Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006).
Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups.
1) Poultry pigeons
2) Carrier and racing pigeons
3) Fancy and feral pigeon
Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006).
It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996).
Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007).
Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007).
The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007).
Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009).
Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007).
Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008).
Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007).
Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007).
There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001).
This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010).
T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002).
Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008).
T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007).
This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013).
The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007).
This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011).
In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011).
Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to
only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014).
Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014).
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A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Foals
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Foal diarrhea is one of the major threats to equine industry that causes high morbidity and mortality. Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Li etc) and water losses reduced dietary intake and probable translocation between intracellular and extra cellular compartments. Electrolytes are essential for controlling membrane potential, muscle contraction, nerve condition, and enzyme reactions, and they play a central role in the physiological processes. Serum electrolytes and trace elements deficits are the major causes of fluid and acid-base imbalance in diarrheic foals. Keeping in view the importance of foal diarrhea and its impact on the equine industry the current study was designed to determine serum concentration of electrolytes (Ca, K, Na) and trace elements (Li, Cu, Fe) along with the associated risk factors in diarrheic foals.
The present study was designed to examine diarrhea in foals at various equine stud farms, private and public veterinary hospitals. For this purpose a total of (n=100 foals) suffering from clinical diarrhea irrespective of the cause of diarrhea selected randomly after clinical examination and (n=10 foals) negative for diarrhea as control were included. Data of each diarrheic foal was collected separately in a data capture form. Blood and serum sample were collected for hematological and serum biochemical studies, respectively. Concentrations of serum electrolytes (Ca, Na, and K) were analyzed by Flame Photometry and trace elements (Cu, Li, and Fe) were estimated through Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. PCV was determined by micro hematocrit method. Risk factors including species and age were analyzed for association.
Foals which were suffered from diarrhea showed increase in Pack cell volume. Serum concentration of Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper and lithium were measured in diarrheic foals by atomic absorption and flame photometer method and were compared with healthy group of foals.Foals having diarrhea showed an acid baseimbalance as a result decrease in serum electrolytes and trace elements. The blood acid-base balance is precisely controlled because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs. The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood's acid-base balance.Sodium and potassium and calcium are important electrolytes imbalance in diarrhea. Potassium level was increased in foals having diarrhea. Calcium concentration in ppm significantly decreased from its normal value. In some diarrheic foals increased in level of calcium was also observed because these foals have blood in their feces that result in the calcium to come in blood as a clotting factor. Trace elements such as Cu, Fe and Li are needed in a very little concentration for many physiological functions. The serum iron was measured in foals having diarrhea.The iron concentration was less than normal value.The deficiency of iron lead to anemia. Clinical signs of anemia because of irondeficiency are rarely seen in foals. Therefore, mineral imbalances influence iron metabolism and may cause iron deficiency in foals. The serum copper concentration was significantly decreased in the diarrheic foals. Copper concentration is also related to the packed cell volume as in anemia copper deficiency is a significant feature. Copper is important element and its deficiency lead to decrease in serum concentration of iron. This decreased level might be because most of the circulating copper in plasma is attached to the serum glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin has ferroxidase activity and may be required to deliver iron into the circulation Therefore it was observed that low iron concentrations might have resulted from copper deficiency.The concentration of Lithium was also decreased in diarrheic foals when compared to healthy foals.
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