Comparative Evaluation Of Different Suture Materials With And Without The Usage Of Thomas Splint For The Repair Of Transversely Cut Tendo Achilles In The Dog
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: Tendons are an important link In the locomotive system, the main physiological function of which is to transmit forces that produce characteristic mechanical responses. The tendon function is extremely important in movement. Injuries and disturbances in tendon are common, thus creating extreme difficulties in locomotion. The repair of tendons had always been an enigma in the past. However with the advancement of surgery, the repair of tendon has become possible and the patient return to a normal functioning life.
The present study was launched on twelve mongrel dogs. The achilles tendon was cut surgically and then repaired with two different suture materials i.e. stainless steel and Nylon (No.1). Three groups were made i.e. group A, B and C. Group A for repair of the achilles tendon with stainless steel wire (gauge 24) alongwith a comparison of repair with and without a thomas splint. The group 'B' was repmred with Nylon suture material (No.1) as well as with the comparison of thomas splint application
The group C served as a control group in which no suture material was used, however the effect of thomas splint was compared with and without its application. Of the twelve animals, four were put into each group.
In every group, first the achilles tendon of the right hindlimb was repaired with and without thomas splint. After eight weeks healing, the tendo-achilles of the left hind limb was repaired with the same suture material with and without thomas splint. The wounds were smeared with furacin ointment. Antibiotics were administered 24 hours prior to surgery and continued for 5 days post-surgically. All the dogs were kept under observation for eight weeks postsurgically. however, the total project took 16 weeks. The tendons were tested for repair (healing) by examination, lameness tests, posteuthanasia finding and histopathological studies.
The success rate of the tendons repaired with stainless steel sutures (guage 24) was 50% and with Nylon suture material (No. 1) 100%. The results clearly Indicated that the application of Nylon.
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Comparison Of Perfused And Non Perfused Jejunal Auto Transplants For Reconstruction Of Massive Abdominal
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: Surgeons occasionally see patients who have malignant soft tissue tumors, loss of a part due to trauma or excessive debridement of the abdominal wall. Regardless of the etiology they represent challenging anatomical problems, both with respect to resection and especially to reconstruction. Many defects are unsightly and difficult to appose by the surrounding tissue. SuIeons in medical field as well as veterinarians have tried and reported many surgical corrections to these conditions.
Twenty clinically healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used for the experimental translocation of jejurial auto-grafts for the resurfacing of massive abdominal wall defects. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Laparotomy was carried out by a vertical incision in right lateral recumbency. A portion of jejunum 12 cm long was selected and isolated from rest of the intestinal tract with its mesenteric blood supply intact. The continuity of the small bowel was restored by end-to-end anastomosis.
The isolated segment of jejunum was then processed and cut open longitudinally along the antimesenteric border. After wards the open patch was cut into two equal pieces, perpendicular to the long axis and then sutured together parallel, so as to have even bigger surface area of the graft to cover a defect which was wider in width and could be repaired by single width of the intestine. In group I, both the parts of intestine sutured together retained their blood supply intact. In group II, one half of the transplant was rendered avascular. Using the previous incision site, a full thickness 6x6 cm, square shape defect was created in the abdominal wall. The jejunal patch was placed over the defect in the abdominal wall, with its mucosal surface apposing the external fascia. Simple interrupted sutures using chrornic cat gut No.2 were used to tailor the patch in such a way that normal contours of abdominal wall were reconstituted. A drain was placed at the site of operation and the subcutaneous tissue and skin were closed in a routine manner.
In group-I there was no mortality and no herniation of the bowel occurred through the operative site. The graft was well tolerated by the animals as it was homologous. In group-TI the nonvascularised portion of the graft did not develop its new blood supply leading to its death and sloughing. Eventration took place on 6th day and the animals died, except one dog. It was concluded on the basis of this study that:
1. In group-I perfused pedicle grafts provided 100% resurfacing to the abdominal wall defects.
2. The mucosa of the bowel transplant under went degeneration.
3. The junctional histology of the graft revealed a thick layer of fibrous tissue indicating perfect union between the two portions of the graft.
4. A marked inflammatory reaction was also evident.
5. There was clear cut histological evidence of failure with loss of cellular integrity and no production of collagen fibers in the non perfused group.
In a nut shell the chosen method of reconstruction was consistent with the hierarchy of treatment priorities, which makes survival paramount, followed by function, freedom from pain and acceptable appearances. Thus when there is no other way of saving the animals life other than surgical intervention, the satisfaction derived from such a successful, last resort operation is indeed a valuable encouragement to a young veterinary surgeon.
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Factor Analysis Of Biometric Traits Of Dhanni Cattle
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Taurine Supplementation On Post-Thaw Quality Of Sahiwal Bull Semen
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: It is well recognized that cryopreservation of bovine semen results in decreased spermatozoal viability due to cryodamages. Oxidative stress is produced due to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) during freez-thaw process.Extreme production of ROS during cryopreservation has been associated with decreased post thaw %age motility, viability, and membrane integrity and sperm fertility capability. Basically antioxidants works to reduce or, taking up the formation of ROS. In recent years, taurine has been used as anti-oxidant in semen extenders and has been used in the cryopreservation of sperm from many species to improve post-thaw quality of spermatozoa by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting cells against accumulation of ROS. Therefore, supplementation of taurine in semen extendercontaining 0,15,30,45 and 60mM concentration was used to decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation on Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Three Sahiwal bulls (4-8years) were used in the present study. The bulls were maintained at Semen production unit, Qadirabad and were offered good quality seasonal fodder (at the rate of 10% body weight), supplemented with concentrates (2-4kg/day). The semen was collected from each bull twice a week. Initially the semen was assessed for volume, motility, and concentration. Then the semen was pooled from all bulls and divided into 5 aliquots (150 ul each). Each aliquots diluted with 5groups extender which contain 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60mM taurine concentration. The semen was filled in 0.5ml straws cooled to 5c for 4 h, then frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196c). Post-thaw motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome and DNA integrity was evaluated and statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. The group supplemented with 60mM concentration of taurine decreased all parameters of post thaw quality ofSahiwal bull spermatozoa. However the group supplemented with 15mM concentration of taurine show higher significantly (p<0.05) results than control and other groups. The post-thaw motility of the group supplemented with 15mM taurine concentration (54.50±2.1) higher significantly (p<0.05) than control (45.50±0.90) and other groups. The treatment group of 15mM taurine concentration show signifantly (p<0.05) higher viability (58.60±1.58 vs50.80±0.70) , plasma membrane integrity (57.10±1.43 vs 49.00±0.65) acrosome integrity (56.80±0.59 vs48.10±1.66) and DNA integrity (98.80±0.23 vs 97.54±0.39) as compared to the control and other groups. It is concluded that the maximum beneficial effect of addition 15mM taurine in tris-based egg yolk extender gives better post-thaw parameters.
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Development Of A Suitable Semen Extender For The Cryopreservation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Presently, buffalo farmers are dissatisfied with fertility rates of the frozen semen used in the field and tend to use bulls. This study was designed to develop a suitable semen extender for cryopreservation of Nili Ravi buffalo semen that can improve conception rate in buffaloes.
Experiment-I, an attempt was made to develop semen extender with optimal osmotic pressure for buffalo semen using tris citric acid (TCAE), skim milk (SME) and coconut water (CWE) extenders (each extender have 260, 270, 280, 290 and 300 mOsm/kg osmotic pressure levels). In Experiment-II, best extender (TCAE: 300 mOsm/kg) of experiment-I was tried to improve post thaw spermatozoa characteristics by supplementing antioxidants [0.0, 1.75, 2.0 and 2.25 mM butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and 0.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mM L-cysteine]. Post thaw spermatozoa motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), DNA damage rate and lipid peroxidation were assessed in first two experiments. In Experiment-III, pregnancy rate assessment of extended semen was carried out by using Trial extender (best of experiment II) or Control extender of Semen Production Unit (SPU), Qadirabad, Pakistan (50 inseminations of each extender).
Higher spermatozoa motility at ≥ 270 mOsm/kg was noted in TCAE than both SME and CWE could be due to less intracellular ice formation in zwitterions extender. Higher spermatozoa viability in TCAE and CWE compared to SME may be attributed to extender effectiveness. Higher acrosomal integrity rate at 300 mOsm/kg in TCAE and SME may be because of less intracellular ice formation in isotonic extenders. At 290 mOsm/kg, higher spermatozoa PMI in SME and lesser DNA damage in three extenders might be due to lesser intracellular ice formation at cryopreservation. Decreased spermatozoa DNA damage in SME might be due to the presence of natural antioxidants i.e., casein. Higher lipid peroxidation in CWE than TCAE and SME may be due to presence of natural antioxidants (in SME) and higher cell dehydration potential of TCAE.
Higher spermatozoa motility recorded at 2.0 mM BHT compared to other BHT groups including DMSO might be due to fact that BHT protects spermatozoa mitochondria by reducing oxidative stress. Lower spermatozoa viability, PMI rates and higher DNA damage at 2.25 mM of BHT may be due to BHT toxic effects. Lower lipid peroxidation in BHT treated groups compared to DMSO and BHT control groups might be related to BHT strong antioxidant properties. L-cysteine caused higher spermatozoa DNA damage at highest level (i.e., 8 mM) that could also be due to antioxidant’s toxic effect.
Pregnancy rate 18 % higher was noted in Trial than Control semen extender; however no significant difference have been noted that might be due to less no of inseminations.
In conclusion, TCA extender (300 mOsm/kg) having BHT (2.0 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and yielded numerically better pregnancy rates. Results of study indicated that osmotic stress damaged the spermatozoa internal structures more severely than injury to plasma membrane.
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