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1. Study Of Socio-Demogrphic And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With Foot And Mouth

by Abdul Sattar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhamad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted during February 2012 to April 2012, in Chagai district, Balochistan. Information about education and economic status of the farmers, managemental practices, vaccination, outbreak history, veterinary services and transboundry animal movement was collected from 323 (282/323 farmers and 41/323 livestock traders) on a structured questionnaire. The status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not known in Chagai, following research has been planned to see the potential association between farming practices and FMD. Factors which were significantly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in district Chagai were education level of Farmers (illiterate 60%, literate 40%) and livestock traders (illiterate 42%, literate 58%), socioeconomic status of the farmers <20000 rupees (63%) and >20000 rupees (37%) and livestock traders <20000 rupees (12%) and >20000 rupees (88%), type of animals in the herd of farmers (cattle, 2%, sheep 4.2%, goat 19%, cattle-sheep-goat 9% and sheep-goat 67%) and livestock traders (cattle 17%, goat 3%, cattle-sheep-goat 68% and sheep-goat 12%), housing system used by farmers (open 93%, closed 7) and livestock traders (open 12%, closed 78%), feeding methods in case of farmers (grazing 93%, stall feeding 7%) vaccination against FMD farmers (yes 3%, no 97%) and livestock traders (yes 39%, no 61%), veterinary services available to farmers (yes 17%, no 87%) and livestock traders (yes 48%, no 52%) , nomadic movement of farmers (yes 62%, no 38%), export of live animals (yes 73%, no 27%) and import (yes 10%, no 90%). Other managmental practices like quarantine (no, 100%), isolation of sick animals from the herd (no, 100%), feeding of young animals milk of the sick mothers (yes, 100%) and proper disposal of the dead animals (no, 100%) were factors which were not analyzed due to zero cell values. It is concluded that illiteracy, poor economic status of farmers, type of animals (sheep and goat), open housing system, mixed grazing in the range land, low vaccine coverage, poor veterinary services and free movement of animals are strongly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in Chagai district. Transboudry animal movement of livestock to and from Afghanistan and Iran can aggravate the situation. Regular vaccination of livestock and awareness of farmers can help to improve the animal health status in Chagai. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1555,T] (1).

2. Application Of Euroscore To Predict Risk Of Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting In Pakistani Population

by Ali Naeem (2014-VA-780) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Ammar Hameed Khan | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Coronary artery bypass surgery has become the standard of care for advanced coronary artery disease. It is one of the most audited and closely monitored operations in the history of surgery. Morbidity and mortality associated with this operation is also very closely monitored by surgeons, hospitals, professional bodies and governments at large. Based on the preoperative clinical information available about patients preparing to undergo coronary artery bypass surgery various predictive models for assessment of mortality risk have been developed over the last two decades in various regions across the world. Euro SCORE is one such predictive model which can accurately predict the risk of mortality for large groups of patients for the population in which it was developed. A large number of Pakistanis and nationals from South East Asian countries reside in different European countries and form part of the population on which this score has been developed and validated. We intend to find out the predictive accuracy of this model in our patients living in Pakistan. Euro SCORE accurately predicts operative mortality in patients from Pakistani population. This study will be conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery Shalamar Hospital Lahore. One hundred consecutive patients admitted to hospital for coronary artery bypass surgery will be enrolled in study. A total of 18 variables as included in EuroSCORE (Appendix 1) will be collected and entered into database. The expected mortality risk will be calculated by the EuroSCORE Calculator software ( Actual or observed mortality and morbidity will also be recorded. Statistical analysis will be performed using SPSS version16. Continuous numerical data will be presented as mean ± Standard deviation, the Student t test will be used to compare means of normally distributed data. The qualitative data will be analyzed using chi square test. The relationship of the observed and the expected rates of mortality will be assessed using ROC curves for the accuracy of prediction of the Euro-SCORE. This study will indicate how accurately Euro SCORE can predict the risk of mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in our population and more over it may indicate other patient related variables that can contribute to operative mortality other than Euro SCORE. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2713-T] (1).

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