In-Vivo Efficacy Of Aqueous And Alcoholic Extracts Of Hedera Helix Against Fasciolosis In Sheep
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is a common parasite of ruminants in many countries in the temperate climates and often causes severe economic losses. Infection with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica may also occur in occasionally causing large scale epidemics. These parasites adversely affect the health status of animals and cause enormous economic losses Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a worldwide, one of the most used drugs for the control of fasciolosis but the efficacy may depend on the susceptibility of the strain involved in the drug. However, resistance of the liver fluke to TCBZ in naturally infected sheep has been reported. Plants are being used as anthelmintic as the allopathic drugs today which offer substitute to the use of synthetic chemicals. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts of H. helix against fasciolosis in sheep. For this purpose, adult sheep was used for In vivo trials. Animals were screened for the presence of liver fluke and 30 sheep positive for liver fluke infestation were used for therapeutic trials. They were divided into 5 groups. Group A and B were given single dose of aqueous extract of Hedera helix at concentrations of 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively. Animals in C and D group were given 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively, while sheep in E group were given Triclabendazole at dose rate of 1 ml/5kg body weight. Fecal samples from each animal was collected in the morning, starting from day 0 pre-treatment and at days 4,7 and 14 post-treatment and were evaluated for the EPG through Modified McMaster method.
The comparative efficacy was analysed by two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels ˂0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
During In vivo experiment all the treatments showed significant reduction in EPG. The maximum reduction in EPG showed by crude aqueous extract (CAE) at day 4 post treatment at 1.13 gm/kg dose rate was 20.0012 %. There were no significant reduction in EPG at day 7 and 14 day for aqueous extract. The maximum reduction by aqueous extract at day 4 at dose
rate of 2.25 gm/kg was 40.47 % and at day 7 it was 45.24 %, whereas there was no significant reduction at day 14 post treatment. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 1.13 gm/kg at day 4 was 29.54 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 40.09 % and at day 14 the reduction was 43.18 %. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 2.25 gm/kg at day 4 was 56.09 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 64.85 % and at day 14 the reduction was 68.29 %. The positive control treated with Triclabendazole showed the maximum reduction of 97.5 % in eggs per gram (EPG).
So it is concluded from the study that the extracts of Hedera helix have the anthelmintic efficacy against liver fluke. The increase in dose rate of extracts may give better results. So there is need to conduct further studied and more trials on Hedera helix extracts under field conditions to achieve maximum efficiency levels.
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Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Non Steroids Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Wound Healing In Equines
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Blank CD.
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Point Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Along With Their Effect On Various Hematological Parameters In Commercial Dairy Herds In District Kasur, Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a major constraint of ruminant production and causes great economic
loss to dairy industry by retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of
animals to other infections. Gastrointestinal helminthes are prevalent in dairy animals in and
around district Kasur and have significant effect on the hematological parameters of the
infected animals (Hypothesis).
Samples were randomly collected from 200 apparently healthy animals (n = 100
cattle; n =100 buffalo). From each animal a hand full of fecal sample was collected directly
from the rectum in a disposable polythene sleeve. Proper dress was adopted during sample
collection. The samples were kept in refrigerator at 4oC for examination on same day or next
day. Each animal sample was identified, labeled and information about age, sex, body
condition, management, current disease, vaccination, deworming. (Performa attached) are
recorded. Samples were brought to Medicine Lab, CMS, UVAS, Lahore, for examination of
helminthes eggs in the fecal samples. For hematological examination samples were refered to
university diagnostic lab (UDL) UVAS, Lahore.
Out of 100 cattle 24 (24%) were found positive and out of 100 buffalo 37 (37%) were
found to be positive for gastrointestinal helminthes. It can be seen that prevalence was more
in buffalo as compared to cattle. The species wise prevalene for cattle was Toxocara 29.16 %,
Haemonchus 12.5%, Fasciola 4.1%, Strongyloids 12.5%, Trichostrongyloids 12.5%,
Ostertagia species 8.33 % and mixed infections were 8.33% and for buffaloes it was
Toxocara 35.13 % , Haemonchus 16.21%,, Fasciola 5.40%, Strongyloids 13.51% ,
Trichostrongyloids 16.21%, Ostertagia species 10.81% and mixed infections was 8.11%.
Female cattle and buffalo (31.72%) were more prone to infection than male animals
(14.28%). The age wise prevalence for less than 6 month, 6-12 month, 1-2 years, 2-3 years
and more than 3 years was 52.5%, 78.26%, 16%, 14.04% and 20% respectively. The
haemotological values for cattle and buffaloes infected with gastrointestinal helminth for
TEC (%), Hb (g/dl), MCV (fl), MCHC (g/dl), Lymphocyte (%), Monocyte (%), Eosinophil
(%) and Basophils( %) are 4.07±0.065, 7.010±0.052, 48.45 ± 0.20, 28.26 ± 0.074, 53.72 ±
0.112, 3.143 ± 0.117, 4.067 ± 0.021, 0.298 ± 0.031 and 5.09 ± 0.76, 8.012 ± 0.058, 50.56 ±
0.21, 30.71 ± 0.085, 55.82 ± 0.114, 4.167 ± 0.236, 5.076 ± 0.023, 0.301 ± 0.034 respectively.
Data regarding the prevalence and associated risk factors were analyzed using
Pearson’s chi-square test. The data regarding hematological study were analyzed by Students
T-test using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 20. P < 0.05 were
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Mirpur Azad Jammu And Kashmir
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis of livestock is mostly confined to tropical and subtropical countries like Pakistan, where climatic conditions are suitable for growth and development of many vectors as ticks. Piroplasms belongs to this complex and affects both large and small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates resulting in heavy economic losses and thus poses a serious risk to livestock production. A total of 200 blood samples of bovine, cattle (n=100) and buffalo (n=100) showing the signs of fever, progressive anemia, a marked decline in body weight, depression and debility from district Mirpur AJK were included in the study. The diagnosis was made through thin blood smear examination. The overall prevalence was found 15.00% in both species of animals. The prevalence in cattle and buffaloes revealed 22% and 08% respectively. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence between cattle and buffaloes. The gender wise prevalence of the disease revealed 12.12% in male and 26.87% in female cattle whereas; these values were 6.45% in male and 8.70% in female buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between male and female animals in the area. The data on breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis showed highest prevalence in exotic breeds (28.00%) followed by cross breed cattle (24.44%) and native breed (16.67%) of AJK. The prevalence was 5.71% in Kunddi breed of buffalo and 9.23% in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between breeds of animals. Three different age groups of cattle and buffaloes were analyzed for the prevalence percentage of anaplasmosis in the area. The data showed highest prevalence (35.48%) in 1-3 year age group of animals followed by 18.92% in 3-5 year and 12.50% in age group 5-7 year in case of cattle and 14.29%, 6.67% and 5.88% in buffaloes respectively. the analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups. The values of hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and total
erythrocyte count were found increased significantly (P<0.05) in cattle and buffaloes infected with anaplasmosis whereas; total leukocyte count was decreased significantly. The parameters were tested through student’s T-test. The analysis showed significant difference of values of all parameters in normal and infected animals. The chemotherapeutic trials were conducted with two drugs against bovine anaplasmosis in clinically diagnosed cases. Twelve positive cases of each cattle and buffaloes were divided into two main groups A and B comprising of 06 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into two sub groups comprising of 03 animals in each sub groups. The group A was treated with Oxytetracycline @ 20 mg/kg B.W. I/M the efficacy of the drug was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of Anaplasma in the blood smear. The efficacy percentage of Oxytetracycline was 33.3, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 33.3, 33.3 and 66.7 respectively in buffaloes. The group B was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy percentage of Calotropis procera (Aak) was 0.00, 33.3, 66.7, and 66.7 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 33.3 respectively in buffaloes. The efficacy of Oxytetracycline against bovine anaplasmosis on day 08 was found 83.33% whereas; of Calotropis procera was 66.66%. It was concluded that Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against bovine anaplasmosis.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Pyrantel Pamoate, Ajwain And Kamala Against Toxocara Vitulorum Infestation In Bovine Calves
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Toxocara vitulorum is a round worm of cattle and buffalo that is common in tropical and subtropical area.Toxocara vitulorum from infected cattle and buffalo transmitted to calves via colostrum and placenta while its transmission was very less though feed and water. Toxocara vitulorum infestation was very high in calves and it caused mortalities in calve ages between 1 to 3 months, while infestation was less in high age groups.Mortality in cattle and buffalo calves reached up to 50% andcause poor growth, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia and ketosis in calves. These worms could cause intestinal strangulation, holes and blockage in intestines of calves.
Resent study was designed to check the prevalence and therapeutic trial of Toxocara vitulorum in cow and buffalo calves. These results were very helpful for the treatment of the Toxocara vitulorum that was a major endo-parasite in the cows and buffalo calves. Fecal samples from 300 cows and buffalo were examined under the compound microscope for ova. Positive cow and buffalo calves were divided in five groups and different treatments were given to each group. Egg per Gram (EPG) counted at day 7and 14th post-treatment.
Overall prevalence Toxocara vitulorum was 49% in cow calves and 59% in buffalo calves. Prevalence was higher in 1-3 month age group calves (78% in cow calves & 91% in buffalo calves) while prevalence was higher in female calves (52% in cow and 61% in buffalo calves) as compare to male calves (44% in cow and 55% in buffalo calves). Prevalence was higher in the summer stress months.
The efficacy of the Albendazole was lowest in both cows and buffalo calves. The efficacy of Albendazole in cow was 25% and 31% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Albendazole was 24% and 31% at 7th and 14th days of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 98% and 100 % in cow calves at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 81% and 100% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Ajwain in cow calves was 59% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves it was 58% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Kamala in cow calves was 33% and 39% at day 7th and 14th day of post-treatment, respectively and buffalo calves the efficacy was 34% and 42% at day 7th and 14th of post-treatment.
It is concluded from the present study that both in cow and buffalo calves, Toxocara vitulorum is most prevalent parasitic infestation. This parasite is more prevalent in female calves, 1-6 months of age and during hot and humid season in both cows and buffaloes. Pyrantel pamoate is proved to be better than Ajwain but Albendazole and Kamala was not justified good dewormer against Toxocariasis in bovine calves.
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Epidemiology, Molecular Detection, Zoonotic Potential, Heamatology And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosis In Small Ruminants In Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic enteric protozoan infection affecting all vertebrates. The current study was designed to determine the percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in small ruminants and humans along with associated risk factors.
An overall highest percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis recorded in all four categories of small ruminants were 27.22%, 20.56%, 18.33% and 12.22% in lambs, kids, Sheep and goats respectively.
In the current study, 21.55%, 18.33% and15% prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was recorded in sheep in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively. In the present study, the highest month wise percent prevalence in sheep, was observed in the month of August (36.66%) followed by April (26.66%), June (26.66%), May, July and September (23.33%), February (10.66%), March (10%), November (10%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in the month of December and January (6.66%). In sheep, season wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest prevalence was recorded in summer and autumn season (23.33%), followed by spring (20%) while the lowest percent prevalence was found in the winter season (10%). In sheep, age wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest percent prevalence was found at the age of 1 year (22.38%) followed by 1-2 years (18.03%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years (13.46%). In sheep, sex wise percent prevalence was also documented where highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (18.80%) followed by male (17.02%) where lowest percent prevalence was recorded.
In goats, the percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also studied in three selected areas where recorded 6.66%, 11.66% and 18.3% prevalence in District Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat respectively. Similarly, in goats, overall highest month wise percent
prevalence was recorded in the month of August (30%), followed by July (23.33%), June (20%), May (16.66%), March and September (13.33%), April and November (10%), January, February and October (3.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in December (0%). In the current study, the season wise prevalence was also studied in goats where highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer season (20.83%), followed by spring (13.33%), autumn (11.66%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in winter season (3.33%). The highest age wise percent prevalence was recorded at the age of 1 year (18.58%) followed by 1-2 years (10.20%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years or above (5.95%). According to the sex wise percent prevalence, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in male (12.30%) while the lowest in females (12.17%).
The overall highest percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in lambs in three areas where 33.33%, 25% and 23.33% prevalence was recorded in Kohat, Lakki Marwat and Bannu respectively. The highest month wise percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August (46.6%), followed by other months of the year such as July (40%), April, May and June (30%), September and October (26.66%), November and January (20%) while the lowest in the month of February and December (16.66%) in lambs. The Season wise percent prevalence was recorded in lambs where highest percent prevalence was recorded in summer season (36.66 %), followed by spring and autumn (26.66%) while the lowest in winter season (18.33%). According to the age wise percent prevalence in lambs, the highest prevalence was recorded at the age of 1-15 days (38.09%) followed by 16-30 days (29.41%) while the lowest at the age of 31-60 days or above (15.15%). In lambs, the highest sex wise percent prevalence was recorded in females (31.18%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in males (22.98%).
In kids, overall highest percent prevalence was 20.55% recorded in three selected districts where the highest prevalence was recorded in District Kohat (23.33%), followed by District Bannu (20%) while the lowest in District Lakki Marwat (18.33%). In kids the month wise percent prevalence was also studied where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in May and August (33.33%), followed by June, July and September (26.66%), March, April and October (20%), November and December (13.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of the January (6.66%). The Season wise percent prevalence was also recorded in kids, where the highest percent prevalence was observed in the summer season (30%), followed by autumn (23.33%), spring (20%) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in winter season (10%). The highest age wise percent prevalence in kids was also recorded at the age of ≤1-15 days (33.92%), followed by 16-30 days (15.38%) while the lowest at the age of ≥31-60 days or above (13.55%). Sex wise percent prevalence was also determined in goat kids where, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (20.98%) followed by male kids (19.19%).
To conduct molecular study, 360 fecal samples of sheep were analyzed for presence of the Cryptosporidium oocysts through simple microscopic method first then confirmed by PCR. DNA was extracted with the help of DNA extraction kit (Made in USA, GFC vivantis). The targeted gene of parasite was 18s rRNA which result in amplification of a segment of genomic DNA at 435 bp. The following primers sequence was used for Forward primer: (5-AAGCTCGTAGTTGGATTTCTG- and reverse primers (5-TAAGGTGCTGAAGGAGTAAGG-3. An overall molecular percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was 24.99% in sheep in three selected zones of southern KPK. The highest molecular percent prevalence was 31.66%, 25% and 18.33% in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively.
The highest season wise molecular percent prevalence was also recorded where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer (33.33%), followed by autumn (30%), spring (26.66%) while the lowest in the winter season (13.33%). Molecular percent prevalence was higher in females (27.08%) than male (25.53%). On the basis of environmental factors, overall the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August where highest ambient temperature, relative humidity and heavy rain fall was recorded.
To find out Zoonotic aspect of the Cryptosporidium infection, the overall highest percent prevalence was recorded in children (16.66%), followed by adults (5.55%).
The highest percent prevalence was recorded in diarrhoeic children where direct contact with small ruminants was observed while the lowest prevalence was recorded in those children where no direct or indirect contact was observed.
To conduct the therapeutic trials, a total of 50 goats were selected of the same weight and age that were naturally infected by Cryptosporidium under field conditions. All the goats were placed under same feeding and management conditions and randomly divided into five groups such as A, B, C, D and E. All animals in groups A, B, C and D were treated with Azithromycin (10mg/kg b.wt), Metronidazole (50mg/Kg b.wt), Allium sativum (50mg/Kg b.wt) and Paromomycin (100mg/kg b.wt) respectively while Group-E was placed as a positive control group. The highest percent efficacy in reduction of OPG was shown by different drugs such as Paromomycine (91.77%) followed by Metronidazole (78.20%), Allium sativum (77.00%) while the lowest percent efficacy was shown by Azithromycin (59.29%). On the basis of hematological study, lower lymphocytes count was (48.39%) recorded in non-infected animals while higher (54.33%) count was recorded in infected animals. Similarly higher eosinophil count was (6.73%) recorded in infected group while lower (50 %) counts were recorded in non-
infected group. Hb level was higher in infected group than healthy animals. PCV level was higher (42.94%) in infected animals while low (34.62%) in healthy animals. Biochemical analysis of the serum showed, higher quantity of total protein, albumin, ALP, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Zinc, Copper, Urea and Creatinine was recorded in infected goats while lower quantity was observed in healthy goats.
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