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1. Geographical Distribution Of Dengue Fever Infected Patients And Its Related Risk Factors In And Aroun Lahore.

by Muhammad Usman Zaheer | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans worldwide and is a major public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions (Mackenzie et al., 2004). This life threatening disease is caused by a specific virus (ARBO-Flavivirus) transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito (Aedes aegyptii and Aedes albopictus) which is identified by the white bands and scale patterns on its legs and thorax. Trans-ovarial transmission of dengue virus has also been reported in different studies. The mosquito may bite at any time but the probability of bites increase at dusk and dawn (WHO 2009). Dengue fever has emerged as a significant public health problem in Pakistan. In Pakistan, the first epidemic of dengue fever was reported in 1994 in Karachi (Anaari et al., 2001). Several years later, in 2006 another epidemic was reported in the southern part of Pakistan, predominantly caused by DENV-2 that led to 58 deaths (khan et al., 2008). In 2007, 22 people died of disease and in 2008 only five people were reported to die from it. Between October 2006 and January 2008, there were 3,242 laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever in Pakistan. Since January 2009, 224 suspected cases were reported in Sindh province, of which 135 were the confirmed cases. During the epidemic of dengue fever in 2010 more than seven thousand cases were reported in Pakistan, of which 5 thousand cases were from Punjab and resulted in 63 deaths. The mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic diseases are prevalent throughout the world. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most important diseases widely distributed in the tropics of South East Asia. It is an infectious malady of human beings characterized by fever and non-specific constitutional symptoms. The virus is transmissible to human beings by the bite of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The disease is spreading like a geometric rise of cases in a wide range of geographical regions. The geographical factors and locality of patients may be a contributing factor to the outbreak of Dengue Fever. Climate change is likely to increase the area of land with a climate suitable for dengue fever transmission, and that if no other contributing factors were to change, a large proportion of the human population would then be put at risk. The data on address of patients were collected from all the patients admitted in tertiary care hospital from August 01, 2011 to November 30, 2011. The geographical risk factors studied in this project were presence or absence of parks, trees, ponds, swimming pool, service station, tyre shop, source of stagnant water, pond and municipality garbage tank in vicinity of house of the cases and controls. For the study of risk factors we made 2 groups i.e. cases and controls; each comprising of 300 subjects and then data on presence or absence of various hypothesized risk factors in the vicinity of house (400 meters) and area (800 meters) were collected through a well structured and pre-tested questionnaire (Harrington et al., 2005; Honório et al., 2003; Schatzmayr 2000; Muir and Kay 1998; Reiter et al., 1995; McDonald 1977; Hausemann 1971 and Bond et al., 1970). The statistical analysis of data was done by using SPSS 16.0. Qualitative data were presented in form of tables, bar charts, column and pie- charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association between dengue fever and various hypothesized risk factors. P-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Odds ratio was calculated at 95% level of confidence (CI) for various hypothesized risk factors of dengue fever. The results of present study revealed that the season of dengue fever in Pakistan is from August to November and the period prevalence of dengue fever to be 0.11%. Males (59%) were mainly the victim of dengue fever. The main affected age groups were 16-30 year (37.33%) and 31-45 years (29.67%). As far as the geographical distribution of dengue fever infected patients is concerned, it was concluded that dengue fever cases were reported from all the ten towns of Lahore metropolitan, however, most of the cases were reported from Ravi town followed by Data Ganj Baksh town and Cantt. The results regarding various hypothesized risk factors are as follows: parks/trees/plants in vicinity of house OR=8.81, p-value <0.05; swimming pool in vicinity of house OR=5.O3, p-value <0.05; source of stagnant water in vicinity of house OR=8.25, p-value <0.05; fogging in your area OR=0.50, p-value <0.05; service station in the area OR=5.98, p-value <0.05; tyre shop in the area OR=6.11, p-value <0.05; municipality garbage tank in the area OR=5.88, p-value <0.05; any pond in the area OR=5.69, p-value <0.05. From the results of this project we concluded that dengue fever is most prevalent from August to November and it is a disease of mainly male gender and mostly affects people of age group 16-45 years. Besides this, dengue fever is almost equally distributed in all the towns of Lahore metropolitan. Also we concluded that presence or absence of parks, trees, plants, swimming pool, stagnant water, pond, service station, tyre shop and municipality garbage tanks in vicinity of house are the risk factors of dengue fever. Fogging proved to be a deterrent to dengue fever. On the basis of results of this project there is need to implement a control program in which vector control and minimizing the exposure of people to risk factors should be the key points that need to be addressed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1444,T] (1).

2. Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Milk, Milk By- Products And Food Handler At Retail

by Kanwal Hafeez | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to check the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, milk products and food handlers at various dairy retail shops in Lahore. A total of 100 samples, 30 samples of raw milk, 30 samples of pasteurized milk, 20 samples of yogurt, 10 samples of butter and 10 hand swabs samples of dairy handlers were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 54% (54 out of 100) samples. Overall high prevalence was recorded in raw milk, followed by hand swabbing samples of dairy handler, butter, pasteurized milk and yogurt. The results indicated unhygienic practices during milking and handling of milk at different critical control points such as transportation, storage, and post-pasteurization contamination. Overall high prevalence of ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were recorded in all the samples of milk and milk products and the hand swabbing of dairy handlers, followed by resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin respectively. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by resistance against amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin which were 92.6%, 37%, 33.3%, 24.1% and 22.2% respectively. The antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products indicated the widespread use of these antibiotics in treating different types of infections associated in either livestock or humans which results in selection pressure of these antimicrobials and results in the emergence of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in different environmental conditions. The risk associated with human health as a result of ingestion of these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be prevented by adopting hygienic measures during milking, transport, storage and hygienic handling by the handlers so the human health can be assured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1520,T] (1).

3. Detection Of Carrier And Subclinical Infection Of Babesia Ovis Trough Pcr At Government Farms Of Punjab

by Haider Noor | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Haemoprotozoan infections in ruminants are of significant importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diseases are transmitted through ticks thus a number of epidemiological factors/risk factors are involved. Ovine Babesiosis is one such disease posing problems in Pakistan which is an agricultural country and livestock plays an important source of income for farmers. The economic losses in small ruminant production are significant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Carrier sheep infected with Babesiosis are challenge to current diagnostic methods and are difficult to detect because of the low number of parasites in circulation. However diagnosis of carrier animals in herd is important for preventing outbreaks by transmission through vector ticks to healthy animals and for obtaining epidemiological data of disease. The work done on Babesia ovis is negligible. For this purpose a study was conducted at two farms to measure the prevalence and optimization of PCR for Babesia ovis. Blood was collected into an anticoagulant containing vacutainer. First thin smears were formed and stained with Giemsa stain for microscopic examination of Babesia ovis. For DNA extraction Puregene DNA purification system, Gentra, was used. Extracted DNA was amplified in a thermolyser using B. ovis primers and then analyzed using electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel. Microscopic examination demonstrated a prevalence of 16 % while PCR results revealed prevalence of 29% for B. ovis. Results displayed that the efficacy of PCR is more sensitive than Light Microscopy. Data on infection rate between male and female and between different age groups was statistically non-significant. Herd wise prevalence was 36% and 22% in Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, Okara and Small Ruminant Training and Research Center,Ravi Campus, Pattoki respectively. Common sites of attachment for the ticks were under the tail, perineal region and underneath ears.The data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1534,T] (1).

4. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Goats And Their Attendants In Dort Minro (D.G.Khan), Punjab (Pakistan)

by Shams-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of cats, however all warm blooded animals comprising mammals, birds and human beings can be infected with it. The disease is manifested by abortion, resorption, neonatal loses, birth of weak kids, birth defects and mummification of fetuses in pregnant animals. Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis is continuously evolving in animals and human beings. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis, the present study was conducted, in Fort Minro, to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of Toxoplasmosis in goats and their attendants. A total of 52 pastoral goat herds with herd size of "?20 - ?40" animals per herd were selected by convenient sampling technique. Out of these 52 pastoral herds, 237 goats were selected by systematic sampling method i.e each 5th unit was selected for sampling. The goats were sampled if the age of goats was ?6 months. Most common breeds of these herds were, Pahari and Hairy goat breed. A total of 92 herd attendants were also selected to determine the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasmosis in Farm workers / attendants. All serum samples were screened by LAT. For this purpose, the commercial Latex agglutination kit (Wiener Laboratorios S.A.I.C. Riobamba 2944, 2000 Rosario Argentina) was used for detection of specific antibodies of T.gondii in serum of goats and their attendants. A herd was considered as a positive, if at least one goat was found to be positive in that specific herd. Out of total 52 goat herds, 36 herds presented at least one or more than one seropositive animal. The number of positive animals in each herd, ranged from 1-10 animals. Out of 237 goats, 64 goats were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Thus overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats was 27%. The seroprevalence was significantly high in female goats (21.5%) as compared to males (5.5%). Kajli/Pahari goat breed was more positive (14.8%) as compared to Hairy goats (12.2%). An increase trend of seropositivity was observed in goats with increase in age. Age group of "?3 years" of goats had highest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, followed by age group "?1-<3 years", while age group "?6 m-<1Year" had lowest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence. Prevalence in males had 5.5% share in overall prevalence (27%) while prevalence in females had 21.5% share in overall prevalence. Data analysis of various risk factors determined that natural reservoirs of water, pastoral grazing and presence of cats and dogs were major risk factor of Toxoplasmosis in goat herds. Access of cats to drinking water and food resources and eating medium cooked meat were major risk factors for goat attendants. High prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats and Farm workers, suggests that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in the study area and further epidemiological studies should be focused on goat meat, milk and milk products. It is concluded that Toxoplasmosis can be reduce in human beings and animals by reducing risk factors and maintaining proper hygienic measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1710,T] (1).

5. Studies On Risk Factors Associated With Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157: H7 In Abattoir Environment

by Samiullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1711,T] (1).

6. Association Of Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter With Poultry Meat At Retailer Shops In Lahore Through Cross-Sectional Study

by Abdul Moeed | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are considered to be the most frequent cause of human acute bacterial enteritis worldwide, furthermore, numerous transmission vehicles are known, but raw milk, untreated surface water and especially poultry meat are major sources of human infections. In Pakistan studies reveal that among meat samples, the highest prevalence (48%) of Campylobacter was recorded in raw chicken. Therefore, the increasing level of resistance to the antibiotics among Campylobacter spp. is recognized as emerging public health problem. 6.2 Hypothesis " Campylobacter spp. was present in the poultry meat at retailer shops. " Unhygienic measures concerning to meat handling had a considerable effect on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter. 6.3 Methodology A cross sectional study of 3 months duration was carried out in the Lahore city of Punjab, Pakistan. Using the standard microbiological techniques and statistical analysis, the prevalence of Campylobacter and its pattern of antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Furthermore, through premeditated questionnaires, public awareness regarding meat-borne diseases, food safety and inappropriate usage of antibiotics were assessed as well. 6.4 Statistical design Data will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variable were presented by using mean ± S.D. Qualitative variable were presented with help of frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association among different variables. P value <0.05 was be taken as significant. 6.5 Outcome Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence and pattern of the antibiotic resistant campylobacter was assessed; moreover public awareness with special reference to food safety, knowledge of meat borne diseases and usage of antibiotics wereevaluated. Furthermore, one could play an influential role in public health by dissemination of awareness among the masses about the proper usage of antibiotics and food safety measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1728,T] (1).

7. Nosocomial Infections At Intensive Care Unit In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore City

by Ajmal Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1729,T] (1).

8. Prevalence Of Salmonelia Ennteritidis In Hatcheries And Broiler Retail Outlets In Rawalpindi Punjab

by Abdul saeed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Prof Dr. Mansur-ud-din ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1868,T] (1).

9. Epidemiological Investigation And Risk Factor Analysis Of Brucellosis In Large Ruminants And Their Attendants At Govt. Livestock Farms In Punjab

by Muhammad Raashid (2007-VA-496) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan has been renowned as an agricultural country. It is rich in livestock sector having fairly large populations of domestic animals. Among these, populations of cattle and buffalo are 38.3 and 33.7 million respectively. The importance of cattle and buffalo cannot be denied at any level as these are the principal farming animals and milk and beef are widely consumed locally in the country. The estimated annual milk production of cattle and buffalo include 17.372 and 30.462 million tonnes respectively and a combined 1.829 million tonnes beef for human consumption during 2012-2013 (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-2013). Brucellosis, a worldwide bacterial zoonosis, is one of the most serious diseases causing huge loss to national economy and human beings among developing countries (Wu et al. 2013). The disease is endemic in Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region and parts of Latin America (Gwida et al. 2010). Brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic and intracellular pathogens. These show a wide range of host specificity. These coccobacilli measure from 0.6 to 1.5 µm long and 0.5 to 0.7 µm wide. Eight species have been identified in the genus Brucella such asBrucella abortus(B. abortus affecting cattle and buffalo), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), B. ovis (sheep), B. suis (swine), B. canis (dog), B. neotomae (desert rats), B. ceti (cetaceans) and B. pinnipedialis (pinnipeds) (Blasco 2010). This wide range of species covers almost all domestic animals however cats have found resistant. Generally it is considered as a reproductive problem in both male and female animals (Ficht 2003). Brucellosis has been listed as the second most serious zoonotic disease in the world after rabies by OIE (OIE 2009). B. abortus, the primary cause of Brucellosis in large ruminants, (cattle and buffalo), remains not only a significant threat as a source of human illness but also risks economy of the country (Makita et al. 2011). Present estimates of economic loss in meat and milk production resulting from Brucellosis are $800 million annually in the United States(OIE 2009). The incidence of the disease can be correlated to several factors including demographic and geographic factors(Soomro et al. 2014). Seroprevalence of the disease has been reported in different regions of Pakistan and ranges 3.25 to 4.4%(Naeem et al. 1990). Brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes can be recognized clinically by an abortion usually occurring form 6 months and onwards i.e. last trimester of pregnancy (Soomro et al. 2014). Brucellosis is principally a disease of sexually mature animals as it affects mainly the reproductive system and fertility of the animals. It significantly reduces the survival rate of newborns and also the milk yield (Sikder et al. 2012). Greyish white mucoid or mucopurulent discharges from the vagina, prior to parturition of cow, may show the clinical patterns of disease along withnormal patterns of parturition like swelling of the vulva, relaxation of pelvic ligament, enlargement of udder and discharge from the vulva (Shafee et al. 2012). Human infections as a result of Brucellosis range more than 500,000 annually round the world (Abo-Shehada and Abu-Halaweh 2011). Brucellosis can cause a wide range of symptoms similar to the flu and may also include fever (39-40°C), night sweats, headache, back pain and physical weakness. Severe form of infection may result in involvement of the central nervous system or the lining of the heart (Soomro et al. 2014). It is one of the principal public health problems for an agricultural country like Pakistan, where majority of the population is engaged in livestock farming (Shafee et al. 2012). Brucellosis in humans is a severely debilitating condition that usually requires prolonged treatment involving a combination of strong antibiotics. The treatment results in permanent and disabling sequel, and also in significant medical expenses along with loss of income due to loss of working hours. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by ways of inhalation, direct contact with infected animals or contaminated products of conception and ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat or meat products (Gwida et al. 2010; John et al. 2010). Brucellosis can also be transmitted from infected animals to human beings who are in close contact with animal secretions like infected vaginal secretions, blood, urine, feces, aborted fetus, or those who consume unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants, and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2245-T] (1).

10. Epidemiology Of Bovine Tuberculosis And Its Public Health Significance In Peshawar

by Irfan Khatak (2011-VA-562) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Umer Sadique | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and associated risk factors in cattle and buffalo in Peshawar, Pakistan. Cattle and buffalo, randomly selected from all four towns of District Peshawar were screened for bovine tuberculosis using comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT). For obtaining data on risk factors, socio-demographic condition, animal characteristics and management, interviewer administered pretested questionnaire to animal owners. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure association between risk factors and comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin reactors. A total of 556 cattle and buffalo were screened for bovine tuberculosis. Out of 556 animals screened, 5.75% (3.9-8.0%) were found positive. The prevalence was higher in old animals (P= 0.001) as compared to younger animals. Prevalence also varied with source of animal (either raised on farm or purchased), stay of animals at night (indoor or outdoor) and herd size. Farmer’s knowledge about transmission of TB from animals to human as well as signs and symptoms of TB was extremely low. Only 3.6% farmers correctly stated the combination of three major symptoms of TB. Results of the study call for immediate intervention to control bTB in animals as well as its transmission to human population. Furthermore, it is suggested to emphasize on local epidemiology of bTB and husbandry practices of cattle and buffalo during the control program. To assess the presence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in milk sold at retail shops and find the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about tuberculosis (TB) in the high risk M. bovis contaminated milk consumers, milk samples were obtained from 92 milk shops and analysed for presence of M. bovis. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and KAP about TB was Summary 152 obtained from 800 M. bovis contaminated milk consumers. Mycobacterium bovis was detected in 8.7% (8/92) milk samples. Although 97.4% of the participants had heard of TB but only 39.6% knew that cough lasts for more than 3 weeks was one symptom. Only 79.2% have awareness that TB can be prevented and the most frequently stated (48.4%) method of TB prevention was good nutrition. Participants believed that TB can be cured by prayers/ eating well (41.8%) and also by herbal cures/ consulting Hakeem (35.7%). Mean knowledge score for the participants was 12.1± 2.47 out of maximum 22. Mean knowledge score varied significantly with ethnicity, level of education and residential status (Urban vs rural). Overall knowledge about TB was low. Therefore community’s health education focused on increasing knowledge of TB must be initiated. This part of study was conducted to determine the occurrence of active pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. bovis in abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinarians and to document the Knowledge and practices of these professional regarding bTB. The cross sectional study included 141 abattoir workers, 317 butchers, 50 livestock farmers, 5 veterinary doctors and 3 veterinary assistants. Sputum samples were collected from those respondents who had chronic cough that last for more than 2 weeks. Four out of 16 suspected abattoir workers and 1 out of 50 livestock farmers were found positive for M. bovis by Polymerase chain reaction analysis. Duration of work as abattoir worker was found significantly associated (p<0.05) with occurrence of zoonotic TB. The knowledge of abattoir workers, butchers, livestock farmers and veterinary assistants regarding transmission of bTB from animal to human and symptoms of TB in human was very low. Most of these professional did not use protective material/ techniques and are considered at high risk of acquiring zoonotic tuberculosis. This study declares zoonotic tuberculosis a critical public health issue especially for professionally exposed groups in Summary 153 Peshawar, Pakistan and warrant immediate intervention for control of bovine and zoonotic tuberculosis. The last part of study aims to determine the proportion of zoonotic TB cases out of overall human TB patients and school children, drug resistance of M. bovis isolates and knowledge, attitude and practices about TB. Total 300 human TB patients and 100 school children were included in the study. Sputum samples were processed by PCR for presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. Sputum samples from TB patients were cultured and M. bovis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. Data on knowledge, attitude and practices were obtained from TB patients by administering pre-tested questionnaire. Among TB patietns 4% (12/300) were infected with M. bovis. None of the school children was positive for M. bovis. Residence, occupation, presence of animals at home and sleeping in shed at night was found significantly associated with occurrence of zoonotic TB. Except one all M. bovis isolates were resistant to Pyrazinamide. Among other drugs resistance to streptomycin and isoniazid was high. Low level of knowledge and practices were observed. The study concluded that considering zoonotic aspect of TB during diagnosis and treatment of TB is necessary and recommends national survey for true estimation of burden of zoonotic TB in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2540-T] (1).

11. Salmonella Contamination In Vegetables Due To Irrigation With Wastewater In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahjahan Zafar (2009-VA-398) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Ms. Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Salmonella has been one of the major food-borne pathogens for animals and humans for last many years. Many food borne outbreaks and other sporadic cases occur due to Salmonella in many countries. Foods of animal origin are considered major sources of Salmonella. However, Salmonella infections due to consumption of raw vegetables have occurred numerously in recent past. 30% of sewage water is directly used for irrigation purposes in Pakistan for various crops including vegetables. It may be the cause of Salmonella contamination. Apart from conventional microbiological techniques, nucleic acid amplification technologies have provided the opportunity for rapid detection of Salmonella from various sources, providing better sensitivity and superior specificity, thereby refining the administration of outbreaks by more rapid confirmation. Untreated wastewater is the major source of Salmonella contamination of vegetables. Vegetable sampling was done from field, wholesale and retail markets of Lahore city and wastewater sampling was done from River Ravi, Lahore Canal and other sources by using aseptic techniques and was transported at 4°C. Salmonella species was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were confirmed by biochemical tests TSI and Urease Test. DNA was extracted through boiling and 10% chelex method. Molecular characterization of isolated strains was done through PCR. Antibiotic resistance of confirmed isolates were also checked. A total of 320 (Vegetable n=160, Wastewater n=160) samples were taken for present study for screening of salmonella microbial contamination in it. Different types of vegetables including Coriander (n=40), Mint (n=40), Carrot (n=40), Radish (n=40) were used for analysis. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 46 Wastewater samples were also collected from various sources like River Ravi (n=60), Lahore Branch Canal (n=60) and Kharak Nala (n=40). Salmonella was found in 4/40 (10%) samples of Coriander, 3/40 (7.5%) of Mint, 5/40 (12.5%) of Carrot, 3/40 (7.5%) of Radish and 33/160 (20.63%) of wastewater samples through PCR detection. Many of the isolates were found multi-drug resistant. This study revealed the presence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella species in vegetables and wastewater. All the vegetables studied were contaminated with Salmonella. This data was designed to find out the magnitude and real picture of the pathogen. It helped in drawing a relationship between Salmonella contamination of vegetables and irrigation of wastewater. As wastewater is the main reason for bacterial contamination of vegetables, measures should be adopted at governmental level for reduction of this contamination. Water disinfection practices and continuous water supply for irrigation can reduce the bacterial load. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2624-T] (1).

12. Molecular Epidemiology Of Mycobacterium At The Animal Human Interface And Its Co-Morbidity With Diabetes Mellitus

by Zarfishan Tahir (2011-VA-624) | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and fatal infectious disease which has afflicted mankind for several millennia. At the moment, TB is positioned at number five when it comes to the most common causes of fatality worldwide. TB is curable if it is properly diagnosed and treated. In 2015, it was estimated that 1.5 million deaths (an equivalent of 4,000 deaths per day) and 9 million new TB cases have been reported. Diabetes Mellitus is also widely distributed and estimated to affect 366 million people by 2030. The co-morbidity of DM and TB is re-emerging because of the progressive epidemiology of both diseases especially in the developing countries. Endemicity of TB and DM is growing in developing countries because of low socio-economic status and poor living conditions. In this study, a total of 500 tuberculosis positive patients were selected under TB DOTS program from five tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Sputum samples were collected from all the enrolled patients and smear microscopy was performed for TB confirmation. Blood samples were collected from the same patients for screening of diabetes mellitus. Sputum samples were also processed for culture and drug sensitivity on LJ medium. Molecular identification by PCR technique was carried out on all positive cultured strains and results were compared with reference strain H37RV. For DNA sequencing, PCR products were sent to Singapore where sequencing was performed by Sanger method. Data was compiled and variables including gender, age, drug resistance and treatment history and correlation among different variables was analyzed using chi-square test and Fischer’s exact test method at P-value of ≤0.05. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20.0) was used for statistical analysis. The count data was statistically analyzed using SUMMARY 124 descriptive statistical tools. On screening for fasting blood sugar level, 74 (14.8%) patients were recorded as diabetics as well i.e. blood sugar level ≥ 126 mg/dl. Out of these 74 patients, 22 patients had previous history of diabetes whereas remaining 52 patients were newly diagnosed at the time of screening. The maximum distribution of TB-DM patients was found in age group > 57 years. Mean age of the group without DM was 39 years and with DM was 48 years. Coexistence of DM in TB patients was higher in males (62.2%) as compared to female study subjects. However, the gender difference is statistically non-significant (p value 0.243). The distribution of education level revealed that out of the total participants, maximum number of patients (n=220) were illiterate and similar trend was observed in diabetic patients with 54 (73%) individuals belonging to the illiterate group of the subjects. There is statistically significant difference between existence of DM and literacy level in tuberculosis patients. Among social and behavioral risk factors in tuberculosis patients, majority of the patients were unemployed (24%) in TB-DM group. Significant correlation p value ≤ 0.05 was found between coexistence of TB-DM and tobacco use. TB cases with diabetes were known to have history of smoking with 73% (n=54) while non-smokers were 27% (n=20). On sputum smear microscopy frequency of 3+ results showing high bacterial load, was profoundly higher i.e. 67.6% in diabetic tuberculosis patients as compared to non-diabetics which was 4.9% only. Total culture yield was 363 out of 500 sputum samples. There were 193 samples that were sensitive to all drugs, 9.4% were MDR strains (resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin). MDR-TB is significantly higher in TB-DM patients i.e. 13.5% as compared to 8.7% in TB only patients. In our study, DNA sequence data for drug resistance was studied by the sequence of rpoB gene of the wild type MTB strain. Sequencing results showed mutations at various spots of rpoB gene. SUMMARY 125 Most common mutational sites identified were at codon 531, 526 and 516 with frequency of 70%, 15% and 7.5%, respectively. Moreover, mutation sites at 512 and 574 codon had also been reported. In this study, predominantly two phylogenetic variants were identified. Majority of the isolated strains were Central Asia Strain (CAS) with a prevalence of 88.2% and rest were Beijing strain. However, attempts to find zoonosis could not be established. A total of 900 raw milk samples were also screened for M. bovis and no positive sample could be detected. The present study emphasizes the importance of screening for DM in TB patients, which had not been done in routine. This practice may prove to be helpful in reducing the disease burden of TB patients as well as DM patients. Thus it is recommended that the screening for DM should be implemented in TB/DOTS clinics. Emergence of Multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also a serious challenge for clinicians. A very large financial implication in terms of treatment, duration of chemotherapy and spread of MDR TB strains is being faced. Treating MDR TB is more complicated than treating drug sensitive TB. Patients with MDR TB require longer, much more costly treatment and experience higher mortality rates. Such a long time to initiate the treatment is not affordable, thus there is a dire need for some rapid technique like molecular based diagnostics for MDR detection, which can provide quick results and making it possible to start treatment at earlier to minimize transmission, morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2710-T] (1).

13. Prevalence Of Campylobacteriosis Among Diarrheic Children And Its Associated Risk Factors

by Zahra Aziz Butt (2014-VA-985) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Miss Noor-ul-Hudda.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Campylobacteriosis is an acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea (which could be bloody), fever and abdominal cramps. Campylobacter is becoming a leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease worldwide. Campylobacter is a food born pathogen that can transmit to children through unhygienic practices by mother during feeding, through contact with pets, or consumption of raw milk, milk products, vegetables, undercooked poultry meat and contaminated water. It can leads to fetal outcome in children. Post infection complications can lead to reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS). So the study was design to measure the prevalence and associated risk factors of Campylobacteriosis among children suffering from acute diarrhea in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. A total of 41 stool samples were collected through systematic random sampling from children having complaint of acute diarrhea visiting a tertiary care hospital (MAYO Hospital) in Lahore. The samples were transported within 6 hours of collection and cultured on modified charcoal cefparazone deoxycholate agar and incubated at 42ᴼC for 42 hours for isolation of Campylobacter. Then the samples were purified and various biochemical tests as catalase,3.5% NaCl stress, and 1% glycine stress were performed. Out of 41 samples 7 showed no growth on charcoal agar. Out of 34 samples that showed growth on charcoal agar 14 were positive biochemically. So the prevalence was found to be 34%. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 version. Descriptive statistics was applied to check the frequencies of different risk factors. Risk factors like sociodemographics and other risk factors related to hygiene as house member suffering from diarrhea, playing of child in muddy areas, use of raw milk, bottle feeding, use of common latrines, washing of latrines, presence of Summary 49 pets in house, access of pets to kitchen, restaurant eating and travelling to any other area were studied. Chi square test was applied to check the association of different risk factors with Campylobacteriosis. Three factors as washing of hands by mother before preparing food, frequency of washing of latrines and consumption of food from restaurant before onset of illness were found to be associated with the Campylobacteriosis. Campylobacteriosis is an important disease of children which is underestimated in Pakistan due to deficient knowledge in subject and financial constraints. Adequate awareness of hand washing, good hygiene, proper cooking of food and boiling of drinking water can be important in preventing infection. Careful attention should be given on the disease and further studies should be conducted about the disease to study upcoming status of the disease . Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2734-T] (1).

14. Cross Sectional Study To Identify Risk Factors Of Appendicular Bone Fractures In Canine And Felines At Pet Clinics In District Lahore

by Mudassar Aziz (2015-VA-805) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: With increasing trend in pet animal’s ownership, bone fractures constitute a major problem including those caused by traumatic injuries. Orthopedic diseases are common in canine and felines especially those caused by traumatic injuries. Appendicular fractures affecting femur and tibia were most common in canine and felines. Forelimb fracture is particularly challenging in orthopedic surgery as dogs bear most of their weight with the thoracic limbs. Pectoral limb fractures were due to high energy trauma and therefore can result in both lives threatening injuries, severe and permanent disability. Understanding the different types of fracture will be helpful to develop improved techniques of fracture fixation in dogs. Young dogs above one and a half month to six months are most commonly affected. Therefore management of pet’s environment by the owner can play an important role in the preventing traumatic injuries in pets. Recording the occurrence and pattern of appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines to determine the principal causes is important for their management and control. Fractures in animal bones have not received the required attention and there are few publications that deal specifically with their epidemiology. Appendicular bone fractures due to trauma were most common in canines and felines. All canine and felines with appendicular bone fractured coming to pet clinics during 4 months and their owners willing to participate were enrolled in the study irrespective of age, breed, and geography. Pet owners not willing to participate were excluded from the study. Data about age, sex, breed; clinical signs, radiography report and other risk factors were obtained from the pet owners on a pre-designed close ended questionnaire. Radiographs of the fractured area were taken for confirmation of fracture. A cross-sectional study was conducted to classify different types of fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with appendicular fractures Summary 59 in canine and felines. The study was conducted for four months. The samples consisted of those canine and felines brought to the selected three pet clinics with fracture during the study period. Cases were confirmed after taking their radiographs. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0.The dependent variable “appendicular bone fracture” and independent variables “owner’s education, profession, monthly income, pet sex, pet breed, weight and physical condition” were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Data entry and analysis was done in SPSS 20.0. Chi-square test was used for statistical testing. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Cross tabulations were done among dependent and independent variables. Chi square test was applied to different risk factors associated with appendicular bone fracture in canines and felines status to define the significant associations. The present study collected descriptive epidemiological data on appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines important for control and prevention of fractures. Also, risk factors associated with appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines were evaluated that would be helpful in controlling in future such as accidents and falls. Conclusion The current study was conducted at three different pet clinics in District Lahore namely Pet center UVAS, Dr. Asim Pet clinic Faisal town Lahore, Dr. Zia Pet Hospital DHA Phase-I Lahore, to evaluate the risk factors leading to the appendicular bone fracture in canine and felines so that these factors can be identified and possible strategies are taken to avoid bone fractures in canine and felines. The chi-square test result identified the following 10 factors strongly associated with the appendicular bone fractures in canine and felines during the study period, which is Summary 60 1) Owner’s education. 2) The physical condition of the pet. 3) Taking pet daily for outside walk. 4) Wandering habits of pet. 5) The habit of traveling with pets. 6) Not giving balanced diet daily to the pet. 7) Early weaning within two weeks after birth. 8) Aggressive behavior of the pet. 9) Road accidents. 10) Falling from a height. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2864-T] (1).

15. Study On Contamination Of Toxigenic Staphylococcus Aureus In Frozen Desserts And Its Public Health Significance

by Moin Afzal (2009-VA-244) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Frozen desserts are ice cream and other ices which are kept frozen or at low temperature that are said to be frozen dairy desserts. Frozen desserts include ice cream, ice milk and other edible ices. Ice cream is mainly prepared with milk fat which is about 10-16% according to manufacturer standard, without fat milk solids is almost 9-12%, sugar mainly sucrose is about 9-12%, it has water about 55 - 64% and 0.200.50% are stabilizeror emulsifier In this study 100 samples of commercially prepared frozen desserts were collected and analyzed microbiologically. Nine towns of Lahore were studied, 10 samples were collected from each town from the street venders/local manufacturer, total 90 samples from venders/local manufacturers and 10 samples were collected from the brands outlets. Frozen desserts include dairy frozen dessert, synthetic frozen dessert and some frozen dairy desserts. These samples were culture on Baird Parker agar and the isolated bacteria were further confirmed by PCR tests for detection and identification of the genes encoding Staphylococcal Enterotoxin type A Staphylococcal Enterotoxin type B. Total 100 samples were processed microbiologically to identify the S. aureuscontamination in frozen desserts. Samples were taken from street vendors and local manufacturers. The results showed that 64% of the dairy frozen desserts were found positive by Staphylococcus spp. 56.25% of the isolates were coagulase positive. The PCR results showed that 17.8% of the S. aureusisolates possess type A gene, while 12.5% had the type B gene, and 9.3% carry both genes. Laboratory results showed that street vendors which do not have any hygienic conditions as well as temperature maintenance system for their product, they were found contaminated with S. aureus. Major factor of S. aureuscontamination is the personnel handling involvement in the manufacturing frozen desserts. Personnel who were not following hygienic rules to manufacture frozen desserts were found contaminated withS. aureus.S. aureuscan survive at low temperature but cannot grow and produce enterotoxins at low temperature whenever there is a temperature fluctuation S. aureus grows and produce enterotoxins, which could be public health hazard Street vendors don’t have any temperature control system when there is no electricity.Frozen dessert consumers are at risk to get food borne illness or food poisoning. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2942-T] (1).

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