Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro-Intestinal Paradites In Deer In Punjab, Pakistan.
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The parasitic load on deer affects them badly and eventually leads to death. In the present study a total of 100 feacal samples were collected from deer and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, department of CMS, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Out of 100 samples thirty eight were positive and among these thirty eight, 12 deer were infected with cestodes, 6 with nematodes, 12 with trematodes, and 8 with the mixed infection of parasites. So, the prevalence of the cestodes, trematodes, nematode and mixed infection was 12%, 12%, 6% and 8% respectively. For the chemotherapeutic trails thirty positive animals and 10 healthy animals were divided into four groups A, B, C and D with 10 animals in each. The animals of group A was treated with albendazole @ 7.5mg/kg orally. Those of group B was treated with the ivermectin @ 1mg/ 50kg orally. The group C animals were kept as positive control and group D were kept as negative control.
The feacal samples were collected on the 0 day (pre-treatment), 7th, 14th and 21st day (post-treatment). The efficacy of the drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the feacal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of albendazole 42.59 %, 71.3% and 87.96% against cestodes, 33.33%, 60.3% and 82.88% against nematodes and 40.18%, 68.22% and 89.72% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively.. The efficacies of ivermectin were 42.59 %, 73.15% and 88.88% against cestodes, 51.78%, 76% and 91.07% against nematode while 42.85%, 64.28% and 85.71% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively.
It is thus concluded that the ivermectin is more effective drug than albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole.
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Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006).
Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups.
1) Poultry pigeons
2) Carrier and racing pigeons
3) Fancy and feral pigeon
Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006).
It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996).
Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007).
Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007).
The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007).
Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009).
Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007).
Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008).
Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007).
Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007).
There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001).
This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010).
T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002).
Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008).
T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007).
This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013).
The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007).
This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011).
In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011).
Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to
only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014).
Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014).
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Effects Of Aflatoxin M1 (Afm1) On Sheep And Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Livestock production is an important part of national economy and it plays a significant role in providing the high quality food for human beings. Dairy industry of Pakistan contributes up to 46.8% in the agriculture and about 10.8% of the GDP in the form of milk, milk products, meat, hides, skin and bone meal (Ghaffar et al. 2007). Molds are fungi consisting of filaments that are present in the feed of animals. Molds can cause many infections in dairy cattle, especially during period of stress when their immune system is depressed. They cause a special disorder that is termed as Mycosis. Specific mycotoxins are produced by these fungi and when these animals eat such type of feed then they also engulf such dangerous mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide range of various molds and can be classified as secondary metabolites meaning that their function is not essential to the mold’s existence (Whitlow and Hagler 2005).
In the European countries, sheep milk is mainly produced in the Spain, and it is about 403000 tons per year. The main purpose of this milk is to produce cheese. Manchego cheese is considered as the best quality cheese in the world. This is the only technique by which we can produce the high quality of cheese (Rubio et al. 2009). These Aflatoxins are the fungal main dangerous constituents that can contaminate the feed of animals very easily. If AFB1 contaminated ration is consumed by animals then metabolism takes place in these toxins and excrete AFM1 in milk which further reduces milk production. More long-lasting aflatoxin poisoning produces very dissimilar signs that may not be clinically superficial and decreased rate of production in young animals. Severe aflatoxicosis causes hepatitis, hemorrhage, and death. Decreased growth rate is the most delicate clinical symbol of chronic aflatoxicosis, and it may be the only readily obvious abnormality. Natural toxins considerably show the greater danger to human and animal health. One large group of natural toxins that are universally
documented as poisons of food and feed are the mycotoxins. The toxins occur naturally in various animal feeds, including corn and cottonseed. To control AFM1 in milk, it is essential to decrease the feed contamination by AFB1 (Prandini et al. 2009).
The livestock is playing major role in enhancing agricultural productivity and it has also major contribution to decrease the rate of poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan. Most farmers have domesticated sheep in their home which are their major sources of income (Mahmood et al. 2009). Aflatoxins adulterated rations prompted important reduction in daily feed consumption and the means of body weight, body weight increment and feed transformation rates were radically affected during the exposure stage to aflatoxins. Furthermore, serum ingredients and ruminal measurements showed lessened liver function and digestive turbulences in sheep fed aflatoxin (Jouany and Diaz 2005)
Aflatoxins are included in that group of toxins which are considered as highly toxic toxins. Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius are those types of fungi which can produce very strong type of toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most dangerous type of aflatoxin and it is very strong hepato-toxin (damaging the liver as a whole). It can also cause cancer, can produce teratogens, and may also cause mutation in the both animals and in human beings.
AFB1 being very toxic, can be activated by the special metabolism of liver and through cytochrome P450. The cancer causing ability of AFBI is ten times more than the AFM1. The conversion of AFB1 to AFM1 in the milk producing animals is in the range of half percent to about six percent. In milk producing animals the level of aflatoxin M1 is greatly altered by the contamination rate of aflatoxin B1 (Bognanno et al. 2006).
It is observed that the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep is lower than the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of cows. Due to presence of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals and hence appearance of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of animals shows that
milk of such animals becomes more toxic and more un-hygienic. The young ones having milk as their main feed ingredient may have much more chances of getting various infections. (Var and Kabak 2009). To check the level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep, various experimental studies have been performed in the whole world (Battacone et al. 2005). In Pakistan, there are many favorable environmental conditions in which various types of fungi can easily prompted (Iqbal et al. 2011). The contamination level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of dairy animals and in the dairy products has been found by (Hussain et al. 2008).
Aflatoxins can be produced from fungal metabolites. Aflatoxin M1 is produced as the complete metabolism of aflatoxin B1 has taken place. Aflatoxin B1, when converted into aflatoxin M1 is appeared in the milk of that animals and the same aflatoxin M1 can also be appeared in the dairy products which can contaminate the feed of human too. Transformation of aflatoxin B1 into the aflatoxin M1 is around one to two percent. This transformation is highly dependent upon the feed of animals, transformation from one affected animal to other healthy animal, transformation from the milking of affected animal to the milking of healthy animal and from one day to another day also. It is also noted that as the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animal is decreased down then the level of M1 in the milk of animals is also dropped down significantly but it takes about 72 hours for this dropped down (Nilchian and Rahimi 2012).
AFM1 had a resistant to thermal inactivation used during food processing procedure such as pasteurization and autoclaving. Storage of various dairy products was not effective in the reduction of this toxin (Ozdemir 2007). Aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of animals can also be found in 12 to 24 hours after the ingestion of aflatoxin B1. After this, its level can be raised within the few days. The estimation of conversion rate of aflatoxin B1 in the contaminated feed of animals into aflatoxin M1 in the milk that animal is elaborated as 1 to 3 percent in a specific range (Ozdemir 2007).
Aflatoxin B 1 being very much dangerous mycotoxin, it is very much important to know about such methods by which the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals can be controlled. For this purpose we should first come to know the basic source of feed contamination of animals, and after this we should adapt such easy method to determine the level of aflatoxin B1 in the animal’s feed and such methods should be very cost effective. The best accepted and recognized method to determine aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of infected animals is HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography and TLC thin-layer chromatography (Thirumala-Devi et al. 2002). Aflatoxin M1 can be found in the milk of infected animals and can also be found in the products that are prepared from that contaminated milk. This contamination is the main problem arising now a days in the whole world (Fallah et al. 2009).
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