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1. Effect Of Different Treatment Trials On The Carrier Status Of Streptococcus Equi In Horses Recently Recovered From Strangles

by Muhammad Afzal (2007-VA-108) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassaan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Strangles is characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis causing high morbidity and low mortality in horses as well as in mules and it is an infectious problem of equine. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore, Okara and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is highly prevalent in animals recently recovered from strangles and antibiotics along with immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug became helpful in the elimination of carrier status of animals for S. equi. Samples were collected from animals recently recovered from Strangles. Samples were collected with the help of sterile cotton swabs dipped in normal saline from nasopharynx & oropharynx followed by culturing of samples on blood agar plates which were incubated anaerobically for a time period of 24-48 hours respectively and S. equi were isolated on the basis of colonies characteristics and growth pattern. Streptococcus equi was confirmed with the help of Gram staining and biochemical tests Catalase reaction, Methylene blue reduction test and Sugar fermentation test. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test were also performed to select three antibiotics showing best efficacy against S. equi. Carrier animals were subjected to treatment with the help of antibiotic along with combination of immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Carrier status was considered eliminated with disappearance of S. equi from nasopharynx. Blood samples were collected from carrier as well as from healthy animals to check out hematological parameters such as TLC (total leukocytes count), TEC (total erythrocytes count) and MHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) etc. Out of Summary 47 hundred samples collected from Sargodha, Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab the prevalence of S. equi in horses and mules was 15%. Highest prevalence in equines was found at Remount Depot Mona, was recorded which is 18.3% followed by Okara 13.33%. No case was found to be positive for Strangles out of ten samples collected at UVAS, Lahore. In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on above isolates and it was found that ceftiofur Na was found to be most effective drug followed by norfloxacine and ampicillin. In vivo treatment trials showed that Group C animals treated with ceftiofur Na, norfloxacine, and ampicillin along with Vit E & Selenium supplemented by Phenyl butazone were found to be negative for post treatment carrier status. This study had aided in diagnosis as well as in treatment of strangles and was also provided us with the understanding of hematological parameters. Statistical analysis:  Data on prevalence of S. equi in carrier animals were analyzed by Chi square test.  While comparison of different treatments trials was done by Z test.  Hematological parameters were analyzed by mean ± SED using SPSS software 16.0. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2299-T] (1).

2. Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Brucellosis In Animals In Mirpur, Azad Kashmir Pakistan

by Hadia Mubeen (2008-VA-291) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is declared as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world by the world's reknowned organizations. It is defined as a contagious systemic bacterial disease primarily of ruminants. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and also associated placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and milk. With the intensification of the import of animals and the establishment of big farms in the last few years, the incidence of brucellosis increased sharply in many countries, both in man and animals. In this study 360 serum samples were examined from four groups of animals in district Mirpur Azad Kashmir. Blood samples of 3ml from buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goat (n=30) each were taken from three sub-divisions of Mirpur separately. The serum samples were screened by RBPT which is a screening test for brucellosis, and it was observed that 8.6% animals were seropositive by RBPT. The serum samples of cattle were 17.8%, buffalo were 8.9%, goat were 2.2%, and sheep were 5.6% positive respectively. The serum samples positive by RBPT and some randomly taken samples were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 6.87% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle (17.5%), buffalo (10%), sheep (0%) and goat (0%). All RBPT positive samples were further subjected to RT-PCR. Among these 31 samples 24 were positive for Brucella genus and only 7 samples were negative. Samples were further tested for confirmation of Brucella species. All 24 samples were having Brucella abortus. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program version 22. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Z-test statistics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2378-T] (1).

3. Experimental Treatment Of Bovine Brucellosis Using Phyto-Chemo-Immuno Theraputic Agents

by Muhammad Kaleem (2013-VA-860) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ihtisham Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine brucellosis is very important zoonotic disease in respect of outbreak that resulted in reproductive loses through storm of abortions in herds and infertility in bulls. Currently, no phyto treatment for complete recovery from brucellosis is available. Phyto Chemo-immune therapeutic agents are effective for recovery from bovine brucellosis (Hypothesis) Group A was comprise five adult cows (n=5) positive for brucellosis. Animals in this group were given 3 shots of Oxytetracycline LA at 20mg/kg BW (IM) repeated every 48 hrs. Streptomycin @ 13mg/kg BW IM was given for six consecutive days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumine @ 2mg/kg BW IM for 3 days in combination with antibiotic. Selevit injection containing selenium and vitamin E was administered (IM) for consecutive five days. At next day all the animals in this group were vaccinated with a combined vaccine of RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3mL/animal through deep IM route. In group B, all the animals were given Saafi (Herbal Product) orally consecutively for six days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. All these treatments were given simultaneously. Then injection Selevit containing selenium and vitamin E were administered (IM) for consecutive five days. After treatment all animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3mL/ animals deep intramuscularly. In group C, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. After NSAID, Selevit injection containing vit. E and selenium was administered (IM) for five days regularly. After treatment, animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3 mL/ animals (IM). In D group five negative adult animals were included in this group and vaccinated subcutaneously with RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3 mL/animal. Summary 40 Data regarding this study was analyzed with ANOVA and completely randomized design was used to compare the mean between different groups using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed OD values after 1st, 3rd and 6th month were significantly different in all groups. The mean values depicted that OD values was significantly higher (2.886±0.099) in vaccinated (positive) animal’s vs the other three groups. There was no significant difference in OD values of herbal treated, antibiotic treated and health control animals. The lowest OD values was found in healthy control animals, though significantly similar with herbal treated, antibiotic treated. The mean OD value at 3rd month after treatment is significantly higher (1.794±0.090) in herbal treated and vaccinated positive groups but the OD value of healthy group was lowest (1.794±0.090) after 3rd month of treatment. After 6th month of treatment the OD value of positive vaccinated group was found significantly highest (1.146±0.194). On the other hand lowest value (0.595±0.079) was found in healthy control group. All the groups have found non-significant difference in all group. Regarding Real time PCR the value range from 0-40 Ct values. In the present study the Ct values of the control positive was found to be 13 which indicate control positive. The antibiotic treated group had a Ct value found in this range 35.61 to 38.13. The herbal treated group were all positive and the values were 31.34 to 37.42 Ct. The vaccinated immune booster group. The Ct values in the group was found to be 30.83 to 34.21. The birth weight and placenta dropping time was normal in antibiotic treated animals. There were no significant results found in all groups. Summary 41 This study concluded that herbal regimen is effective in vitro against brucellosis but in vivo it is yet not to be evaluated. The antibiotics can be effective to treat the Brucellosis with this protocol. This was help to control bovine brucellosis, and extensive economic losses. Comparative efficacy of four commonly-immune therapeutic agents were help in choosing the most effective therapy/method for the recovery of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2388-T] (1).

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