Prebiotics Production Using Recombinant B-Galactosidase And Their Effect On Growth Of Rat Colon
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: In this research work the prebiotic was prepared by using the enzyme from Kluyveromyces lactis and different doses were fed to the rats to check the growth of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and E. coli. Firstly the enzyme activity was checked at different concentrations at different time intervals by using 20g/l lactose solution. The glucose, galactose and lactose and their mixture were used as a standard in the same concentration. After many thin layer chromatography analysis the 10µl enzyme for 45 min was enough to convert 1ml of the lactose solution.
Then, by using the same concentrations of the enzyme prebiotics galactooligosaccharides were synthesized by transgalactosylation and were fed orally to group 1 for 10 days, group 2 for 20 days and group 3 for 30 days at concentrations of 1g/day, 2g/day and 3g/day respectively. After 10, 20 and 30 days the fecal samples from all the groups were collected aseptically to check the growth of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and E. coli. Colony counting was done to count the colonies.
In the study different doses of prebiotics GOS were given @ 1g/day, 2 g/day and 3 g/day. The plates were incubated at 37 ºC and numbers of colonies were counted on digital colony counter. The effect of different concentrations of dose of galactooligosaccharides and the effect of time duration was calculated. The P-value used was 0.05. The P-value obtained by the two way ANOVA for the effect of dose of different concentrations is 0.354521 which is more than 0.05. This value indicates that the effect of dose on lactobacillus growth is insignificant as for as the concentration is concerned. As the concentration is increased there is no effect on growth. While the other factor was the time duration i. e 10, 20 and 30 days so its effect is calculated. P-value obtained for the effect of time is 0.029958. It shows that the result is significant. As the time interval is increased the CFU/ml of lactobacillus also increased.
The consequence of different concentration of dosage of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and the effect of time period is determined. 0.05 P-value used. The P-value deducted by using two-way ANOVA for the effect of dose of different concentrations is 0.032328 which is less than 0.05. This value indicates that the effect of dose on bifidobacteria growth is significant. As the concentration is increased there is increasing effect on growth. While the other factor was the time duration i. e 10, 20 and 30 days so its effect is determined. P-value obtained for the effect of time is 0.014286. It shows that the result is significant. As the time interval is increased the CFU/ml of bifidobacteria also increased. The consequence of different concentration of dosage of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and the effect of time period is determined for E. coli. The P-value obtained 0.03984 which is less than 0.05. This value indicates that the effect of dose on E. coli growth is significant. As the concentration is increased there is increasing effect on growth. P-value obtained for the effect of time is 0.004848. It shows that the result is significant. As the time interval is increased the CFU/ml of bifidobacteria also increased.
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Determination Of Heavy Metals In Various Types Of Candies And Chocolates Available In Local Markets Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer.
Heavy metals are presentin sweets like candies, chocolates and gums, which are favorite food for children and pregnant women. Lead, Nickel and Chromium are major toxic heavy metals. Main source of lead exposure in children are food, air, water and soil.Accumulation of Lead in different parts of the body has adverse effects and causes many diseases.When chromium is ingested in excess amounts, it induces many toxicity symptoms in human body. At higher levels, nickel accumulates in the lungs and may cause bronchial haemorrhage. Other symptoms include nausea, weakness, dizziness, etc.
In Pakistan food safety is on the verge chaos specially there is no sufficient data available on heavy metals in confectionary products. Therefore present study was designed to aware the consumer specially children about hazards of heavy metal in candies and chocolates.
Both Local and imported Candies and Chocolates samples (n=120) were collected from local shops anddepartmental stores of Lahore. Samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometer for heavy metals examination in Environmental Science DepartmentLaboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Concentration of lead in imported candies (n=30) and local chocolates (n=30) found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of Punjab Food Rules 2011(PFR) while imported chocolates (n=30) and local candies (n=30) were not found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of PFR 2011. The variation of nickel was not found within permissible value 0.025 mg/kg of PFA in all (n=120) imported chocolates, local chocolates, imported candies and local candies. Concentration of chromium in all types of samples (n=120) was high as compared to limit value 0.02 mg/kg of PFR 2011.
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Study Of Effect Of Heat On Aflatoxin Reduction In Chickpea
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), also called garbanzo bean or Bengal gram, belongs to the family Fabaceae of class dicots (Lev-Yadun et al. 2000). It is an important legume crop cultivated over an area of 963.0 hectares with a production of about 675.2 tons in Pakistan. It is the most nutritive pulse extensively used as protein addition to starchy diet. The major issue which influences the chickpea is naturally occurring aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) with AFB1 the most important, toxic and carcinogenic. Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AfG2) are toxins produced by Aspergillus flavis and Aspergillus parasiticus infecting the agricultural crops. Chickpea is largely contaminated by aflatoxins in Pakistan due to seasonal variations, improper management of grains and contaminated soils. These are dangerous fungal metabolites that impair child development, suppress the immune system, cause cancer and in severe acute exposure death occurs, so it is necessary to estimate its toxicity in public health perspective.
For this purpose present study was conducted to determine the level of aflatoxins in Chickpea samples (Roasted and Unroasted). Samples were collected from different areas of Lahore i.e. Anarkali, Icchra, Model town, Gulberg, Mughalpura,Iqbal Town, Samnabad, Secretriate, Sabza Zar, Wahdat Road, Shad Bagh, Data Darbar, Thokar Niaz Begh, Cantt, Lohari Gate, Outfall Road, Dharampura, Joray Pull, Rehman Pura, Mozang, Faiz Bagh, Akbari Mandi, Liberty, Jallo Morh, Lahore Medical Society, Darogha Wala, Firdous Market, Siddiqia Colony, District Court, Sanat Nagar and also from chickpea vendors. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to check the presence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2). TLC analyses were further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to verify the accuracy of TLC. These analyses were performed in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and WTO labs, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Experimental results showed that 60 out of 120 samples were contaminated with four different types of aflatoxins. In other words, 50% samples were found contaminated with aflatoxnis. Aflatoxin B1 was the major aflatoxin found in many samples but aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 were also identified. Samples were analyzed on TLC method and 5% of contaminated samples were re- evaluated on HPLC technique to get precise results. Out of 120 samples sixty samples (50%) were collected from retail shops and other sixty (50%) samples were collected from street vendors. Each category of sixty samples holds 50% roasted and 50% un-roasted samples. Out of 120 total samples of chickpea 60 samples were taken from vendors with 2 categories of roasted and unroasted while 60 samples were collected from shops with the same categories. In those 120 samples, 60 (50%) were contaminated. From those 60 samples 39 (65%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1. And it was also observed that the aflatoxin contamination level in vendors sample was high as compared to samples collected from shops. Out of 39 AFB1 contaminated samples vendor’s samples included 26 (66.66%) samples and samples collected from shops included 13 (33.3%) samples. In 26 vendors’ samples contaminated by AFB1, 18 (69.2%) samples were un-roasted while 8 (30.7%) samples were roasted. Aflatoxin B2 was present in 14 (23.33%) samples from these 60 contaminated samples, and presents only in both vendors and shops samples i.e. 7 (50%) samples from vendors and 7 (50%) from shops. From these AFB2 contaminated samples 10 samples (71.4%) were un-roasted and 4 samples (28.5%) was roasted. Aflatoxin G1 is also present in 5 samples (8.33%), out of which one sample (20%) was collected from vendors and 4 samples (80%) was collected from shop. From these G1 contaminated samples, 1 (20%) was roasted and 4 (80%) was un-roasted. Aflatoxin G2 is present only in two samples collected from vendors and shops, and we can say that 3.33% samples were contaminated with aflatoxin G12, out of 60 contaminated samples. From above results it is concluded that out of 60 contaminated samples 43 (71.66%) were un-roasted and 17 samples (28.33%) were roasted. After the aflatoxin determination in 60 shop’s and 60 vendor’s roasted and unroasted chickpea samples 5 samples were further processed at home by keeping 1 sample unroasted and 4 samples roasted at time intervals of 5mins,10mins,15mins and 20mins in sand bath. All the samples were free from the aflatoxin contamination except one which was unroasted. AFB1 was present in that sample at its minimum level i.e. 32.16µg/kg.
AFB1 was present more frequently in chickpea samples. Present study will be supportive for the investigation of aflatoxins in chickpea samples. Chickpea is widely consumed all over the world and occurrence of aflatoxins in this commodity is a major concern to human health. The present situation is too much worse about the levels of aflatoxins which are higher than the prescribed limit by the regulatory authorities. It was observed that TLC technique is good for the determination of aflatoxins in developing countries where the facilities of sensitive instruments are not accessible. Furthermore to quantify levels of aflatoxins by using sensitive instruments like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS is required for accurate detection of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2) in chickpea samples available in markets to protect the consumers from exposure of aflatoxins high level which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic.
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