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1. A Comparative Evaluation Of Sodium Alginate, Potasium Aluminium For Enhancing The Immunogenic Response Of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine

by Tariq Mahmood Khan, Major | Dr . Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr . Asif | Dr . Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of three different adjuvants (Potassium aluminum sulphate, mineral oil and sodium alginate) for enhancing the immune potential of haemorrhagic septicemia vaccines. A special media was prepared for the production of alum precipitated vaccine, sodium alginate vaccine and oil adjuvant vaccine. It was concluded that addition of various ingredients, including yeast extracts, cane sugar, sodium chloride and casein hydrolysate in proper concentration, increased the number of bacterial population in culture media and HS organism developed its full antigenic characteristics due to availability of essential required nutrients. Mouse model was chosen to study the safety and potency test of all the three vaccines. The potency of all three vaccines was compared and calculated by a standard method of Ose and Muenstar (1968). In this experiment APV proved inferior to SAV and OAV with the log protection value of 3.2 and 3.6. Sodium alginate vaccine gave better results with log protection value of 3.9 and 4, but slightly inferior to that of oil adjuvant vaccine. However, a plus point of this vaccine is that it is easy to prepare and simple to administer. The alginate alone is non immunogenic, it forms a stable, colloidal transparent solution in water and is devoid of disadvantages in commonly used chemical oil adjuvant. Oil adjuvant vaccine provides much better results with log protection value of 5.2 and 5.8 as compared to APV and SAV. After storage at room temperature, only 1.2 % separation of oil phase occurred being for less than the tolerable limit of 5%. The final product formed was creamy and whitish in colour and evenly adhered to the surface of glass bottle. Undoubtedly advantages of alginate vaccine lie in the simplicity and easy administration but the immunity conferred by oil adjuvant vaccine is of longer duration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0695,T] (1).

2. Studies Of The Production And Detection Of Haemolytic Toxin In In Vitro Culture Of Clostridium Perfringens Type D

by Bakht Sultan | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Dr . Haji Ahmad | Dr . Sameera Akhtar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Physicochemical factors modulating the production of haemolysin in culture of Clostridium perfringens (type-D) were evaluated. It was observed that toxin was produced in all the three media. The maximum titer of (4184) was achieved in RCM. The titer in thioglycollate was 2088 and in RCM with K2HPO4 were 1248 after 24 hours incubation. It was observed that pH 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5 of the medium before incubation resulted 1024, 4184 and 1576 haemolytic titers. Anaerobic environment and neutral pH during incubation augmented the haemolysin production in the culture. Trypsin 0.1 percent in the culture filtrate converted the prototoxin into haemolysin which exhibited maximum lytic activity in 60 minutes interaction time. Trypsin solution (1 percent) alone failed to induce haemolysis while the haemolysin showed maximum haemolytic activity at 37°C. The trypsinised culture supernatant (haemolysin) induced lysis of erythrocytes of sheep, goat, horse and chicken. The resultant high titer of haemolysin unveiled the propects of preparation of combined vaccines for sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0698,T] (1).

3. Preparation And Evaluation Of Newcastle Disease Virus (Mesogenic Strain) Oil Based Vaccine

by Shafi Ullah Chand | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Dr . Sameera Akhtar | Dr . Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present work was proposed to prepare oil based Newcastle disease virus vaccine and to compare its efficacy with imported vaccines. An oil based ND vaccine was prepared using moderately virulent strain of NDV. The virus was cultured in chicken embryos. The allanto-amniotic fluid, chorioallantoic membrane and infected embryo (virus suspension) was subjected to titration. The HA titer of allanto-amniotic fluid (AAF), chorloallantoic membrane (CAM) and embryo was upto 512, 1024 and 2048, respectively. The MD50 was calculated to be 1088/0.1ml. Effect of temperature on its keeping quality was determined by estimation of its HA potential at various intervals. The AAF was processed for inactivation, sterility and safety tests. Formalin at a rate of 0.12% inactivated the NDV in 48 hours at 37°C. Addition of antibiotic such as gentarnycin and nystatin inhibited common contaminants. An oil based NDV vaccine was prepared by mixing one part of processed AAF in 4 parts of oil base. The oil base contained 4% emulsifier span-80 and 1% tween-80. The vaccine thus prepared from moderately virulent strain was antigenically comparable with the imported ND vaccine. The cost of vaccine production using moderately virulent NDV was Rs.463/bottle (1000 doses) compared to RS.1250/- per bottle of imported vaccine. The price of one ml diagnostic antigen was calculated at Rs.2/ml. The results of present project encourage to develop an economical and effective oil based ND vaccine and diagnostic HA NDV antigen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0700,T] (1).

4. A Study On Physico Chemical Actors Affecting The Survial Of Avian Influenza (H9 N2) Virus

by Tehmina Sadaf | Dr . Sameera Akhtar | Dr . Khushi Muhammad | Dr . Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: A total of 310 chicken embryos (9 day old) were purchased from local market. The embryos were incubated at 37°C. On eleventh day of age avian influenza virus (H9 N2) for its propagation was inoculated in 10 chicken embryos. The four haemagglutination titer (4HA) of the virus was prepared to observe the response to various physical and chemical factors. Physical factors included were temperature, pH and UV (280 nm) light. The virus, exposed to the physical factors for different time intervals was inoculated into embryos through allantoic route. These embryos were kept in an incubator (37°C) for 72 hours. Later on the allantoic amniotic fluid (AAF) from each inoculated embryos subjected to spot haemagglutination test. The virus endured 56 °C temperature for 15 and 30 minutes while got inactivated in 45 minutes. More over virus survived at pH 7 for 15, 30 and 45 minutes but lost its HA activity at pH 5 and 9 in 15, 30 and 45 minutes. It was further examined that virus survived after 60 minutes exposure UV light but inactivated after 90 minutes. The disinfectants formalin, phenol, iodine solution and fin virus were used in 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% concentrations. The 4HA titer of virus was mixed in various concentrations of chemical disinfectants and was inoculated into embryonated eggs. The AAF of these eggs was subjected to spot agglutination test. The results of the test showed that all four chemicals formalin, phenol, iodine and fin virus inactivated the virus in 0.5% concentration in 15 minutes and all have good antiviral activity against avian influenza virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0703,T] (1).

5. Effect Of Various Growth Promoting Antibiotics On The Immune And Digestive Systems Of Broiler Chickens

by Shahan Azeem | prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of growth promoting antibiotics on immune and digestive systems of broiler chickens. This study indicated that un-medicated un-vaccinated chickens had the higher body weights than the vaccinated un-medicated or medicated chickens. Flavomycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not adversely affect the mean weights of spleen, thymus and livers of experimental chickens. However, the use of lincomycin, adversely affected the weight of bursa of' Fabricius. Furthermore, the use of Flavoinycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not have any adverse effects on the development of antibody titers against NDV and AIV. The total viable microflora counts of different treatment groups were not different from each other. Evaluation of the economics of flocks at the end of the experiment indicated that un-medicated, un-vaccinated groups had higher profit returns and the Lincomycin medicated, vaccinated groups demonstrated lowest profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0738,T] (1).

6. Comparative Immunogenicity Of Different Hydropericardium Syndrome (Hps) Vaccines In Broiolers

by Arfan Ahmad | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Shakeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Formaldehyde inactivated hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) vaccine without any adjuvant (F-HPS), an oil based HPS vaccine (0- HPS) and alum precipitated HPS vaccine (A-HPS) were prepared and comparative immunogenicity was evaluated in broilers. These vaccines were injected to each bird of groupG1, 02 and G3 sub-cutaneously on 14t day of their age, respectively while the birds of group G4 were kept non-HPS vaccinated control. Each of the bird of each group was also vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus-NDV (LaSota strain: eye droppings) while birds of group G5 served as ND non vaccinated control. Each of the vaccine induced detectable level of anti-HPS virus indirect haemagglutination (IHA) antibody titre. The 0-HPS vaccine induced higher titre ofthe anti-HPSV-IHA antibody titre that of F-HPS and A-HPS vaccines. All of the three vaccines induced resistance in the birds that showed 100% protection when were given challenge infection on 14 days post-vaccination while the birds of control group showed zero percent protection. At the time of challenge infection, anti- Newcastle disease virus haemagglutination inhibition (ND V-HI) antibody titres were same in the HPS vaccinated and un-vaccinated broilers. It is concluded that all the vaccines induced effective immunity in the birds. The 0-HPS vaccine induced higher levels of anti-HPS virus IHA antibody titres than that of F-HPS and A-HPS vaccines. Moreover, non of the vaccine induced detectable level of immuno-modulatory effect on the anti-NDV-HI antibody titre of birds to NDV vaccine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0787,T] (1).

7. Characterization And Antibiotic Resistance Profile Of Listeria Monocytogenes Isolated From Fish And Broiler Meat

by Mohammad Nasar (2015-VA-21) | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz) | Prof Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad).

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Gram positive rod shaped, non-spore former Listeria monocytogenes is the major food-borne pathogens for humans and animals. It can cause serious foodborne infection. The bacterium is saprophyte and can grow on wide range of temperature (0-45°C). Due to this it contaminates different food products. Consumption of this contaminated food products can cause serious problems in neonates, pregnant women and immunocompromised peoples. Its signs may develop between day one to three months after ingestion of the organism. The neonates can develop septicemia, respiratory diseases and meningitis. The pregnant woman may develop influenza like symptoms, or keep an asymptomatic infection that ends in abortion, premature birth or sepsis in the newborn. Healthy people hardly develop clinical signs but a febrile gastroenteritis syndrome has been reported. No doubt this disease is associated with unhygienic food consumption and is characterized by fever, nausea, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain and sometime myalgia. These symptoms may be resolved in one to three days Listeria monocytogenes was isolated by conventional methods and suspected colonies were identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests catalase and oxidase test. The DNA was extracted from isolated colonies by 10% chelex method. The isolated strains were confirmed through PCR by targeting prfA gene of 479bp. Antibiotic resistance were also checked for confirmed isolates. A total of 160 (Fish meat n=80, Broiler meat n=80) samples were taken for the present study for screening Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterium was found in 19/80 (23.75%) samples of Fish and 5/80 (6.25%) of broiler meat samples through PCR detection. Summary 45 Later the confirmed isolates were tested to check the resistance profile of the bacterium to different commonly available antibiotics. For this 24hrs old culture were used. Three to five colonies were picked by sterile loop and transfer to test tube containing 10ml normal saline. To check the turbidity the tube was compared with 0.5 Macfarland standard. Then by sterile cotton swab the bacterium was spread on Mueller Hinton agar. Antibiotics were placed by sterile forceps on agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24hrs. Zones of inhibition were measured in mm by the help of ruler and then compared with staphlycoccus aureus break points in CLSI. The susceptibility result shows that the bacterium was resistant to gentamicin. Mostly L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to antibiotics used in this study. This study suggested ampicillin as drug of choice for treatment of listeriosis. Preventive measures should be adopted to avoid the risk of the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2835-T] (1).

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