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1. Etiological Study Of Pancytopenic Children

by Dr. Syed Maaz Nadeem | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pancytopenia is a hematological condition in which there is a decrease in all three cell lines of peripheral blood i.e. erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets leading to anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Complications of anemia, repeated infections and bleeding tendencies are sometimes horrifying and may result in death of individual. The present study was designed to analyze the underlying pathology, different clinico-haematological features and importance of bone marrow study in one hundred children presenting with pancytopenia. Present study was carried out in pediatric laboratory of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.. Detailed history was taken in all cases. Complete blood counts were done on an automated blood analyzer (Sysmex Kx-21). For counter check of total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and platelets, smears were also prepared and stained by using Giemsa stain. Red cell morphology was done on blood smear for theconfirmation of red cell indices. A total volume of 3 ml venous blood was drawn into a syringe. Out of which 1.0 ml was delivered into EDTA containing vacutainer and remaining 2 ml blood was transferred to a plain glass tube. After clotting and centrifugation serum was obtained for screening of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus. Bone marrow aspiration was also performed where indicated. Megaloblastic anaemia (42%) Aplastic anaemia (26%) and ALL (8%) were found to be the common causes of pancytopenia in our scenario. Less common causes of pancytopenia were infections (8%), mixed deficiency (4%), MDS (4%) and lymphoma (4%). In all above mentioned cases clinical manifestations and peripheral blood counts played an important role in their evaluation. Two cases of haemophagocytic syndrome (2%), a rare cause of pancytopenia were also diagnosed in this study. This study also explained the importance of physical examination, peripheral blood findings and bone marrow examinations in the management of pancytopenic patients. Peripheral blood film and bone marrow aspiration should be performed simultaneously in pancytopenia patients when the diagnosis is not confirmed. Bone marrow examination in most cases gives the specific diagnosis. However, in few cases, additional tests may be required. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels may be needed for confirmation of megaloblastic anemia. Serum iron, TIBC and iron staining on bone marrow smears may be required in iron deficiency anemia. In cases of leukemia flow cytometry study may be more helpful in reaching a final diagnosis. Bone marrow biopsy is mandatory in aplastic anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1539,T] (1).

2. Clinicopathological Study Of Theileriosis In Naturally Infected Sheep

by Muhammad Waseem Akhter | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Habib.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Theleiriosis in sheep is an important infectious disease of small ruminants characterized by General weakness, weight loss, anorexia, elevated body temperature, petechial hemorrhages on conjunctival mucosa, swollen lymph nodes, anemia and cough. Changes in hematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters are good indicators for diagnosis of theileriosis. For this purpose a total of 100 blood samples from infected sheep as well as 50 blood samples from healthy sheep were collected on the basis of clinical examination and peripheral blood smears from different farms in and around Lahore. The collected samples were processed at Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Hematological parameters were measured by automatic hematology analyzer & serum biochemical parameters were measured by using commercial kits by colorimetric methods using spectrophotometer. Histopathological changes were observed by making slides of tissue samples, and observed under microscope. Molecular confirmation of Theleria sp. was done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Finally the data obtained for hematological and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed by using Student's t test. Previous studies on serum biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were mostly done in large ruminants. But there is little investigation available on the biochemical and hematological alterations of theileriosis in small ruminants. In this study blood samples taken from sheep were examined under microscope by making thin blood smears using Giemsa stain. Theileria piroplasms were seen in RBCs at 100x. Blood samples were also processed for PCR test. In all Theileria ovis positive samples 520-bp fragment was generated on gel by using primers TSsr 170F and TSsr 670R for sheep. All samples positive on microscopy were also positive by PCR. This study provides the base line data for molecular diagnosis of Theileria ovis in sheep in Pakistan. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the sheep naturally infected with theileriosis while healthy sheep were selected as control. Hematological findings revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, WBC count, Hb Conc. and PCV in infected animals as compared with healthy animals. Serum biochemical findings also revealed alterations in activities of enzymes and plasma proteins. A significant decrease in total proteins, albumin, glucose and creatinin and triglycerides was observed while significant increase (P<0.05) in ALT, AST, bilirubin was observed in affected animals as compared with healthy animals. A non significant increase in urea and cholesterol concentration was also observed in infected animals as compared to healthy animals. Different tissues were examined to study gross and histopathological changes. Liver was large, pale and friable. Prescapular lymph nodes were swollen and spleenomegaly was also seen. Kidney showed hemorrhagic spots and some were mottled. Histological examination of the lymph nodes revealed edema, widened intercellular spaces, parenchyma degeneration, massive lympholysis, widened sinuses at some areas and macrophages. Splenic nodules were sparse, diminished in size and lymphocyte depletion in follicles was prominent.In liver, mild infiltration of leukocytes around blood vessels, vacuolation in hepatocytes, increase in sinusoidal space and atrophy of hepatic cord was seen and hepatic cord was broken. In kidney, degeneration of tubular epithelium cells was seen. This study concluded that theileriosis in sheep was associated with some alterations in blood parameters and histopathological changes which could be useful in the diagnosis of ovine theileriosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1642,T] (1).

3. Comparative Pathological Studies Of Brucellosis In Azikheli And Nili Ravi Buffaloes At Slaughter House I District Sawat

by Sayyed Irfanullah Khan | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Saima Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1741,T] (1).

4. Cytotoxic Efects Of Saw-Scaled Viper Snake Venom On Brain, Heart, Liver And Hematological Parameters Of Albino

by Amara Mushtaq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1783,T] (1).

5. Pathobiological Studies On Bovine Ephemeral Fever Infected Cattle In District Swabi

by Sahibzada Waheed Abdullah (2013-VA-560) | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ali Ahmad Shiekh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Among the non-contagious diseases Bovine ephemeral fever is important disease of cattle the course of the disease is usually three days due to which it is called “three days sickness”. This is transfer to other cattle through insects Culicoides (biting midges a group that include many kinds of flies) and mosquitoes. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) has been collected from Culicoides coarctatus, Culicoides brevitarsis, and Anopheles bancroftii (Walker et al. 2012). Cattle and buffaloes are the main species affected from Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) which gives huge economic losses to the dairy sector. The etiologic agent, Bovine ephemeral fever virus belong to Rhabdoviridae family, enveloped (negative sense) ssRNA virus. It generally recur in Australia, Asia, and Africa also in the Middle East (Walker 2005). The theme of the present study was detection of BEF virus through Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction from the cattle suspected for bovine ephemeral fever virus on the basis of clinical signs. Hematological profile and serum calcium level were checked in the confirmed positive samples for BEFV. A total of 50 blood samples were collected from the suspected animals in aseptic condition using a sterilized disposable syringe and were preserved in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 50, without anticoagulant n = 50). The 10 blood samples were collected from healthy animals in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 10, without anticoagulant n = 10). Buffy coat were separated from blood samples and from this the RT-PCR was performed and successfully diagnosed the BEFV infected cattle. Hematology and serum calcium were performed for both confirm positive and healthy animals. Summary 31 The result showed that BEF virus was diagnosed with the help of RT-PCR in samples suspected for BEFV infection, and there was no virus detected in samples taken from healthy animals. Comparison of hematology between BEFV infected cattle and healthy animals were performed there was no changes in the RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and MID (it include monocyte, eosinophils, and basophils) except Neutrophils, which number was increases and lymphocytes which was decreased in BEFV infection, while in healthy animals there was no change in the whole hematology. Serum calcium was also determined there was decrease in serum calcium level of BEFV infected cattle, while in the healthy animal samples there was no change in the serum calcium level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2284-T] (1).

6. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Co-Infection Of Infectious Bronchitis (Ibv) And Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) In Experimental Chickens

by Sohail Khan (2013-VA-606) | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Infectious bronchitis and colibacillosis are infectious diseases affecting chicken of all ages and breeds. They are of major economic importance in commercial chicken flocks, causing huge losses. As both in humans and animals it is well documented that preceding respiratory infection of virus predispose individual to bacterial infection. Moreover, mix infection in poultry which occur when different organisms simultaneously invade birds is a major threat to poultry industry causes highly epidemic debilitating disease with high mortality which eventually leads to economic catastrophe. In recent past prevalence studies of field, E. coli had been reported with high prevalence and exaggerated disease along with other respiratory pathogens, additionally IBV had also isolated from same flocks in same season. Although a plethora of pioneering work had been done on IBV and E. coli in the previous decades but still a window in time exist in revealing there co-infection. Looking to field scenario in our country, the present study was designed to study an ideal challenge model for IBV and E. coli, by reproducing the natural infection. 80 SPF day old broiler birds were arranged into four groups, (A, B, C and D). Each group was comprised of 20 birds. Group D served as uninoculated control while, Group A and B were challenged with IBV on 23rd day of trails, and Group B and C were inoculated with E. coli infection on day 26th. Birds, (n=3) from each group were slaughtered on various days post infection, gross and histopathological lesions were observed and serum samples for HI were taken, throughout experiment. Variable clinical signs were recorded in various groups. In IBV infected group, respiratory distress i.e., tracheal rales, coughing, sneezing and gasping were noted during early stages, later up to 10 days post infection watery diarrhea with ruffled feathers were observed. In mix infected group clinical signs manifested rapidly and were persistent with high severity. Gross lesions in mixed infection were more profound, Summary 56 including; airsacullitis, tracheitis with catarrhal exudation throughout respiratory tract; severe sepicemic lesions i.e. perihepaitis, pericarditis, pneumonia and polyserositis with swollen and pale kidneys distended by urates. 5 birds died in mix infected group revealed ascites with asphyxiation of trachea with caseous exudate. While in IBV infected group lesions were mild and confined to trachea, airsac and kidneys. Mortality was high in mix infected followed by IBV in which two birds died. While in E. coli and control group mortality were not noted. Histopathological lesions in mix infected group were aggravated markedly tracheal epithelium degeneration, deciliation and sloughing; congestion, interstitial nephritis, leukocytes infiltration, tubular degeneration and necrosis while were observed. In lungs, pneumonia of peribronchiolar area and interstitium with lymphocyte and macrophages infiltration, additionally degeneration and vacuolization of hepatocytes with focal necrotic areas were also noted. In IBV and E. coli group microscopic lesions were of mild degree. GMT of both IBV and mix infected birds were high but were not significant different (P>0.05). Among the groups, statistically significant increase in FCR of birds in mix infected group was observed followed by E. coli, with IBV infected came third in the row. On the bases of these findings we might conclude that mix infection of IBV and E. coli causes severe lesions with high morbidity and mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2306-T] (1).

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