Descrptive Epidemiology Of Canine Parvovirus Disease In Dogs At Pet Enter Uvas In Lahore And Interventional Trial
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Pakistan has been bestowed with a huge population of livestock encompassing buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat, camel and other domestic animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. Out of these, dogs occupy a special attention due to many peculiarities they possess like sniffing, hunting, retrieving and many more. These specialties of dogs are utilized by military, rangers, police, anti-narcotic forces, other agencies, etc. There are three million dogs in Pakistan. A dog encounters many infectious and non-infectious diseases during the course of its life cycle. Some of the viral infectious diseases, and considered more important for a dog are, rabies, canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis. As a pathogen, canine parvovirus emerged in 1970s but later it evolved into two new antigenic strains, type 2a and type 2b which are distributed all over the world. Mostly, protection against CPV is gained from maternally derived antibodies in puppies but simultaneously they may interfere with CPV vaccination. Severe gastrointestinal signs are associated with CPV and this infection is transmitted through contact with infected feces via oro-fecal route or exposure with fomites and also via placental transmission. The virus is very stable in the environment and is susceptible to some cleaning agents like bleach.
The current study was conducted to study the descriptive epidemiology of canine parvovirus disease in dogs at Pet Center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) in Lahore and to compare two types of hyper immune sera i.e. Canglob (Ghazi Brothers) and UVAS hyper immune serum for parvovirus through interventional trial, for treating the clinically diseased pups. The study included puppies aged between six weeks and six months. Puppies aged between six weeks and six months, found clinically suspected to be affected with canine parvovirus and showing the signs and symptoms like vomiting, bloody mucoid diarrhea, emaciation and anorexia and found positive for hemagglutination test were included in the study. Hemagglutination test was used as a diagnostic and a screening test to confirm canine parvovirus in the clinically suspected puppies.
The disease was more observed in the puppies aged between 7 to 12 weeks. There were 28 females and 32 males observed in the study. The disease was more frequently observed in Labradors. The disease was observed to be more common in the dogs that weighed 4-6 kgs. Canine parvovirus HA titers were more observed in the dogs that had been ill due to CPV for the past 5-6 days. Only 16 puppies out of 60 were vaccinated. Also, it was observed that canine parvovirus geometric mean titer was higher in the non-vaccinated puppies. The disease was more observed in the pups vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine and less observed in the pups that were inoculated with a monovalent vaccine. Most of the dogs were aged between 31-60 days when they got vaccinated. Sixty percent (60%) of the dog owners knew that if vaccination is done then the dog may be protected against the disease. The disease was more observed in the pups that were owned by more educated and economically stabled persons.
The result of the statistical analysis using Pearson Chi-Square Test suggests that the difference between Group A and Group B regarding the outcome of the interventional trial is not statistically significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted that the UVAS produced hyper immune serum against canine parvovirus is equally good as compared with Canglob for the treatment of CPV diseased puppies.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1831,T] (1).
An Epidemiological Investigation For The Selection Of Suitable Vaccine Virus Candidate Of Newcastle Disease
Material type: Book Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The current study was designed to investigate the risk factors associated with Newcastle disease and characterization and confirmation of Newcastle disease on microbiological and molecular basis. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important viral diseases. It is an acute infectious viral disease of domestic poultry and other species of birds regardless of variation in sex and age. Etiological agents of ND are virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae and order mononegavirales. The data collection was done on predesigned questionnaire. Newcastle disease virus isolation was done by using the embryonated eggs. Amnion allantoic fluid was harvested and checked for hemaglutinating activity by spot hemaglutinition test and results were recorded. For confirmation of NDV hemaglutinition assay and hemaglutinition inhibition test were used. Further confirmation was done by RT PCR using predesigned primers. Results showed that vaccine used at the most of farms were live attenuated. Most of the farms have no written biosecurity plan. A total of 264 samples were examined 17 samples were the best suspected positive for ND, 10 samples were confirmed on the basis of postmortem lesion, HI and PCR.
The study concludes the farm type, dead bird disposal, biosecurity, farm history and vehicles for feed transportation are the risk factors for the outbreak of Newcastle disease. Whereas water quality, farm mangers, litter disposal, vaccine schedule and vaccine type given at farm show no significant association with the spread of disease. The study characterized field isolates on microbiological and molecular basis, submitted to the principle investigator for use in development of multiepitop vaccine.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2462-T] (1).