Comparayive Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Trails Against Hypodermosis In Cattle In Rajanpur
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Study was carried out in district Rajanpur from February, 2011 to April, 2011 to find out percentage of infestation and to study chemotherapeutic trails against warble fly infestation in cattle in three tehsils namely Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur of district Rajanpur. In each tehsil 200 cattle were examined to record clinical signs of hypodermosis. For treatment of affected animals drug trail were done with Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) and Ivermectin (Imec, SJG, Pakistan) 1% subcutaneously @ 0.2mg/kg body weight. Study included percentage of infestation in cattle in the households, veterinary hospitals and private farms. Average percentage of warbles in cattle was calculated and found 10 %, 17% and 16.5% in Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur respectively. It was found that percentage of infestation was 12% to 18% in hilly areas as compared to semi-hilly areas with 8% to16% and riverine areas 8% to 18% warble fly infestation in cattle. It was observed that warble fly infestation in cattle was absent in some plane areas in tehsil Jampur.
The comparison of different chemotherapeutic trails against Hypodermosis in cattle were observed and recorded. Three groups of cattle were made for chemotherapeutic trails against hypodermosis. Application of Tagafon in two different groups of cattle was carried out to evaluate their efficacy against Hypodemosis. In one group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) was applied with cotton gauzes by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution of trichlorophon. In second group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star, Pakistan) was given by drenching method with 2% solution at a dose rate of 0.2ml/kg body weight. In third group (Inj.Imec, SJG, Pakistan) Ivermectin 1% at dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneous injection was carried out. Ivermectin1% was found to be 100% effective. Tagafon (Trichlorophon) was found 90% effective by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution and Tagafon (Trichlorophon) by drenching method with 2% solution was found 85%effective against warble fly infestation in cattle in the study area. The data was analyzed statistically and found significant.
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Prevalence Of Dermatophytosis In Domestic Dogs And In-Vivo Evaluation Of Topical Anri-Fungal Agents
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: The pet dog is a domesticated animal, belonging to the family Canidae and it comes within the order Carnivora. The given nomenclature is used for all varieties of pet dogs. Earlier, this pet animal was used for different purposes which include hunting, fighting and also different types of work had been taken from it. Dermatophytosis is the common skin infection in dogs especially in the young ones. A total of 300 samples were collected. The 36 samples were found positive and then divided into 3 groups. In group K, Ketoconazole was applied topically twice a week. Later on the efficacy of Ketoconazole was observed by collecting the samples on day 7, 14 and 21 after the commencement of treatment, which was 20%, 60% and 90% respectively. Similarly, Group L was treated with Lime sulphur and the efficacy of Limesulphur against M.canis infection, was found to be 60%, 80% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. Group M was treated with Miconazole. The efficacy of miconazole against M.canis was found to be 50%, 75% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. At the end, it was concluded that Lime sulphur was the best drug of choice among the three drugs used and the efficacy of ketoconazole was lesser than the others.
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Determinaton Of Multiple Drug Resistance Against Pasteurella - Multocida Isolates From Cattle And Buffalo In District Naseerabad, Balochistan
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic Septicemia is one of the major problems from livestock point of view with high morbidity, mortality, loss of production and cost of treatment. The predisposing factors such as high temperature, high humidity and uncontrolled transportation of cattle and buffalo round the clock favor outbreak from time to time in the District Naseerabad, Balochistan. Forty samples were collected aseptically from Cattle and Buffalo and transported for further processing placing temperature 4 0C in to the Laboratory Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Samples were cultured on blood agar for isolation and purification .These isolate were identified macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical profile characteristics test. The antibiotic sensitivity test of Ceftriaxone, Cephaloridine, Trimethoprim, Streptomycin, Cinoxacin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenical and Amoxycillin were determined for P. multocida isolates and also observed noticeable resistance against these antibiotics. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed statistically.
The aim and objective of present study was to determine multiple drug resistance against Pasteurella multocida so that proper antibiotic for the above said ailment with recommended dosage may be accomplished according to standard dosage.
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Chemotheraph Of Ancylostomiasis In Cats In Lahore.
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: It has been a long time since the affection of cats is with human beings. Cats have recorded as most adoptable pet of the modern world. Cats can be found anywhere in the world. Many diseases of cats are zoonotically important and they may cause zoonotic problem in human and mainly these pathogen are involved in enteric problems. The relationship of feline with human does provide many benefits to them but also act as a cause of zoonotic diseases.
A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from cats and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The positive samples for Ancylostoma were 65 out of 300, indicating prevalence of Ancylostomiasis was 21.66%. For the chemotherapeutical trails 18 positive cats and 6 healthy cats were divided into four groups viz. A, B, C and D with 6 animals in each group. The cats of group A were treated with Pyrantel Pamoate @ 20mg/kg orally. The cats of Group B were treated with the Albendazole @ 50mg/kg orally. The cats of Group C were kept as positive control while the cats of Group D were kept as negative control.
The fecal samples were collected on day 0 pre-treatment and then on day 7th, 14th and 21st of post-treatment. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the fecal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate on these days was 43.47%, 67.39% and 94.20% respectively, against Ancylostoma. The efficacy of Albendazole on these days was 30.77%, 60.44% and 86.81% respectively, against Ancylostoma. Thus it was recorded
that Pyrantel Pamoate was more effective against Ancylostoma than Albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole.
Hematological study showed that the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, B and C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leukocyte count were higher in group A, B and C as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leukocyte count gradually decrease on day 7th, 14th and 21st post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Pyrantel Pamoate and Albendazole showed their positive effect on blood parameters as a result of Ancylostomiasis with more efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate as compared to that of Albendazole.
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro-Intestinal Paradites In Deer In Punjab, Pakistan.
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The parasitic load on deer affects them badly and eventually leads to death. In the present study a total of 100 feacal samples were collected from deer and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, department of CMS, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Out of 100 samples thirty eight were positive and among these thirty eight, 12 deer were infected with cestodes, 6 with nematodes, 12 with trematodes, and 8 with the mixed infection of parasites. So, the prevalence of the cestodes, trematodes, nematode and mixed infection was 12%, 12%, 6% and 8% respectively. For the chemotherapeutic trails thirty positive animals and 10 healthy animals were divided into four groups A, B, C and D with 10 animals in each. The animals of group A was treated with albendazole @ 7.5mg/kg orally. Those of group B was treated with the ivermectin @ 1mg/ 50kg orally. The group C animals were kept as positive control and group D were kept as negative control.
The feacal samples were collected on the 0 day (pre-treatment), 7th, 14th and 21st day (post-treatment). The efficacy of the drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the feacal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of albendazole 42.59 %, 71.3% and 87.96% against cestodes, 33.33%, 60.3% and 82.88% against nematodes and 40.18%, 68.22% and 89.72% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively.. The efficacies of ivermectin were 42.59 %, 73.15% and 88.88% against cestodes, 51.78%, 76% and 91.07% against nematode while 42.85%, 64.28% and 85.71% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively.
It is thus concluded that the ivermectin is more effective drug than albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole.
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Theileriosis In Equines In And Around Lahore
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Theileriosis is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by intermittent fever, loss of appetite, anemia, loss of weight, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes, jaundice and recumbency. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present study was designed to study prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore.
For this purpose 300 equines (Horses=100; mules=100; donkeys=100) were examined for theileria infection.The blood was collected by ear tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. Theileriaequiwere identified by their morphological characteristics as described by Rashid et al. (2009) and Guimaraeset al. (1997).Over all prevalence of Theileriaequiin equines was estimated as 58%. There was also a mixed infection of Theileriaequi and Babesiacaballiin some cases. Individually there was 54%, 64% and 56% prevalence of Theileriaequi found in horses, mules and donkeys respectively.
The effect of theileriosis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC and PCV) was determined in 30 equines (Horses= 10; mules= 10; donkeys= 10). The remarkable decrease in hemoglobin, TEC, PCV and lymphocytes was observed. The value of ESR increased while there were no remarkable changes in TLC, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils and eosinophil.
For chemotherapy, 36 equines (Horses=12; mules=12; donkeys=12) positive for theileriosiswere divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups comprising of 4 animals in each subgroup. The animals of group A (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) were treated with Imidocarbdipropionate (Imizol®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M, and the efficacy of drug was found 91.7% in equines against theileriosis.The group B (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Buparvaquone (Butalex®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M alone and was observed 66.7% effective. While the group C (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Auk(Calotropisprocera)@ 0.3mg/kg BW, 8 doses at alternate days (local treatment), which was found 58.3% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and blood smear examination at day 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post-medication. The efficacy of each drug was measured through recovery rate of the animals.
Finally, the data on prevalence of theileriosis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance whereas data on hematology was analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station T×77845, USA), P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Considering the significance and utilization of equine in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present project was designed to check prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field.
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichuriasis (Whi Worm) In Dogs.
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: In developing countries like Pakistan the trend of establishment of kennel clubs are increasing day by day. While the population of dogs increase the strong practice of vaccination and deworming increase as well. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. It causes great economic losses. The genus Trichiuris is one of the important nematode which affect the dogs. Therefore a study of genus Trichiuris was conducted in month of March to May, 2012. For this purpose 300 hundreds dogs of different breeds of dogs were selected for investigation of Trichiuris vulpis. Samples were collected and brought to the Clinical laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In laboratory positive samples for Trichiuris vulpis were recorded. The overall prevalence of Trichiuris vulpis was found to be 20% .The dogs positive for Trichiuris vulpis were divided into three groups A, B and C having 10 dogs in each group. Group A and B were treated with pyrantal pamoate and fenbendazole respectively. While the group C was positive control. The efficacy of both the drugs were measured by the decrease in egg per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made at day zero, 7th and 14th.
The efficacy of pyrantal pamoat recorded on day 7th and 14th was 95.30 and 98.61% respectively while the efficacy of fenbendazole recorded on day 7th and 14th was 90.76 and 93.84% respectively. The obtained data was tabulated and analyzed by ANOVA.
Statistical analysis showed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the efficacy of payrental pamoate and fenbendazole after treatment of infected dogs at day 7th and 14th. This analysis showed that payrantal pamoate is significantly superior in its efficacy than fenbedazole.
The purpose of the study for prevalence and estimation of comparative efficacy of two drugs against Trichiuriasis in dogs was accomplished.
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Srudy Of Mycotoxicosis In Cattle And Buffalo In District Sheikhupura, Punjab.
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006).
Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups.
1) Poultry pigeons
2) Carrier and racing pigeons
3) Fancy and feral pigeon
Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006).
It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996).
Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007).
Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007).
The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007).
Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009).
Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007).
Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008).
Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007).
Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007).
There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001).
This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010).
T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002).
Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008).
T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007).
This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013).
The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007).
This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011).
In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011).
Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to
only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014).
Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014).
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Effects Of Aflatoxin M1 (Afm1) On Sheep And Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Livestock production is an important part of national economy and it plays a significant role in providing the high quality food for human beings. Dairy industry of Pakistan contributes up to 46.8% in the agriculture and about 10.8% of the GDP in the form of milk, milk products, meat, hides, skin and bone meal (Ghaffar et al. 2007). Molds are fungi consisting of filaments that are present in the feed of animals. Molds can cause many infections in dairy cattle, especially during period of stress when their immune system is depressed. They cause a special disorder that is termed as Mycosis. Specific mycotoxins are produced by these fungi and when these animals eat such type of feed then they also engulf such dangerous mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide range of various molds and can be classified as secondary metabolites meaning that their function is not essential to the mold’s existence (Whitlow and Hagler 2005).
In the European countries, sheep milk is mainly produced in the Spain, and it is about 403000 tons per year. The main purpose of this milk is to produce cheese. Manchego cheese is considered as the best quality cheese in the world. This is the only technique by which we can produce the high quality of cheese (Rubio et al. 2009). These Aflatoxins are the fungal main dangerous constituents that can contaminate the feed of animals very easily. If AFB1 contaminated ration is consumed by animals then metabolism takes place in these toxins and excrete AFM1 in milk which further reduces milk production. More long-lasting aflatoxin poisoning produces very dissimilar signs that may not be clinically superficial and decreased rate of production in young animals. Severe aflatoxicosis causes hepatitis, hemorrhage, and death. Decreased growth rate is the most delicate clinical symbol of chronic aflatoxicosis, and it may be the only readily obvious abnormality. Natural toxins considerably show the greater danger to human and animal health. One large group of natural toxins that are universally
documented as poisons of food and feed are the mycotoxins. The toxins occur naturally in various animal feeds, including corn and cottonseed. To control AFM1 in milk, it is essential to decrease the feed contamination by AFB1 (Prandini et al. 2009).
The livestock is playing major role in enhancing agricultural productivity and it has also major contribution to decrease the rate of poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan. Most farmers have domesticated sheep in their home which are their major sources of income (Mahmood et al. 2009). Aflatoxins adulterated rations prompted important reduction in daily feed consumption and the means of body weight, body weight increment and feed transformation rates were radically affected during the exposure stage to aflatoxins. Furthermore, serum ingredients and ruminal measurements showed lessened liver function and digestive turbulences in sheep fed aflatoxin (Jouany and Diaz 2005)
Aflatoxins are included in that group of toxins which are considered as highly toxic toxins. Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius are those types of fungi which can produce very strong type of toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most dangerous type of aflatoxin and it is very strong hepato-toxin (damaging the liver as a whole). It can also cause cancer, can produce teratogens, and may also cause mutation in the both animals and in human beings.
AFB1 being very toxic, can be activated by the special metabolism of liver and through cytochrome P450. The cancer causing ability of AFBI is ten times more than the AFM1. The conversion of AFB1 to AFM1 in the milk producing animals is in the range of half percent to about six percent. In milk producing animals the level of aflatoxin M1 is greatly altered by the contamination rate of aflatoxin B1 (Bognanno et al. 2006).
It is observed that the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep is lower than the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of cows. Due to presence of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals and hence appearance of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of animals shows that
milk of such animals becomes more toxic and more un-hygienic. The young ones having milk as their main feed ingredient may have much more chances of getting various infections. (Var and Kabak 2009). To check the level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep, various experimental studies have been performed in the whole world (Battacone et al. 2005). In Pakistan, there are many favorable environmental conditions in which various types of fungi can easily prompted (Iqbal et al. 2011). The contamination level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of dairy animals and in the dairy products has been found by (Hussain et al. 2008).
Aflatoxins can be produced from fungal metabolites. Aflatoxin M1 is produced as the complete metabolism of aflatoxin B1 has taken place. Aflatoxin B1, when converted into aflatoxin M1 is appeared in the milk of that animals and the same aflatoxin M1 can also be appeared in the dairy products which can contaminate the feed of human too. Transformation of aflatoxin B1 into the aflatoxin M1 is around one to two percent. This transformation is highly dependent upon the feed of animals, transformation from one affected animal to other healthy animal, transformation from the milking of affected animal to the milking of healthy animal and from one day to another day also. It is also noted that as the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animal is decreased down then the level of M1 in the milk of animals is also dropped down significantly but it takes about 72 hours for this dropped down (Nilchian and Rahimi 2012).
AFM1 had a resistant to thermal inactivation used during food processing procedure such as pasteurization and autoclaving. Storage of various dairy products was not effective in the reduction of this toxin (Ozdemir 2007). Aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of animals can also be found in 12 to 24 hours after the ingestion of aflatoxin B1. After this, its level can be raised within the few days. The estimation of conversion rate of aflatoxin B1 in the contaminated feed of animals into aflatoxin M1 in the milk that animal is elaborated as 1 to 3 percent in a specific range (Ozdemir 2007).
Aflatoxin B 1 being very much dangerous mycotoxin, it is very much important to know about such methods by which the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals can be controlled. For this purpose we should first come to know the basic source of feed contamination of animals, and after this we should adapt such easy method to determine the level of aflatoxin B1 in the animal’s feed and such methods should be very cost effective. The best accepted and recognized method to determine aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of infected animals is HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography and TLC thin-layer chromatography (Thirumala-Devi et al. 2002). Aflatoxin M1 can be found in the milk of infected animals and can also be found in the products that are prepared from that contaminated milk. This contamination is the main problem arising now a days in the whole world (Fallah et al. 2009).
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Effect Of Different Treatment Trials On The Carrier Status Of Streptococcus Equi In Horses Recently Recovered From Strangles
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Strangles is characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis causing high morbidity and low mortality in horses as well as in mules and it is an infectious problem of equine. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore, Okara and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is highly prevalent in animals recently recovered from strangles and antibiotics along with immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug became helpful in the elimination of carrier status of animals for S. equi. Samples were collected from animals recently recovered from Strangles. Samples were collected with the help of sterile cotton swabs dipped in normal saline from nasopharynx & oropharynx followed by culturing of samples on blood agar plates which were incubated anaerobically for a time period of 24-48 hours respectively and S. equi were isolated on the basis of colonies characteristics and growth pattern. Streptococcus equi was confirmed with the help of Gram staining and biochemical tests Catalase reaction, Methylene blue reduction test and Sugar fermentation test. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test were also performed to select three antibiotics showing best efficacy against S. equi. Carrier animals were subjected to treatment with the help of antibiotic along with combination of immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Carrier status was considered eliminated with disappearance of S. equi from nasopharynx. Blood samples were collected from carrier as well as from healthy animals to check out hematological parameters such as TLC (total leukocytes count), TEC (total erythrocytes count) and MHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) etc. Out of
hundred samples collected from Sargodha, Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab the prevalence of S. equi in horses and mules was 15%. Highest prevalence in equines was found at Remount Depot Mona, was recorded which is 18.3% followed by Okara 13.33%. No case was found to be positive for Strangles out of ten samples collected at UVAS, Lahore.
In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on above isolates and it was found that ceftiofur Na was found to be most effective drug followed by norfloxacine and ampicillin. In vivo treatment trials showed that Group C animals treated with ceftiofur Na, norfloxacine, and ampicillin along with Vit E & Selenium supplemented by Phenyl butazone were found to be negative for post treatment carrier status. This study had aided in diagnosis as well as in treatment of strangles and was also provided us with the understanding of hematological parameters.
Data on prevalence of S. equi in carrier animals were analyzed by Chi square test.
While comparison of different treatments trials was done by Z test.
Hematological parameters were analyzed by mean ± SED using SPSS software 16.0.
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A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Foals
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Foal diarrhea is one of the major threats to equine industry that causes high morbidity and mortality. Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Li etc) and water losses reduced dietary intake and probable translocation between intracellular and extra cellular compartments. Electrolytes are essential for controlling membrane potential, muscle contraction, nerve condition, and enzyme reactions, and they play a central role in the physiological processes. Serum electrolytes and trace elements deficits are the major causes of fluid and acid-base imbalance in diarrheic foals. Keeping in view the importance of foal diarrhea and its impact on the equine industry the current study was designed to determine serum concentration of electrolytes (Ca, K, Na) and trace elements (Li, Cu, Fe) along with the associated risk factors in diarrheic foals.
The present study was designed to examine diarrhea in foals at various equine stud farms, private and public veterinary hospitals. For this purpose a total of (n=100 foals) suffering from clinical diarrhea irrespective of the cause of diarrhea selected randomly after clinical examination and (n=10 foals) negative for diarrhea as control were included. Data of each diarrheic foal was collected separately in a data capture form. Blood and serum sample were collected for hematological and serum biochemical studies, respectively. Concentrations of serum electrolytes (Ca, Na, and K) were analyzed by Flame Photometry and trace elements (Cu, Li, and Fe) were estimated through Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. PCV was determined by micro hematocrit method. Risk factors including species and age were analyzed for association.
Foals which were suffered from diarrhea showed increase in Pack cell volume. Serum concentration of Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper and lithium were measured in diarrheic foals by atomic absorption and flame photometer method and were compared with healthy group of foals.Foals having diarrhea showed an acid baseimbalance as a result decrease in serum electrolytes and trace elements. The blood acid-base balance is precisely controlled because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs. The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood's acid-base balance.Sodium and potassium and calcium are important electrolytes imbalance in diarrhea. Potassium level was increased in foals having diarrhea. Calcium concentration in ppm significantly decreased from its normal value. In some diarrheic foals increased in level of calcium was also observed because these foals have blood in their feces that result in the calcium to come in blood as a clotting factor. Trace elements such as Cu, Fe and Li are needed in a very little concentration for many physiological functions. The serum iron was measured in foals having diarrhea.The iron concentration was less than normal value.The deficiency of iron lead to anemia. Clinical signs of anemia because of irondeficiency are rarely seen in foals. Therefore, mineral imbalances influence iron metabolism and may cause iron deficiency in foals. The serum copper concentration was significantly decreased in the diarrheic foals. Copper concentration is also related to the packed cell volume as in anemia copper deficiency is a significant feature. Copper is important element and its deficiency lead to decrease in serum concentration of iron. This decreased level might be because most of the circulating copper in plasma is attached to the serum glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin has ferroxidase activity and may be required to deliver iron into the circulation Therefore it was observed that low iron concentrations might have resulted from copper deficiency.The concentration of Lithium was also decreased in diarrheic foals when compared to healthy foals.
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Comparative Efficacy of Steroids and Non Steroids Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Wound Healing In Equines
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Blank CD.
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Point Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Along With Their Effect On Various Hematological Parameters In Commercial Dairy Herds In District Kasur, Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a major constraint of ruminant production and causes great economic
loss to dairy industry by retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of
animals to other infections. Gastrointestinal helminthes are prevalent in dairy animals in and
around district Kasur and have significant effect on the hematological parameters of the
infected animals (Hypothesis).
Samples were randomly collected from 200 apparently healthy animals (n = 100
cattle; n =100 buffalo). From each animal a hand full of fecal sample was collected directly
from the rectum in a disposable polythene sleeve. Proper dress was adopted during sample
collection. The samples were kept in refrigerator at 4oC for examination on same day or next
day. Each animal sample was identified, labeled and information about age, sex, body
condition, management, current disease, vaccination, deworming. (Performa attached) are
recorded. Samples were brought to Medicine Lab, CMS, UVAS, Lahore, for examination of
helminthes eggs in the fecal samples. For hematological examination samples were refered to
university diagnostic lab (UDL) UVAS, Lahore.
Out of 100 cattle 24 (24%) were found positive and out of 100 buffalo 37 (37%) were
found to be positive for gastrointestinal helminthes. It can be seen that prevalence was more
in buffalo as compared to cattle. The species wise prevalene for cattle was Toxocara 29.16 %,
Haemonchus 12.5%, Fasciola 4.1%, Strongyloids 12.5%, Trichostrongyloids 12.5%,
Ostertagia species 8.33 % and mixed infections were 8.33% and for buffaloes it was
Toxocara 35.13 % , Haemonchus 16.21%,, Fasciola 5.40%, Strongyloids 13.51% ,
Trichostrongyloids 16.21%, Ostertagia species 10.81% and mixed infections was 8.11%.
Female cattle and buffalo (31.72%) were more prone to infection than male animals
(14.28%). The age wise prevalence for less than 6 month, 6-12 month, 1-2 years, 2-3 years
and more than 3 years was 52.5%, 78.26%, 16%, 14.04% and 20% respectively. The
haemotological values for cattle and buffaloes infected with gastrointestinal helminth for
TEC (%), Hb (g/dl), MCV (fl), MCHC (g/dl), Lymphocyte (%), Monocyte (%), Eosinophil
(%) and Basophils( %) are 4.07±0.065, 7.010±0.052, 48.45 ± 0.20, 28.26 ± 0.074, 53.72 ±
0.112, 3.143 ± 0.117, 4.067 ± 0.021, 0.298 ± 0.031 and 5.09 ± 0.76, 8.012 ± 0.058, 50.56 ±
0.21, 30.71 ± 0.085, 55.82 ± 0.114, 4.167 ± 0.236, 5.076 ± 0.023, 0.301 ± 0.034 respectively.
Data regarding the prevalence and associated risk factors were analyzed using
Pearson’s chi-square test. The data regarding hematological study were analyzed by Students
T-test using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 20. P < 0.05 were
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Mirpur Azad Jammu And Kashmir
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis of livestock is mostly confined to tropical and subtropical countries like Pakistan, where climatic conditions are suitable for growth and development of many vectors as ticks. Piroplasms belongs to this complex and affects both large and small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates resulting in heavy economic losses and thus poses a serious risk to livestock production. A total of 200 blood samples of bovine, cattle (n=100) and buffalo (n=100) showing the signs of fever, progressive anemia, a marked decline in body weight, depression and debility from district Mirpur AJK were included in the study. The diagnosis was made through thin blood smear examination. The overall prevalence was found 15.00% in both species of animals. The prevalence in cattle and buffaloes revealed 22% and 08% respectively. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence between cattle and buffaloes. The gender wise prevalence of the disease revealed 12.12% in male and 26.87% in female cattle whereas; these values were 6.45% in male and 8.70% in female buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between male and female animals in the area. The data on breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis showed highest prevalence in exotic breeds (28.00%) followed by cross breed cattle (24.44%) and native breed (16.67%) of AJK. The prevalence was 5.71% in Kunddi breed of buffalo and 9.23% in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between breeds of animals. Three different age groups of cattle and buffaloes were analyzed for the prevalence percentage of anaplasmosis in the area. The data showed highest prevalence (35.48%) in 1-3 year age group of animals followed by 18.92% in 3-5 year and 12.50% in age group 5-7 year in case of cattle and 14.29%, 6.67% and 5.88% in buffaloes respectively. the analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups. The values of hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and total
erythrocyte count were found increased significantly (P<0.05) in cattle and buffaloes infected with anaplasmosis whereas; total leukocyte count was decreased significantly. The parameters were tested through student’s T-test. The analysis showed significant difference of values of all parameters in normal and infected animals. The chemotherapeutic trials were conducted with two drugs against bovine anaplasmosis in clinically diagnosed cases. Twelve positive cases of each cattle and buffaloes were divided into two main groups A and B comprising of 06 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into two sub groups comprising of 03 animals in each sub groups. The group A was treated with Oxytetracycline @ 20 mg/kg B.W. I/M the efficacy of the drug was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of Anaplasma in the blood smear. The efficacy percentage of Oxytetracycline was 33.3, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 33.3, 33.3 and 66.7 respectively in buffaloes. The group B was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy percentage of Calotropis procera (Aak) was 0.00, 33.3, 66.7, and 66.7 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 33.3 respectively in buffaloes. The efficacy of Oxytetracycline against bovine anaplasmosis on day 08 was found 83.33% whereas; of Calotropis procera was 66.66%. It was concluded that Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against bovine anaplasmosis.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Pyrantel Pamoate, Ajwain And Kamala Against Toxocara Vitulorum Infestation In Bovine Calves
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Toxocara vitulorum is a round worm of cattle and buffalo that is common in tropical and subtropical area.Toxocara vitulorum from infected cattle and buffalo transmitted to calves via colostrum and placenta while its transmission was very less though feed and water. Toxocara vitulorum infestation was very high in calves and it caused mortalities in calve ages between 1 to 3 months, while infestation was less in high age groups.Mortality in cattle and buffalo calves reached up to 50% andcause poor growth, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia and ketosis in calves. These worms could cause intestinal strangulation, holes and blockage in intestines of calves.
Resent study was designed to check the prevalence and therapeutic trial of Toxocara vitulorum in cow and buffalo calves. These results were very helpful for the treatment of the Toxocara vitulorum that was a major endo-parasite in the cows and buffalo calves. Fecal samples from 300 cows and buffalo were examined under the compound microscope for ova. Positive cow and buffalo calves were divided in five groups and different treatments were given to each group. Egg per Gram (EPG) counted at day 7and 14th post-treatment.
Overall prevalence Toxocara vitulorum was 49% in cow calves and 59% in buffalo calves. Prevalence was higher in 1-3 month age group calves (78% in cow calves & 91% in buffalo calves) while prevalence was higher in female calves (52% in cow and 61% in buffalo calves) as compare to male calves (44% in cow and 55% in buffalo calves). Prevalence was higher in the summer stress months.
The efficacy of the Albendazole was lowest in both cows and buffalo calves. The efficacy of Albendazole in cow was 25% and 31% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Albendazole was 24% and 31% at 7th and 14th days of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 98% and 100 % in cow calves at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 81% and 100% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Ajwain in cow calves was 59% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves it was 58% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Kamala in cow calves was 33% and 39% at day 7th and 14th day of post-treatment, respectively and buffalo calves the efficacy was 34% and 42% at day 7th and 14th of post-treatment.
It is concluded from the present study that both in cow and buffalo calves, Toxocara vitulorum is most prevalent parasitic infestation. This parasite is more prevalent in female calves, 1-6 months of age and during hot and humid season in both cows and buffaloes. Pyrantel pamoate is proved to be better than Ajwain but Albendazole and Kamala was not justified good dewormer against Toxocariasis in bovine calves.
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Effect Of Probiotics On Growth Rate And Occurrence Of Diarrhea In Neonatal Holstein Friesian Calves
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Dairy sector commercialization is growing in Pakistan. The import of Holstein cows has been dramatically increased from last decade. Calf mortality is the major constraint in the field of livestock. Calves are considered as the future of dairy farm and mainly responsible for the replacement of stock. Certain diseases cause calf mortality among which bacterial infections carry prime importance.Supplementation of probiotics in milk will reduce the occurrence of diarrhea and increase the body weight, growth rate and average daily gain in Holstein Friesian calves.Holstein Friesian calves (n=60) will be taken from their dams at six days of age and all calves on the basis of initial weight and sex will be selected for the trial. There will be (n=40) calves in the probiotic group and (n=20) calves in the control group.Each group will be further sub-divided into two sub-groups i.e. (n=20) in Group B and (n=25) in Group C. The initial average weight of the calves will be determinedin the two groups. The health status of the calves will be monitored daily with particular attention paid to the occurrence of diarrhea. The actual trial period will start at weaning (day 0) when the calves will be six days old and will be stopped 56 days later. All calves in probiotic group will be offered milk containing probiotic (Calf PRE RD, TechMix, LLCTM, USA) at the dose rate of 4gm per calf per day. The health status, body weight, average daily weight gain and occurrence of diarrhea will be monitored on daily basis. All calves will be given a diarrhea score according to the following scale: 0 = firm, no signs of diarrhea, 1 = soft, slightly loose feacal consistency and 2 = liquid, very loose feacal consistency(Jatkauskas et al., 2010). For each calf the daily scores and the number of days with liquid feaces (score 2) will be summed into an index of the severity of the diarrhea.
Data on occurrence of diarrhea will be compared among groups by using Chi-square (χ2) test whereas data on growth rate, body weight and average daily gain will be measured using t-test. All data will be analyzed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences),P< 0.05 will be considered significant.
The current study will help in reducing the occurrence of diarrheain Holstein Friesian calves. Further, it will also assist in finding out the efficacy of probiotics supplementation in reducing the incidence of calf mortality.
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Epidemiology, Molecular Detection, Zoonotic Potential, Heamatology And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosis In Small Ruminants In Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic enteric protozoan infection affecting all vertebrates. The current study was designed to determine the percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in small ruminants and humans along with associated risk factors.
An overall highest percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis recorded in all four categories of small ruminants were 27.22%, 20.56%, 18.33% and 12.22% in lambs, kids, Sheep and goats respectively.
In the current study, 21.55%, 18.33% and15% prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was recorded in sheep in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively. In the present study, the highest month wise percent prevalence in sheep, was observed in the month of August (36.66%) followed by April (26.66%), June (26.66%), May, July and September (23.33%), February (10.66%), March (10%), November (10%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in the month of December and January (6.66%). In sheep, season wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest prevalence was recorded in summer and autumn season (23.33%), followed by spring (20%) while the lowest percent prevalence was found in the winter season (10%). In sheep, age wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest percent prevalence was found at the age of 1 year (22.38%) followed by 1-2 years (18.03%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years (13.46%). In sheep, sex wise percent prevalence was also documented where highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (18.80%) followed by male (17.02%) where lowest percent prevalence was recorded.
In goats, the percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also studied in three selected areas where recorded 6.66%, 11.66% and 18.3% prevalence in District Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat respectively. Similarly, in goats, overall highest month wise percent
prevalence was recorded in the month of August (30%), followed by July (23.33%), June (20%), May (16.66%), March and September (13.33%), April and November (10%), January, February and October (3.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in December (0%). In the current study, the season wise prevalence was also studied in goats where highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer season (20.83%), followed by spring (13.33%), autumn (11.66%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in winter season (3.33%). The highest age wise percent prevalence was recorded at the age of 1 year (18.58%) followed by 1-2 years (10.20%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years or above (5.95%). According to the sex wise percent prevalence, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in male (12.30%) while the lowest in females (12.17%).
The overall highest percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in lambs in three areas where 33.33%, 25% and 23.33% prevalence was recorded in Kohat, Lakki Marwat and Bannu respectively. The highest month wise percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August (46.6%), followed by other months of the year such as July (40%), April, May and June (30%), September and October (26.66%), November and January (20%) while the lowest in the month of February and December (16.66%) in lambs. The Season wise percent prevalence was recorded in lambs where highest percent prevalence was recorded in summer season (36.66 %), followed by spring and autumn (26.66%) while the lowest in winter season (18.33%). According to the age wise percent prevalence in lambs, the highest prevalence was recorded at the age of 1-15 days (38.09%) followed by 16-30 days (29.41%) while the lowest at the age of 31-60 days or above (15.15%). In lambs, the highest sex wise percent prevalence was recorded in females (31.18%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in males (22.98%).
In kids, overall highest percent prevalence was 20.55% recorded in three selected districts where the highest prevalence was recorded in District Kohat (23.33%), followed by District Bannu (20%) while the lowest in District Lakki Marwat (18.33%). In kids the month wise percent prevalence was also studied where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in May and August (33.33%), followed by June, July and September (26.66%), March, April and October (20%), November and December (13.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of the January (6.66%). The Season wise percent prevalence was also recorded in kids, where the highest percent prevalence was observed in the summer season (30%), followed by autumn (23.33%), spring (20%) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in winter season (10%). The highest age wise percent prevalence in kids was also recorded at the age of ≤1-15 days (33.92%), followed by 16-30 days (15.38%) while the lowest at the age of ≥31-60 days or above (13.55%). Sex wise percent prevalence was also determined in goat kids where, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (20.98%) followed by male kids (19.19%).
To conduct molecular study, 360 fecal samples of sheep were analyzed for presence of the Cryptosporidium oocysts through simple microscopic method first then confirmed by PCR. DNA was extracted with the help of DNA extraction kit (Made in USA, GFC vivantis). The targeted gene of parasite was 18s rRNA which result in amplification of a segment of genomic DNA at 435 bp. The following primers sequence was used for Forward primer: (5-AAGCTCGTAGTTGGATTTCTG- and reverse primers (5-TAAGGTGCTGAAGGAGTAAGG-3. An overall molecular percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was 24.99% in sheep in three selected zones of southern KPK. The highest molecular percent prevalence was 31.66%, 25% and 18.33% in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively.
The highest season wise molecular percent prevalence was also recorded where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer (33.33%), followed by autumn (30%), spring (26.66%) while the lowest in the winter season (13.33%). Molecular percent prevalence was higher in females (27.08%) than male (25.53%). On the basis of environmental factors, overall the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August where highest ambient temperature, relative humidity and heavy rain fall was recorded.
To find out Zoonotic aspect of the Cryptosporidium infection, the overall highest percent prevalence was recorded in children (16.66%), followed by adults (5.55%).
The highest percent prevalence was recorded in diarrhoeic children where direct contact with small ruminants was observed while the lowest prevalence was recorded in those children where no direct or indirect contact was observed.
To conduct the therapeutic trials, a total of 50 goats were selected of the same weight and age that were naturally infected by Cryptosporidium under field conditions. All the goats were placed under same feeding and management conditions and randomly divided into five groups such as A, B, C, D and E. All animals in groups A, B, C and D were treated with Azithromycin (10mg/kg b.wt), Metronidazole (50mg/Kg b.wt), Allium sativum (50mg/Kg b.wt) and Paromomycin (100mg/kg b.wt) respectively while Group-E was placed as a positive control group. The highest percent efficacy in reduction of OPG was shown by different drugs such as Paromomycine (91.77%) followed by Metronidazole (78.20%), Allium sativum (77.00%) while the lowest percent efficacy was shown by Azithromycin (59.29%). On the basis of hematological study, lower lymphocytes count was (48.39%) recorded in non-infected animals while higher (54.33%) count was recorded in infected animals. Similarly higher eosinophil count was (6.73%) recorded in infected group while lower (50 %) counts were recorded in non-
infected group. Hb level was higher in infected group than healthy animals. PCV level was higher (42.94%) in infected animals while low (34.62%) in healthy animals. Biochemical analysis of the serum showed, higher quantity of total protein, albumin, ALP, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Zinc, Copper, Urea and Creatinine was recorded in infected goats while lower quantity was observed in healthy goats.
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