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1. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Carvediolol In Healty Male And Female Volunteers

by Alishba syed | Dr. Sualeha Riuffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in 6 healthy male and female volunteers. The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six healthy female volunteers. Only those male volunteers were selected who were of age between 18-30 years, not suffering from any disease. Female volunteers were also between age of 18-30 years, who were not pregnant and not suffering from any disease. Written consent was taken from them and they were be informed about objectives of the study, frequency of blood sampling, and possible side effects of drug which they might face during the study. The male volunteers were considered as group A and healthy female volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Carvedilol 12.5mg tablet per orally to each individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hr from vein through 5ml B.D syringe of 22guage needle after oral administration of Carvedilol. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -40°C till analysis. Carvedilol concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC method. All pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in healthy male volunteers and in healthy female volunteers were compared. Data was analyzed byapproprite statistical methods and no significant difference was found between AUC and Cmax. Absorption rate was highr in females as compared to males. AUC of Carvedilol was 0.076±0.021 µg.h/ml in healty male voluneteers and 0.197±0.105 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. The half life was 5.205±1.824 hours in healty male volunteers and 6.6768±1.328 hours in female volunteers. The Cmax was observed as 0.024±0.004 µg.h/ml in healty volunteers and 0.048±0.018 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1180,T] (1).

2. Bioequivalence Study Of Montelukast Tablets In Healthy Volunteets

by Sadia Amin | Dr. Sualeha Riffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Objective of this bioequivalence study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters and to evaluate bioequivalence of two generic drug products. A multinational company brand was compared with locally manufacture brand. It was a randomized, single dose, two-period crossover study in which 12 volunteers were participated with the age limit of 18-30yrs. These volunteers were selected according to different inclusion and exclusion criteria and the study was conducted with one week washout period. Each volunteer was one tablet of montelukast (reference or test) lOmg. 14 blood samples of 4-Sml collected at predefined time intervals i.e, 0, O.S, 1.0, 1.S, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.S, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10, 12 and 24 hours .. Heparinized vacuette were used for collection of blood samples. After sampling, blood samples were centrifuged immediately to separate plasma and stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma montelukast concentration was evaluated by using reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate O.OSM at pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid in combination to acetonitrile (20:80) was used as mobile phase. The wavelength of detector was set at 34Snm and flow rate was set to 2.0ml per min. Drug from plasma was extracted by de-proteinizing the plasma with acetonitrile. 70 III injection volume was given to HPLC for analysis. For comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters two compartment analysis was used and pair t-test was applied. Non compartmental analysis was used for evaluating pharmacokinetic parameters to evaluate the both drugs were bioequivalent or not. 3 major parameters of bioequivalence Cmax, AVC O-inf and AVC O-t were evaluated and they did not show significant difference in between two formulations. Also the 90% confidence interval values were within the limit. So, it was concluded that both the test and reference drug were bioequivalent and test drug could be used interchangeably with the reference drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1311,T] (1).

3. Bioequivalence Study Of Deferiprone In Healthy Volunteers

by Naila Waheed | Dr. Sualeha Riffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating bioequivalence, relative silability and efficacy of deferiprone manufactured locally (Ferinil, Global aceutical, Pakistan) with a reference drug (Ferriprox, ApoPharma, Canada) in healthy volunteers. It was a randomized crossover study enrolling 12 volunteers within age limit g·55yrs and meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, Each volunteer was administered two tablets of deferiprone 500mg of both reference and test drug with a two- washout period. Blood samples of about 5ml was collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 5,4, 6, 8, 12 hour at predetermined time intervals and one sample was taken as control giving first dose to volunteers. Heparinized vacuette was used for collection of blood les. After sampling, blood samples was centrifuged at approximately 3000 rpm for 10 les and then stored at -80°C till analyzed. Plasma deferiprone levels were analyzed using led High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from plasma concentration time curve non-compartmentally and two- artmental. After logarithmic transformation of data statistical comparisons of Cmax, (0-1), AUC(o.oo) was calculated and appropriate statistical method was used for calculation. mean relative bioavailability was 104% and was proved to be bioavailable. The Cmax (mean ±SD) for reference and test drug was 12.68 ± 4.91 and 14.41 ± 5.04 ug/ml, ctively while average ± SD of AUCO-t and AUCO-inf of test and reference drug was 40.49 6,05 and 42.84 ± 18.47 ugh/ml and 38.63 ± 13.65 and 40.75 ± 14.17 ugh/ml. Average (test/reference) of Cmax 90% CI was 0.9876-1.3125. Average ratio (test/reference) of Co.190% CI was 0.9737-1.1150, and of AUCo-inf 90% CI was 0.9542-1.1343. Therefore both test and reference drug was fairly tolerated by volunteers and no adverse event was detected. Hence, the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of AUCo-t and AUCO-inf was 0.9737-1.1150 and 0.9542-1.1343 that lie within the acceptable limit of (0.80 - 1.25) for bioequivalence acceptance. Effectiveness of deferiprone depends on AUC instead of Cmax therefore the average ratio of 90% confidence interval of Cmax was 0.9876-1.3125 that lie with the acceptable limit of WHO bioequivalence acceptance (0.75 - 1.33). ANOVA show no significant variations among drug, period and sequence effect. Therefore, it was concluded that Ferriprox was proved to be bioequivalent in healthy male Pakistani volunleers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1327,T] (1).

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