Study Of Socio-Demogrphic And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With Foot And Mouth
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted during February 2012 to April 2012, in Chagai district, Balochistan. Information about education and economic status of the farmers, managemental practices, vaccination, outbreak history, veterinary services and transboundry animal movement was collected from 323 (282/323 farmers and 41/323 livestock traders) on a structured questionnaire. The status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not known in Chagai, following research has been planned to see the potential association between farming practices and FMD.
Factors which were significantly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in district Chagai were education level of Farmers (illiterate 60%, literate 40%) and livestock traders (illiterate 42%, literate 58%), socioeconomic status of the farmers <20000 rupees (63%) and >20000 rupees (37%) and livestock traders <20000 rupees (12%) and >20000 rupees (88%), type of animals in the herd of farmers (cattle, 2%, sheep 4.2%, goat 19%, cattle-sheep-goat 9% and sheep-goat 67%) and livestock traders (cattle 17%, goat 3%, cattle-sheep-goat 68% and sheep-goat 12%), housing system used by farmers (open 93%, closed 7) and livestock traders (open 12%, closed 78%), feeding methods in case of farmers (grazing 93%, stall feeding 7%) vaccination against FMD farmers (yes 3%, no 97%) and livestock traders (yes 39%, no 61%), veterinary services available to farmers (yes 17%, no 87%) and livestock traders (yes 48%, no 52%) , nomadic movement of farmers (yes 62%, no 38%), export of live animals (yes 73%, no 27%) and import (yes 10%, no 90%). Other managmental practices like quarantine (no, 100%), isolation of sick animals from the herd (no, 100%), feeding of young animals milk of the sick mothers (yes, 100%) and proper disposal of the dead animals (no, 100%) were factors which were not analyzed due to zero cell values.
It is concluded that illiteracy, poor economic status of farmers, type of animals (sheep and goat), open housing system, mixed grazing in the range land, low vaccine coverage, poor veterinary services and free movement of animals are strongly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in Chagai district. Transboudry animal movement of livestock to and from Afghanistan and Iran can aggravate the situation. Regular vaccination of livestock and awareness of farmers can help to improve the animal health status in Chagai.
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Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea
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Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%.
The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection.
The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%.
Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea
Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination.
4. Direct microscopic examination
The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination.
5. Simple floatation examination
The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique.
6. Sedimentation floatation Technique
The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites.
The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%)
Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea
The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%.
Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea
Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit
The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus.
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