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1. Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Nasrullah (2009-VA-90) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I. Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals. For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non- EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe, after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms, management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained from the owners. Summary 40 The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to manufacturer instructions. The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total proteins (Javed et al. 2010). Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant. The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years. Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0% cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence Summary 41 was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60 days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration. Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein analysis was statistically non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2526-T] (1).

2. Crop Repair Using Different Ingluviotomy Techniques In Pigeon

by Rashid Hussain (2007-VA-138) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Waseem Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Crop is the pivotal organ of the birds’ body. The primary function of the crop is the storage of food. When the crop is full,it becomes more prominent as well as slight pendulous and more prone to trauma. Such wounds lead to the crop fistula formation in birds. Fortunately crop has a good blood supply and heals well. Ingluviotomy performed by making an incision on left lateral cervical region over the crop to minimize disruption of vasculature and complications associated with tube feeding in recovery period. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).Thirty Pigeons weighing between 275 gm to 350 gm were managed from nearby area of Lahore and were kept in experimental cages of Surgery Section (CMS) of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques along with glue for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).These pigeons were divided into three experimental groups i.e. Group A, B and C comprising ten pigeons each. In group A comprising of ten (10) pigeons underwent single layer closure with the help of absorbable suture material (Vicryl®) 4-0 using simple continuous suture pattern. Temperature, pulse and respiration were observed at different days from day 1 to day 30 in all groups. The pigeon of group A (single layer closure), showed more variation in temperature, pulse and respiration as compared with the group B ( double layer closure) and C (closure with glue). The bird of group B showed less variation in temperature, pulse and respiration and was normal after few days of surgery. The birds of group C also showed fever and rise in temperature but it was less than the birds of group A and showed more variation in temperature, pulse respiration than birds of group B. Pigeons in Group A (single layer closure) showed poor healing in overall period. At day 30 only 30% of the birds showed complete healing while 40% bird were still in healing phase, the dead percentage was 30. While in term of leakage at day 20, zero percent of the birds SUMMARY 49 showed leakage while no leakage percentage was 70% and the dead percentage was 30. Pigeons in Group B (double layer closure) showed significant good healing during the research period. At day 30 total of 80% of the birds were completely healed while 20 % bird in healing phase, percentage of no wound healing and the dead was zero. In term of leakage, at day 20 total of 100% of the birds were showed no leakage, leakage percentage was zero percent and the dead percentage was zero. In group C ( closure with glue) At day 30 , 50% of the birds were completely healed, 20% birds were in healing phase, no wound healing percentage was 10% , dead percentage was 20 and wound dehiscence was zero percent. While in term of leakage, at day 20 only 50% of the birds showed no leakage, leakage percentage was 30% and the dead percentage was 20 %. In term of postmortem changes it was noticed that fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen was less in double layer closure birds it showed good healing. In birds treated with single layer closure showed more fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen while in group where glue is used less narrowing of crop lumen and more fibrosis was seen which showed poor healing. Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable closure technique for ingluviotomy in pigeons using double layer closure is that this procedure enables proper apposition of crop edges and in addition, there is less tension at apposed site. Besides this, there is more vascular supply in the crop area,that enhances faster and reliable healing of crop repair. As the double layer closure stands to be novel procedure for crop repair, it should be used by avian surgeons worldwide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2518-T] (1).

3. Detection of Antibodies For Mycobacterium Avium Sub-Specie Paratuberculosis in Sheep Population Along With Its Associated Risk Factors in District Rahim Yar Khan

by Muhammad Arif Rizwan (2014-VA-228) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection. Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan. 5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results. In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis. Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available. It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2519-T] (1).

4. Infestation Rate And Therapeutics Of Scabies In Cats

by Asma Fatima (2008-VA-247) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Khalid Abdul Majeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Cats are commonly known as friendly companion of man. The cat is domesticated pet animal and has been widely kept as companion. Feline scabies is one of the most common and severe skin diseases of cats, caused by sarcoptic mange. Despite the high prevalence and severity of the disease, many aspects of feline scabies remain poorly understood. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the study on cat scabies is limited in Pakistan. A total of 214 cats were examined of these 96 (44.9%) were positive for sorcoptic mange it was observed that mange infestation was highest in cats under 1 year and above 2 year of age. Whereas the lowest in 1.5 year of age cats. As regard the sex wise prevalence of mange infestation it was high in female cats than males. The samples were taken from the suspected cats having some skin problem irrespective of breed, sex or age, from Pet Center UVAS Lahore and Private clinics. After confirmation of the disease by skin scrapping test and identification through morphological standards, 5 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of cat in a clean test tube containing a few drops of 1% EDTA as anticoagulant. Then these test tubes were labeled with specific number to each blood sample along with date of collection and hematological and serological studies were undertaken on the samples. The cats were divided into two groups (Group A and B) for treatment trial, each group will consist of further 4 groups, each group containing 4 cats and 16 cats in each group. Group A was treated with the Ivermectin 0.04mg/kg BW s/c on every week for consecutive 4 weeks. Group B was treated with Doramectin s/c 0.6mg/kg BW on every week for consecutive 4 weeks. To evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment, skin Summary 25 scrapings were collected from each treated cat at 0 day before treatment and at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day post-treatment. But blood samples were analyzed at 0 day, 14th, 28th day, subjected to hematocrit, Hb, counting of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs), and differential leukocytes count RFT (blood urea Nitrogen, Creatinine), LFT (ALT, AST, ALP, Total Bilirubin). Out of 214 the positive cats for the Scabies were 96 so the overall infestation rate was 44.9% in cats. The cat scabies is mostly occur in more than 24month age of cats and on secondly age group was 07-12month. For therapeutic trail 32 cats were brought into clinical trial , each clinical score contains four cats and total 32 cats have been divided into 2 groups viz. Group A(Ivermectin) and Group B(Doramectin). In group A ivermectin 0.4mg/kg B.W S/C weekly for continuous four weeks. In group B Doramectin 0.6mg/kg B.W S/C weekly for continuous four weeks. There was no change in WBCs, significant increase in RBCs, also increase in creatinine, but significant decrease in ALT, ALP, Bilirubin, and BUN. There was no change in AST. After four weeks of treatment trail ivermectin have better reduction rate of parasite. The ratio of pet animal was very less as compared to stray cats as the stray animal have no barrier to control the spread of disease. The percentage of previously infected and then cured animal or having disease history is less than that of newly infacted cats. This study proposed that the hospital acquired infection were more, the reason may be the contaminated clinical utensils or attendant’s hands. Scabies is the disease which spreads more in those animals which were in grouping as compared to randomly moving cats and very less in individual cats. Scabies is one of the most possible contact diseases. The more the contact more will be the chance of disease occurrence. The number of cats and percentage was very less of primary flea infestation, in the consequence of scabies infection. The fungal infection also existed at the same time of scabies Summary 26 infection and there were about 33 cats having fungal infection. As this disease is the cause of anemia, so it may be the one of the great source of bacterial infection as the hair loss is the major sign of this disease, the internal and external bacteria may infect likewise. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2529-T] (1).

5. Infection Rate And Chemotherapy Of Haemonchus Contortus In Mouflon Sheep

by Majeed Ul Zafar Jaidi (2013-VA-890) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia Ullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mouflon sheep have lovely brown colored short haired coat. Typically it is not the wild animal found in Pakistan but a little population of Mouflon sheep is present in Pakistan in the captive vicinities like private zoo and wild life parks .Their population is countable, 150-200 Mouflon sheep are present. They can be parasitized by many nematodes, one of the most important is Haemonchuscontortus. Adult Haemonchuscontortus found in the abomasum of the animal.Female parasite can lay up to 1500 eggs in a day in mid-Summer July- August and those eggs produce the infective stage L3, which after infestation causes heavy blood loss resulting anemia, weight loss, emaciation and sudden death in acute cases compromising the production and propagation losses in Mouflon sheep. The Mouflon sheep of various private and public Zoo and Wild Life Parks located in area of District Lahore were included in this study. A total of 100 Mouflon sheep were examined coprologically for the presence of Haemonchuscontortus for the present study. It is difficult to restrain the wild animal, a Dort was used for this purpose keeping in view of this problem about 3 gram of sample were collected early in the morning from the freshly passed feces, for this purpose disposable gloves was used on hands,the samples were collected carefully to avoid soil contamination the sample was placed in self-sealing polythene bags and were transferred to the laboratory in ice pack cooler. The samples were stored in refrigerator at 4°C till analysis. The fecal samples were analyzed for Haemonchuscontortus eggs using direct smear method and floatation technique, while the egg count were performed by McMaster technique at medicine Laboratory University of Veterinary Animal Sciences Lahore the identification of Haemonchuscontortus was made by using standard procedures. Infection rate was calculated by using formula Infection rate (%) = No. of infected animals (n)/ total No. of sampled animals (N) × 100 The infection rates were calculated in this study and total Thirty (33) animals were found positive after qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal samples. The infection rate of Haemonchuscontortus in Mouflon sheep were calculated out of sampled animals which resulted the significant (P < 0.05) infection rate in females as well as in male Mouflon sheep. The infection rate in female Mouflon sheep was 33.82 % and in males it was 31.25 % in males out of positive animals. Similarly The infection rate of H. contortus in Lahore Zoo, Safari Park Lahore and Jallo Park was 29.72, 32.50, 39.13 respectively, and the infection rate of H. contortus in age group of 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 was 39.58, 27.27, 26.31 respectively. For therapeutic trails, a total of 30 animals positive for nematodes having egg per gram between 1000---2000 were divided into 3 groups A, B, and C each group were comprised of 10 animals. The animal of group A was treated with Albendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg per kg of body weight PO; group B was treated with Levamisole at the rate of 7.5 mg per kg of body weight PO whereas the group C was treated with Pyrentelpamoate at the dose rate of 25 gram PO.The fecal sample of all groups were collected at day 0 (pre-treatment) and then at 3rd day 5th, 7th and 12th (post-treatment). The efficacies of these drugs were assessed on the bases of reduction in egg per gram and calculated as per formula of (Iqbal at al. 2013). Drug efficacy = {(pre-treatment EPG - post-treatment EPG / pre - treatment EPG)} × 100 The chemotherapy of Haemonchuscontortusin Mouflon Sheep were studied in different 3 treatment groups. Microscopically screened out Haemonchuscontortus positive Mouflon sheep were divided in Three (3) treatment groups T 1, T 2 and T 3 and each group contained Ten (10) positive animals. Faecal samples of animals were examined at day 0 pre-treatment and at days 3, 5, 7 and 12 post treatment. All the treatment groups showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in eggs per gram (EPG) at 3rd, 5th, 7th and 12th days after treatment. The maximum reduction in EPG %age was 96.1 % showed by T 1 group treated with single dose of Albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight at day 7 post treatment while the groups T 2 and T 3 showed maximum reduction of 95.52 % and 93.26 % at day 12th post treatment. Hence Albendazole was the best group found against Haemonchuscontortus at day 7 post treatment among the other two groups of drug used. Data on Infection rate of Haemonchuscontortus was estimated by Pearson’s chi-square test. For significance whereas data on chemotherapy was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS, P< 0.05 were considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2677-T] (1).

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