential oils and their active fractions were studied for their toxicity using in vitro Genotoxic assays such as Ames and Comet assays. To further ensure their beneficial effects antimutagenic effect of the essential oils were also studied. Prevalence of S. aureus among patients was 52.9%, in HCWs 86.5% and in community 74% with an overall percentage of 72.6%. Among S. aureus those declared as MRSA were 91.8% from patients, 50.6% from HCWs and 59.5% from community with an overall percentage of 62.2% MRSA. Among the isolated MRSA overall 90.6% were Coagulase positive and 75.2% were biofilm positive. SUMMARY 211 The pattern of MRSA resistance against current antibiotics have shown an overall increase in the resistance with maximum shown for lincomycin followed by tetracycline, ampicillin, fusidic acid, amoxicillin and piperacillin with tazobactam. The most effective options among current regime were tigecyclin, amikacin and meropenem showing an overall least resistance. Resistance against linezolid was observed with an overall percentage of 25.6 % and vancomycin 33.3% by disc diffusion method. The MRSA isolates resistant to one or more groups of antibiotics were declared as MDRs. Among patients and health-care workers all were declared as MDRs where as in community 93.1% isolates were MDRs. Upon Protein profiling using whole cell proteins 44 bands of the polypeptides were produced with molecular size 10-200kDa from the three sampling groups and were categorized into 5 clusters showing an overall significance correlation with each other explaining an interesting fact that all these strains were interlinked establishing the fact of flow of hospital acquired MRSA in the community and vice versa. This analysis also gave an insight in explaining the fact of horizontal transmission of infection within the hospital. Keeping in view the raise in resistance among current available antibiotics indigenous medicinal plants essential oils were screened for active constituents exhibiting anti-bacterial effects against MRSA isolates. Maximum yield was obtained from Carum copticum followed by Cuminum cyminum and minimum yield was obtained in case of Zingiber officinale. Upon qualitative analysis of all five essential oils Carum copticum essential oil showed zones of inhibition greater than the standards vancomycin and linezolid followed Cuminum cyminum and Zingiber officinale in all three SUMMARY 212 sampling groups. Anethum sowa and Myristica fragrans essential oils showed no activity against MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the three essential oils determined by micro broth dilution method indicated that Carum copticum showed least value in all three types of MRSA isolates followed by Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum. Effective essential oils were further fractioned using silica gel gravity columns. All the fractions obtained were screened for the anti-bacterial activity against all three types of MRSA isolates. Only fraction F1 of Carum copticum showed activity greater than pure essential oil and the two commercial standards of vancomycin and linezolid. For the identification of active constituents GC/MS analysis was performed on all three essential oils and their respective fractions. In case of fraction F1 the most dominant constituents were Carvacrol, p-Cymene, Ʈ-Terpinene and Apiol. In other two plants none of the fractions were effective. Therefore it was concluded to use pure essential oils in case of Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum rather than their individual fractions and incase of Carum copticum Fraction F1 has shown superior activity. Finally these essential oils were tested for possible mutagenic effect using bacterial reversion mutation assay and Comet assay. No mutagenic effects were observed at MIC and above doses. These effective essential oils were also evaluated for possible antimutagenic effect. Both Carum copticum and Zingiber officinale essential oils showed strong antimutagenic effects and weak antimutagenic effect by Cuminum cyminum. Upon analysis of nuclear damage none of the plants essential oils and fraction F1 of Carum copticum showed genotoxic effects and indicated to be safe. Thus from the study it was concluded that Carum copticum essential oil and its fraction F1 were the most effective to be further investigated as an alternative treatment for MRSA infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2410-T] (1).

31. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Textile Dyeing Industry Wastewater

by Muhammad Furqan Akhtar (2011-VA-265) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity, pathological lesions and oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to quantify metals and identify organic pollutants in untreated textile dyeing industry wastewater, to determine the bacterial load of wastewater, isolate and identify heavy metals tolerant bacteria and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, influence on normal physiology and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis through AAS revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Various organic pollutants such as chlorpyrifos, cucurbitacin-b and phthalates were identified by screening through GC-MS. Microbiological evaluation of textile dyeing industry wastewater revealed a high bacterial load. Different bacteria isolated from wastewater such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphyoloccus epidermidis and Micrococcus varians exhibited resistance to Cr and Cu salts and antibiotics to varying degree. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. Bacterial reverse mutation assay revealed that the mutagenicity of textile dyeing industry wastewater decreased with increase in dilution of wastewater. In-vitro comet assay revealed the evidence of high oxidative DNA damage induced by textile wastewater. Wastewater exhibited concentration dependent genotoxicity in sheep SUMMARY 147 peripheral lymphocytes. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/ plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C at a dose of 50mg/Kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. Industrial effluents may decrease activities of T-SOD and CAT and concentration of H2O2 in liver, kidney and blood/plasma of Wistar rats. Vitamin C may have a possible ameliorating effect on industrial effluent induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wastewater exposed rats exhibited necrosis of epithelial cells of nephron, pulmonary emphysema, and inflammation of the lungs, degradation and infiltration of cardiac myocytes, fibrosis of the liver, damage to the intestinal mucosa and sloughing off epithelial cells from the intestinal lumen. This study concludes that untreated textile dyeing wastewater being a complex mixture of inorganic and organic pollutants may be highly eco-toxic and may contaminate of the environment via continuous release of various organic and inorganic pollutants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2580-T] (1).

32. Chemical Microbiological And Toxicological Evaluation Of Pharmaceutical Effluent Wastewater

by Ali Sharif (2011-VA-266) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pharmaceutical effluent being a complex mixture of drugs and heavy metals may affect human health exhibiting a strong potential of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induction along with pathological changes in various organs of the body. The current study was focused to quantify the presence of heavy metals, detection of various drugs, determining the bacterial load along with isolation and identification of different bacteria and assessment of the mutagenic and genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress induction of pharmaceutical effluent wastewater when exposed to sheep lymphocytes, Salmonella typhimurium strains, cell lines and rats respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to quantify heavy metals and showed the presence of arsenic, chromium, lead and iron in concentrations above the normal limits recommended by WHO and EPA. Gas Chromatograph mass spectrophotometer analysis shown the presence of digitoxin, lignocaine, caffeine and trimethoprim and various other organic pollutants. Microbiological evaluation showed a high bacterial load in the pharmaceutical waste water. Several bacteria were also found in PEW in the presence of different drugs and heavy metals. Aeromonas sobria, Micrococcus varians, Staphyoloccus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium showed tolerance to potassium di chromate and copper sulphate and resistance to various antibiotic discs. Ames assay revealed a strong mutagenic potential with and without the presence of metabolic activation mixtures. A concentration dependent effect was observed when samples were tested with increasing dilution factor. MTT assay and comet assay also showed a concentration dependent effect. The BHK-21 cell line was used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cell viability decreased with increasing concentration of PEW. Sheep lymphocytes used in comet assay exhibited a concentration dependent DNA damage. Different antioxidant enzymes were also evaluated. Rats were exposed to PEW at different concentrations and following 60 days oral exposure, rats were evaluated for the presence of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and hydrogen peroxide in kidney, liver and plasma. Exposure to Pharmaceutical waste water significantly decreased the (TSOD), (CAT) and (H2O2) levels in plasma, liver and kidney. Treatment with Vitamin E significantly ameliorated the levels of enzymes. Exposed rats were also evaluated for any pathological changes. Coagulative necrosis of renal epithelial cells were observed along with severe degeneration and cellular swelling in hepatocytes of hepatic cord. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2600-T] (1).

33. Effect Of Colchicine On Cellular And Humoral Immune Responses In Mice

by Shahzada Khurram Syed (2007-VA-444) | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Shahbaz Yousaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Colchicine is a medication that treats gout. It is a natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants Colchicum autumnale .It causes modulation of chemokine and prostanoid production and inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell adhesion molecules by which it interferes with the initiation and amplification of the joint inflammation. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of colchicine on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. There were five groups for each assay i.e. group I (negative control), positive control and three colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg). The number of mice in each group was five to eight. All these groups were administered doses intraperitoneally. To determine the effect of colchicine on cell mediated immunity , delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay, macrophage engulfment assay, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test and nitric oxide production was performed .DTH was performed by measuring skin thickness. DTH showed significant difference (P<0.001) of negative control to colchicine treated groups 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg. With increasing dose, there was decrease in skin thickness of the mice. Highest reduction of skin was found at 160μg/kg. Macrophage engulfment assay was performed to evaluate the effect of macrophage induced phagocytosis. There was significant ( P <0.001) difference of engulfment of SRBCs by macrophages with negative control to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III(80μg/kg) and group IV(160μg/kg) groups. There was significant difference of engulfment of macrophages at 45 and 90 minutes. Cyclophosphamide induced neutropenic test was performed to assess the effect of colchicine on total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC). There was SUMMARY 77 reduction of TLC to about 45.3% in control to 48.3%, 54.68% and 65.42% in group II (40μg/kg), group III (80 μg/ kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) respectively when these were compared with primary values of TLC. There was significant difference of reduction in the neutrophil count of negative control 1057 (±120) to 902 (±67) in group II (40μg/kg), 734(±69) in group III (80 μg/ kg) and 609 (±71) in group IV (160μg/kg) of doses of colchicine. This test showed that with the increasing dose of colchicine, there was significant (P<0.001) difference of TLC count and neutrophil count. Nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages was performed for measuring different concentrations of nitric oxide produced. There was significant difference (P<0.001) in NO production by macrophages alone and LPS stimulated between negative control to group II (40 μg /kg), group III (80μg/kg), group IV (160μg/kg) of colchicine. With increasing dose, there was significant reduction in production of NO. There was significant P<0.0001 reduction in body weight andspleen weight difference of mice in different groups of colchicine treated 40μg/kg, 80μg/kg and 160μg/kg from negative control after treatment. There was difference of weight of Thymus of group II (40 μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg) but difference was statistically not significant. There were no histopathological changes observed in spleen and Thymus at 40μg/kg and 80μg/kg doses of colchicine. At 160μg/kg dose, increase in thickness of trabecular was seen .due to edema in the spleen. For evaluation of colchicine effect on humoral immunity, haemagglutination assay, mice lethality test and Jerne hemolytic plaque formation were performed. Haemagglutination assay (HA) was performed by using red blood cells injected intraperitoneally in mice to measure antibody titer. There was significant difference of (P >0.001) to colchicine treated group II (40μg/kg), group III (80μg/kg) and group IV (160μg/kg)with group I (negative control).With the increasing dose, there was reduction in the SUMMARY 78 HA titer. Mice lethality test was performed by testing immune response of the mice to the challenge infection of P.multocida. It was performed by comparing mortality ratio of mice after administration of drug. There was no death of mice in the negative control group in which there was administration of PBS and vaccine. At 40μg/kg dose of colchicine, there was 50% mortality ratio. At 80μg/kg dose of colchicine 75% mortality ratio was observed. Maximum mortality ratio was observed at the 160μg/kg colchicine dose i.e. 100%. Jerne plaque formation test was performed and plaques formed was enumerated and recorded as the number of plaque forming cells (PFCs) per million cells. There was significant difference (P<0.001) of reduction in number of plaques from negative control to all doses of colchicine 40 μg/kg, 80 μg/kg and 160μg/kg. Antibody formation was decreased with increasing the dose of colchicine. Therefore, it is concluded that colchicine suppresses the cellular and humoral responses in mice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2650-T] (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.