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151. Single Or Combined Effects Of Probiotics And Gallic Acid Supplementation On Zootechnical Parameters Oxidative Indes

by Mohsin Raza | Dr.Muhammad Shahbaz yousaf | Prof.Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1982,T] (1).

152. Mitochondrial Nd2 Gene Based Molecular Classification Of Various Pakistani Domestic Pigeons

by Muddasar Saeed khan | Dr. Sehrish firyal | Dr. Ali raza awan | DR.Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1983,T] (1).

153. Effect of Gold Nano Particles on Parthenogenetic Activation of Mouse Occytes By Strontium Chloride

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-169) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Shamaila Shahzadi | Dr. Ijaz Ali Channa | Dr.Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: No items available

154. Effect of Gold Nano Particles on Parthenogenetic Activation of Mouse Occytes By Strontium Chloride

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-169) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Shamaila Shahzadi | Dr. Ijaz Ali Channa | Dr.Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2238-T] (1).

155. Modulation Of Antibiotics Resistance Pattern In Escherichia Coli By Different Plant

by Bushra Chaudary (2009-VA-232) | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed | Dr. Naureen Naeem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is Gram negative microorganism belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae. It is part of normal micro flora of gastrointestinal tract of human and all warm blooded animals (Kaper et al. 2004). Escherichia coli is source of many infectious diseases in human as well as in animals. Common E. coli infections are enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicemia and neonatal meningitis. In pets and farm animals, E. coli is associated with diarrhea (Allocati et al. 2013). Poultry industry is facing huge annual losses due to infection of avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in broilers (Oosterik et al. 2014). E. coli causes a variety of syndromes in poultry including yolk sac infection, respiratory tract infection, swollen head syndrome, septicemia and cellulitis (Buys et al. 1989) Antibiotics are chemical agents which inhibit the microbial growth and used to eradicate infections. Mechanisms of action of antibiotics provide a base to categorize antimicrobial agents. Most important classes of antibiotics act as inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis (tetracyclines and macrolides), nucleic acid synthesis (fluoroquinolones), metabolic pathway (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and cell membrane (polymyxins). Bacteria may have intrinsic or acquired resistance to antimicrobials (Tenover 2006). Urinary tract infections are mostly caused by E.coli. Antibiotics generally used for the treatment of E. coli infections include ampicillin, nitrofurntion, cephalosporin, sulphonamides (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and quonolones (neladixic acid, ofloxacine, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine) (Lin and Lin 2010). Extended use and misuse of antibiotics lead to the development of resistant bacteria. Resistant E. coli strains are common source of hospital born and community acquired infections. Ease of Introduction 2 international travelling is one of the major spreading factor for antibiotic resistance. Resistant bacteria got opportunity to move from one geographical area to another (van der Bij and Pitout 2012). New strains of E. coli resistant to carbapenems (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM- 1) are major global health issue (Kumarasamy et al. 2010). Antibiotic resistance has become a serious public health problem. Currently, world is facing great difficulty in treatment of many infectious disease of human and animals. One of the reasons of treatment failure is emergence of resistant bacteria (Levy 2002). To develop new strategies for treatment of infectious diseases, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of resistance. Efflux pump inhibitors, enzymatic degradations and alteration of target sites are major strategies by which bacteria acquire or develop resistance to antibiotics (Sibanda and Okoh 2007). Scientists are looking for alternatives of antibiotics such as bacteriopheges, naturally antimicrobial compounds and some non antimicrobial agents (Worthington and Melander 2013). Probiotics (Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) can be a prophylactic measures against E. coli and may be used to treat intestinal tract infections of E. coli and other bacteria (de Vrese and Schrezenmeir 2008). Phytochemicals, secondary metabolites of plants, have antibacterial activity against many pathogenic organisms. These phytochemicals in combination with antibiotics may show synergistic effect. Phytochemicals and plant extracts can be a source of antibiotic resistancemodifying agents (RMAs) (Abreu et al. 2012). Plant extracts shown antibacterial activity because of phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and steroids (Gobalakrishnan et al. 2013). Plant extracts are used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Plant extracts like Zingiber officinalis (Ginger) Gymnema sylvestre (Gurmar buti), Astragalus (goat’s thorn), Calotropis procera (apple of Sodom) and oputia dillenii (cactus) have antimicrobial activity (indu et al. 2006 and Kumaar et al. 2013). Plant extracts also have antibiotic resistance modulation potential (Mako et al. 2012). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2247-T] (1).

156. Seroprevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Leptospirosis In Sheep And Goat In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Awais Akram (2008-VA-230) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in third world countries such as Pakistan, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Sheep and goats are often the main source of daily meat and are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country. Small ruminants (sheep and goats) are ubiquitous, with important contributions to the subsistence, economic, and social livelihoods of many humans, particularly in developing countries. According to FAO, (2010), approximately 95.7% of all goats and 63.3%of all ewes worldwide are located in developing countries and represent more than 70% of total animal production. Among the various factors that may lead to low productivity in tropical countries, infectious diseases may be very prevalent, impairing milk and meat production. Leptospirosis is an outstanding neglected disease, and since it is usually silent, its effects on livestock are often underestimated. As an example that may be considered for other tropical areas of the world, it was recently described as the most frequent and potentially the major infection impairing productivity in small ruminants. Unfortunately, a definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult to make. Most of diagnostic laboratories do not attempt to isolate leptospires because of their fragile nature, cost and complexity of the isolation media, and prolonged incubation period. Therefore, recognition of leptospiral infection has been based generally on serological evidence. A wide variety of serological tests, which show varying degrees of serogroups and serovar specificity, have been described. Two tests have a role in veterinary diagnosis: the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 180 serum samples were examined in this study. The animals were included in this study from various sources representing the diverse livestock production system / management conditions i.e. rural subsistence, peri-urban and semi commercia, sheep and goat farms in and around the Lahore. The blood samples were collected from randomly selected animals as well as on the basis of Leptospirosis- like symptoms or any other indication of the disease. The blood samples were collected in clean sterile vacutainers having no anticoagulant. From each animal 5-10 ml blood sample were collected by phlebotomy. For this purpose the area on jugular vein was sterilized with 70% alcohol and blood was collected in the vacutainer. The blood samples were put in slanted position in the refrigerator for two hours. Upon appearance of serum in the tubes usually after three hours of refrigeration, samples were centrifuged at 4000 revolution per minute (RPM) for five minutes. The sera were separated using a sterile pipette for each sample and clean sterilized vials were stored at -20°C in the freezer till used. The standard hygienic measures were adopted during collection and processing of blood samples. The ELISA is performed by the procedure that is described by the ELISA kit manufacturer. The sheep were divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 3.34 and 26.6%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, The goat were also divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 6.67 and 30%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in aborted animals that indicated that the leptospirosis had contribution in the abortion of the goat and sheep. The sheep were divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 13.3, 6.67, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, the goat were also divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 16.7, 13.4, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in urban areas where the sheep and goats were raised together that indicated that the leptospirosis can be spread from animal to animal. Conclusion: From the finding of the current study suggested that leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnosis properly. The proper diagnosis can helpful for the controlling the leptospirosis. The urban area, and physiological conditions, of sheep and goat, are the major risk factors. Suggestion and Recommendations: Proper diagnosis and good management can reduce the risk of leptospirosis in sheep and goat. The infected animal must be isolate and treat with proper medications. The further studies can helpful for more proper disease diagnosis and control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2274-T] (1).

157. Effect Of Alpha Lipoic Acid On Post Thaw Quality And In Vitro Incubation Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Bull Semen

by Muhammad Hammad Fayyaz (2008-VA-171) | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Younas | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cryopreservation is the freezing of cells or tissues to subzero temperatures, typically -196 º C. Many benefits have resulted from the process of cryopreservation. Damage induced by cryopreservation has been results cold shock, oxidative stress, osmotic changes, and formation of ice crystal and lipid–protein reorganizations within the cell membrane. Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to impaired cell functions. Free radicals, includes ROS and RNS, are normal pro - oxidant molecules in aerobic metabolism. Alpha lipoic acid is a non-vitamin coenzyme that helps in significant metabolic and antioxidant functions in the body. Alpha lipoic acid has been reported to have extra functions by which they are able to synthesize vitamin C from its reduced form in the presence of glutathione. It is matchless among biological antioxidants, because it is equally lipid and water soluble. This allows it to nullify free radicals almost everywhere in the body, inside as well as outside the cells. Therefore, the objective of present study is to determine the effect alpha lipoic acid on post thaw quality and in vitro incubation of buffalo bull semen. Alpha lipoic acid scavenge on reactive oxygen species formed in semen during the process of cryopreservation, so it maintained good semen quality during post thaw and in vitro incubation. Three mature Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) bulls (4-8 year age) kept at SPU, Qadirabad Sahiwal Pakistan were used in the study. These bulls are being used as regular donors at SPU. There semen was collected with artificial vagina of temperature 42c; three ejaculates (one from each) was pooled and diluted (30 million sperms/ml) with extender of different inclusion levels (0.0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 mmol/ml) of alpha lipoic acid. Straws were filled and extended then semen was cooled for 2 hours and equilibrated for two hours. Semen was placed in Liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 minutes. Finally semen straws was put in liquid nitrogen, Total five replicates were performed. Now post thaw quality was checked in Summary 39 which various tests were performed, like %age motility, Acridine orange assay for DNA integrity, HOST for plasma membrane integrity, Fitc-PNA/PI for viability and acrosomal integrity. Longevity test was performed by in vitro incubation of frozen thawed semen sample in SOF and evaluating it at 1.5, 3 and 4.5 hour interval in Carbon dioxide incubator. It was expected that Alpha lipoic acid shown positive effect on post thaw quality and in vitro incubation of buffalo bull semen, in the meaning of increased percentage motility, Less DNA damage during cryopreservation and incubation, Increased acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity. So alpha lipoic acid shown positive effect by counter acting on ROS during cryopreservation and in vitro incubation. Results acquired from this study shown that an increase in sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA integrity, Acrosomal integrity, viability and survival was caused by ALA competences in energy production and anti-oxidant properties, when used at the concentration of 0.5mM and 1mM. In summary, based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that an optimal concentration (0.5mM and 1mM) of ALA improved PMI, sperm motility and viability, minimize DNA damage and improved sperm survival. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2268-T] (1).

158. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur

by Fariha Mariam (2008-VA-97) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool .

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel. To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%. To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared. For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered. Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2298-T] (1).

159. Modulation Of Antibiotic Resistance In Salmonella Enterica By Different Plant Extracts

by Haleema Adil (2009-VA-233) | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr.Sanaullha Iqbal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry, being the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan provide jobs for more than 1.5 million people. Salmonella enterica infections continue to pose a significant risk for poultry industry.Salmonella infections have been controlled by antibiotics but in recent times antibiotic resistance in microorganisms especially in Salmonellais a global health issue. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella has further compounded the problem. It is dire need of time to search for alternative therapies or to improve existing ones. Plant extract not only have antibacterial activity but also can modulate the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella. Poultry isolate of Salmonella enterica (n=5) were procured from Department of microbiology UVAS Lahore and identified by genus specific PCR. Antibiotic Susceptibility was checked by disc diffusion method against amikacin (30μg), amoxicillin (30μg), ampicillin (10μg), cefixime (5μg), cefotaxime (30μg), ceftazidime (30μg), ceftriaxone (30μg), cefuroxime (30μg), ciprofloxacin (5μg), gentamicin (10μg), and tetracycline (30μg) and resistant pattern was 100% in ampicillin and tetracycline and 20% and 40% in gentamicin and ciprofloxacin respectively while Cephalosporin antibiotic show 0% resistance. Leaves and stems of six medicinal plants including Zingiber officinalis,Gymnema sylvestre,Astragalus,Opuntia dellinii, Nigella sativa and Calotropis procera were processed for extraction using ethanol, hexane and chloroform solvents.The antibacterial activity of these plant extractswere determined against the Salmonella enterica isolates by agar well diffusion method. Only ethanolic extract of all plant show zone of inhibition.Minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts and antibiotics alone and in combination against Salmonella enterica were determined by broth dilution method. Summary 73 MICs of plant extract alone show undesirable effect up to 16mg concentration but in combination with Ciprofloxacin plant extract were able to reduce the MICs of antibiotics while in combination of plant extracts and ampicillin MICs were increase which show negative modulation of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica by using plant extracts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2295-T] (1).

160. Detection Of Salmonella And Total Plate Count In Abattoir Meat And Premises

by Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This include a number of routines that be followed to avoid potentially serve health hazards. The track within this line of thought are safety between industry and market and then between the market and consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety consideration include the origin of food include the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification system for food. In considering market to consumer practices the usual thought is that food brought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are standard for food preparation, where as in lesser developed the main issue is simply the unavailability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. Foodborne illness is any problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus or parasite that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxin. Beef and Mutton meat is an ideal food for all groups of ages, due to its high meat yield, low shrinkage, easy cooking and serving. In my study all sampling was done from Lahore Meat Processing complex which is the most modern abattoir in Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of meat in human diet the total plate count and salmonella detection in abattoir meat was done. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2365-T] (1).

161. Pakistan ki Mashlian OUR Mahi Parwari

by Dr.Muhammad Ramazan Mirza.

Edition: 1st ed. volume 2Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan, Feroze Son, 1995Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.95491 Ramazan 18510 1st v.2 1995 Fisheries] (1).

162. Bang-e-Dara

by Dr.Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan: Sang-e-meel, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 29386 1st 2011 Poetry] (1).

163. Isolation, Identification And Antibiotic Resistance Profile Of Bacterial Isolates Of Public Health Significance In Raw Milk Of Cows And Buffaloes

by Hafiza Khadija Naseem (2010-VA-315) | Dr. Arfan Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Zubair Shabbir | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Milk is a highly nutritious food that can be obtained from a variety of animal sources such as cows, goats, sheep and buffalo for human consumption. On account of zoonotic importance of some opportunistic pathogens of public health significance in milk, the studytherefore was designed for isolation identification and antibiotic resistance assessment of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherchia coli and Salmonellaspp in raw milk of cows and buffaloes. A total of 60 raw milk samples were collected from buffaloes (n=30) and cows (n=30) located in an area around district Lahore. To evaluate the source of milk borne pathogens in milk, half samples (n=15) of each animal species were taken directly from udder while remaining half (n=15) from milking utensils at the same farm. Samples were cultured for isolation and confirmed by biochemical tests and their antibiotic resistance pattern was checked by Kirby baur disk diffusion test. Samples that were taken from udder of buffalos,E.coli, Salmonellaspp and Staph aureus was isolated from 60%, 26% and 46% of processed samples whereas from utensils E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Staph aureuswas isolated from 66.66%, 66.66% and 73.33%of samples respectively. While Samples that were taken from udder of cow’sE.coli, Salmonella and Staph aureus was isolated from13%, 0% and 40% of processed samples where as samples that were taken from utensils at the same farm E.coli, Salmonella and Staph aureuswas isolated 26%, 26.66% and 46% respectively. Antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates E.coli, Salmonellaspp and Staph aureus showed 100% resistance to Lincomycin and Tylosine. Ciprofloxacin showed 75% sensitivity followed by Ciprofloxacin showed 75% sensitivity followed by 65%Oxytetracyclin 60% doxycycline and 58% Amoxicillin. CONCLUSION Our study reveals that raw milk supplied and consumed in Lahore city of Pakistan is contaminated with public health significancebacteria Salmonella spp, E.coli and Staph aureusdue to unhygienic conditions and milking practices.Data ofAntibiotic resistant profiling of these isolates showed 100% resistant to Lincomycinand Tylosine. While sensitive against Ciprofloxacin> Doxycycline >Oxytetracycline.Efforts should be made to use antibiotics wisely and hygienic practices should be followed during collection to supply chain of milk to avoid spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains from animal source to human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2521-T] (1).

164. Study On The Diversity And Antibiotic Resistance Profile Of Bacteria Isolated From Respiratory Tract Infected Dogs And Human

by Misbah Sajjad (2010-VA-299) | Dr. Arfan Ahmad | Dr. Aamir Ghafoor | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In developing countries, respiratory tract infections are the major reason of the prevalence of disease and death in the patients who are seriously sick. Respiratory problems in human and dogs are common in Pakistan. Broad spectrum antibiotics are being used to treat the infections but duration of illness is increasing day by day. Present study was therefore designed to explore the diversity of bacteria causing respiratory tract infections in dogs and human and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates Total 60 Samples (sputum, nasal discharge, tracheal swab etc) were collected and evaluated. Thirty (n=30) samples were taken from human and dog each. Among 30 samples of human, 10 were taken from infected males and females each. 5 samples from healthy males and females each were also included. Similarly among 30 samples of dogs, 10 were taken from infected dogs and bitches each along with 5 samples from healthy dogs and bitches each. Samples collected from each gender of human and dog were cultured on the MacConkey, Blood and Chocolate agar plates for the isolation of pathogens. Isolated were confirmation by biochemical tests followed by determination of their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by using Kirby Baur disk diffusion method. From male samples, Staph spp were isolated from all the samples (100%) followed by E.coli (70%), and Salmonella spp, Haemophilus spp each (30%). Whereas from females, Staph aureus were also isolated from 100% samples followed by Salmonella spp (60%), E.coli (40%), and Haemophilus spp (0%) Summary 68 From healthy males, isolation of Staph aureus was confirmed in (100%) samples followed by Salmonella spp (80%), E.coli (20%), and Haemophilus spp (0%). Whereas from females, Staph aureus was also confirmed in (100%) samples followed by E.coli (80%), Salmonella spp (20%) and Haemophilus spp (0%). From dog samples, Staph aureus was isolated from (100%) samples followed by E.coli (60%), Salmonella spp (40%) and Haemophilus spp (20%). Whereas from bitches, Staph aureus was also isolated from (100%) samples followed by Salmonella spp (60%), E.coli (50%), and Haemophilus spp (0%) From the samples of healthy dogs, Isolation of Staph aureus was confirmed in (100%) samples followed by E.coli (80%), Salmonella spp (20%) and Haemophilus spp (0%). Whereas from bitches, Staph aureus was also isolated from (100%) samples followed by Salmonella spp (80%), E.coli (20%), and Haemophilus spp (0%) Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from infected dogs showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin, Tylosine and Lincomycin and 100% sensitivity to Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin and Lincomycin and 80.8% sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and Haemophilus spp showed 100% resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Doxycycline Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from healthy dogs showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 75.8% sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 75% sensitivity to Doxycycline. There was no Summary 69 positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of healthy dogs, so no sensitivity was performed Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from infected bitches showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 70% sensitivity to Doxycycline. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 70% sensitivity to Doxycycline. There was no positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of infected bitches, so no sensitivity was performed Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from healthy bitches showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 90% sensitivity to Doxycycline. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin, Tylosine and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin and 70% sensitivity to Doxycycline. There was no positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of healthy bitches, so no sensitivity was performed Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from infected males showed 80% resistance to Amoxicillin and Tylosine. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Lincomycin and 100% sensitivity to Doxycycline. Haemophilus spp showed 100% sensitivity to Doxycycline Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from healthy males showed 100% resistance to Lincomycin. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. There was no Summary 70 positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of healthy males, so no sensitivity was performed Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from infected females showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin, Tylosine and Lincomycin. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Lincomycin. There was no positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of infected females, so no sensitivity was performed Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella spp isolated from samples taken from healthy females showed 100% resistance to Lincomycin. E.coli showed 100% resistance to Amoxicillin and Lincomycin. Staph spp showed 100% resistance to Tylosine and Lincomycin. There was no positivity observed for Haemophilus spp in all samples of healthy females, so no sensitivity was performed Conclusion Our study showed that samples of respiratory tract collected from human and dog showed involvement of bacteria such as Salmonella spp, E. coli and Staph aureus and Haemophilus spp. Most of strains were multidrug resistant. Ciprofloxacin, Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline were effective to treat respiratory infections in human and dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2696-T] (1).

165. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Coccidiosis In Camel

by Mosin Ali (2014-VA-1134) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr.Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Camel belongs to Family Camelidae.The camel is species of desert which is adapted to harsh environment of desert. The versatility and suitability of camel to survive in the hot desert of the regions of the world have given the name “Ship of the Desert”.Coccidiosis is responsible for health problem, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk production, meat process, decrease feed intake, dehydration, decrease working efficiency and even death of the camel. Coccidiosis cause losses through morbidity and hidden effects on feed intake, efficiency of nutrients utilization and also reduce growth rate in young animal, as a result, it leads to reduction in productivity and performance of the infected animal. The present study was designed to study the prevalence and chemotherapy of coccidiosis in camel. For this, fecal samples of 100 camels of both sex and of various aged were examined. For this purpose, 10-15gm fresh fecal sample was collected into a polythene zipper from the rectum of each camel in a container with ice packs and transported to Medicine lab, UVAS Lahore. The fecal sample was examined by using direct smear method and floatation technique and OPG were determined by McMaster technique. By using these techniques the prevalence of coccidiosis in the camel was found to be 13% i.e. 13 animals of variousage of both male and female had coccidiosis. For chemotherapy, 12 animals were used by dividing into 3 groups containing 4 animals in each group randomly.4 positive animals were given amprolium 50 mg/kg BW for 5 days daily PO. 4 positive animals were given toltrazuril20mg/kg BW PO once and neem seed at the dose rate of 100mg/kg BW to 4 positive animals once PO. The fecal sample were again collected from camels to which drug had used at 14 and 21 days and comparison of drug were done to determine the efficacy among these drugs by OPG counts , Toltrazuril was found to had more efficacy measured by OPG count reduction using ANOVA in SPSS.There is coccidiosis in the camel which caused weakness, off-feed and diarrhea in camels. There are both allopathic and herbals drugs used for the treatment but allopathic drugs were found to be had more efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2708-T] (1).

166. Isolation And Identification Of A Protease Producing Bacteria From The Decaying Plant Material And Investigation Of Its Potential As A Probiotic In Broiler

by Abdul Razzaq (2014-VA-498) | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Dr. Rahat Naseer | Dr.Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Biochemistry is gaining ground quickly due to the different preferences that it offers over customary chemical procedures particularly in regards to environment and cost contribution. Now a day’s industrial enzymes speak to the heart of biochemistry forms. Proteases are groups of organic catalysts. They have catalytic function.They hydrolyze peptide obligations of proteins and to separate them into polypeptides or free amino acids. Proteases are universal in nature and found in a wide range of differing qualities of sources, for example, plants, animals and microorganisms. Proteases do different organic procedures. Diverse types of proteases are available, alkaline proteases are a standout amongst the most imperative enzymes. The cost of the strain is a special in enzyme production and their applications in different industrial processes. The imaginative part of the present work was to distinguish and detach alkaline proteases from different organic sources, for example, from soil microorganisms with a reason to have beneficial outcome for hydrolyzing the proteins. The purified strain was checked for their potential part in chicken as a probiotics. Protease producing bacteria act as probiotic to improve digestion which results in weight gain in broiler. In this research project, bacterial strains were isolated from decaying organic plants and soil samples collected from decaying organic plants of UVAS Lahore, Pakistan. Soil and decaying samples (1.0 g) were mixed in 100 ml normal saline, afterward serially diluted from 10−1 to 10−6 ratio with normal saline. 100 μl of each diluted sample inoculated in cultural medium and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. The isolated colonies were selected to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Cultures were maintained in nutrient agar slants. Bacilli were isolated and screened from soil samples for production of proteases. The strains were identified morphologically, biochemically and on their molecular basis. The enzyme (protease) activity was assayed according to standard procedures by slight modifications. The strain was grown and fed to chicken as probiotic. The effects of probiotic were tested for growth of chicken. The probiotics improved the intestinal microbial balance and helped broiler in gaining weight. Bacterial stain studied in the current project may be used on commercial scale for promoting or enhancing the growth of broiler chicken. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2717-T] (1).

167. Meezanbank's Guide to Islamic Banking

by Dr.Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani | Dr.Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan: Darul-Ishaat; 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: Imran 24975 1st 2002 Management] (1).

168. Extraction Of Amino Acids And Proteins From Chrome Leather Waste

by Maria Khatoon (2014-VA-217) | Dr.Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif | Mrs Saman Saad | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pakistan’s second biggest industry concerning exports is the Leather Industry. According to Pakistan Tanners Association (PTA) report Contributing more than $800 million in 2009 to the remote trade in Pakistan, by the year 2014 either products export increased up to 9.62 percent (PakistanEconomic Survey2014-15) , this industry has the capability of conveying increasingly and giving a substantial number of occupations by diversifying item run and enhancing quality. Hides are the by-product of the meat business, which are converted into leather through tanning processes. Solid wastes of leather industry are raw trimmings, flashings, chrome shavings, buffing dusts and keratin wastes. Chromium salts are used in processing of leather, which creates difficulties in its throw out. The leather industry waste has a large amount of nitrogen content which is amino acids, i.e. protein, which can be used for different purposes, after extraction through different methods.The objective of the present work is to isolate protein products from chrome leather waste and to evaluate acid and alkali for efficiency to convert chrome leather waste into useful products, as the most practiced methods are acid and alkali methods, for extraction of protein. Chromium is precipitated by raising its pH through an alkali, in to Cr(OH)3, while the insoluble protein is collected by lowering the temperature. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for chromium determination, for protein determination Biuret and Kjeldhal’s method will be used, along with protein extraction, dissolved and left amount of CLW was analyzed and precipitated chromium was measured by using AAS. The highest amount of CLW was dissolved in NaOH, while the lowest one in CaO. The raise of temperature increases the dissolved amount of CLW.The left amount of CLW was also measured Summary 45 for all alkali treatments, as the teprature and quantity of the alkali is increased the left amount of CLW decreased, as 18g of NaOH give the minimum amount of left CLW i.e 3g, the high amount of temperature or high quantity of alkali denature the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of MgO at 50C for 6 hours give the best results.Higher the quantity of alkali more it precipitate the chromium as by using 18g of NaOH at 50C 4.92% of total chromium was precipitated. Highest dissolved amount 42.98g was obtain by 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 60C with 90 min shaking time, highest left amount of CLW was 43.02 by using 50ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 25C with shaking time of 30 minutes and high amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80 ml 10% sulfuric acid for the shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 40C and 25C respectively. Chromium is precipitated at the first step in the acid method when CLW is treated with 6M NaOH. The highest precipitate was collected when 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid was used at 40C with the shaking time of 60 minutes. The highest amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80 ml 10% sulfuric acid for the shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 400C and 250C respectively, in alkali methodwhen the conditions were optimum otherwise the protein denatured, the high amount of temperature or high quantity of alkali denatures the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of MgO at 50C for 6 hours give the best results.While the high amount of temperature and time along with high quantity of acid denature the protein. After all the observations are taken the result of chromium and protein determination was compared by using After all the observation was taken, the results of chromium and protein determination was analyzed by using SPSS one-way ANOVA factorial design Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2753-T] (1).

169. To Evaluate The Efficiency Of Char And Biochar For Waste Water Treatment

by Ayesha Rasheed (2014-VA-227) | MS.Saman Saad | Dr. Saif Rehman Kashif | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: It is essential to treat waste water in Pakistan as Pakistan is confronting a persistent populace blast, jumbled mechanical and industrial advancement, vast parts of populace experiences the health issue because of absence of the quality drinking water and occurrence of harmful contaminants in water used for irrigation.The point of the study is to present a savvy and beneficial procedure in the society and to minimize the direct transfer of valuable waste in the landfills and in water bodies. In current research the char (from refuse derived fuel) and biochar (from rice husk) was produced from pyrolysis and was simultaneously used for waste water treatment of Main Outfall Drain, Lahore. Moreover, different columns of char and biocharwas utilized for water purification and efficiency of Char and Biochar for waste water treatment was compared in terms of pre-analysis and post-analysis of parameters like heavy metals, minerals, biological oxygen demand, carbonates and bicarbonates, pH. Later, the treated waste water was used for irrigation of the ornamental and hyperaccumulater plant Althea rosea for one month. After one month, the plant was harvested and the plants samples roots and shoots was analyzed for heavy metals Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu and Fe by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Model Hitachi 8200 and minerals Na, Ca and K by using multi-channel the Flame photometer Model from Biotech UK. It is investigated that use of hyperaccumulator plants uptake the residual contaminants present in waste water so in that way hundred percent efficiency is achieved. In conclusion, it is inferred that biochar application is good and its efficiency for adsorption is higher with respect to char. It was evident from results that biochar is more efficient with respect to char and absorption capacity of char and biochar is quantity, time and feedstocks dependent. It is due to the fact that the efficiency depends on different types of Summary 81 feedstocks as rice husk and refuse derived fuel is totally two different types of solid waste, their nature of the composition is different and that is why their reactivity towards adsorption is different. Furthermore, the pyrolysis temperature is different for both types of feedstocks, the absorption efficiency is also temperature dependent therefore two different types of feedstocks char efficiencies different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2749-T] (1).

170. Effect Of Insemination Timing Following 5 Vs. 7 Day Cidr + Co-Synch In Nili Ravi Buffalo Heifers

by Sajjad haider(2014-va-767) | Dr. Muhammad usman mehmood | Dr.Muhammad usman mehmood | Dr.Muhammad zahid tahir | Dr.Muhammad awais.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Pakistan’s economy is agricultural based in which livestock has a major contribution. Livestock contributes 11.8% to total national GDP. Nili Ravi is established breed of Pakistan. Nili Ravi has high lactation yields (1800-2500 liters with a 6.5% fat) and their males are more suited to ploughing and drafting on dry plane land. Increased calving interval and estrus detection are the biggest bottleneck in achieving the goal “a calf per 13 months” and high conception rate in dairy animals ultimately this leads to in economic losses. To overcome the problem of poor breeding in buffalo various exogenous hormonal intervention have been made to control estrous cycle of buffalo. Several ovulation synchronization protocols offer to bypass the estrus detection and artificially inseminate the animal at pre-established time. Co-synch is modified form of ovulation synchronization. Incorporation of CIDR in Co-synch improves the efficacy of protocol. It is easier in management and cost effective. Present study was designed to compare the efficacy of 5 or 7 day CIDR + Co-synch in Nili Ravi buffalo and find appropriate time of A.I in Nili Ravi using 5 or 7 day CIDR + Co-synch protocol. Study was conducted on Military Dairy Farm Okara. Selected animals (N = 80) were divided into two treatments. Treatment 1) 7 day CIDR + Co-synch (n =40): The animals received an intravaginal CIDR insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) for 7 days. On the day of CIDR removal, 150 µg of PGF2α was injected intramuscularly (IM); Half of these animals (n=20) received 100 µg of GnRH IM and TAI after 72 hrs of CIDR removal/ PGF2α administered, the remaining half (n=20) received GnRH and TAI after 84 hrs of CIDR removal/ PGF2α administration. Treatment 2) 5 day CIDR + Co-synch (n=40): The animals received an intravaginal CIDR insert containing 1.38 g of P4 for 5 days. The animals were administered 150 µg of PGF2α IM at the time of CIDR removal. Half of these animals (n=20) received 100 µg of GnRH IM and TAI after 72 hrs of CIDR removal/ PGF2α administration, the other half (n=20) received 100 µg GnRH and FTAI after 84 hrs of CIDR removal/ PGF2α administration. Data is analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software program. Follicular growth rate, pre-ovulatory follicular size is analyzed through independent t-test. Interval from CIDR removal to ovulation and interval from GnRH to ovulation is analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Pregnancy rate is compared by binary linear regression. Ovulation rate and estrus response is analyzed through Chi square. A probability level of (P < 0.05) is considered as significant. The results of this study showed the pregnancy rates were high (P < 0.05) in buffalo heifers of subgroups of both treatments inseminated after 84 hrs of CIDR removal (50% in 5 day CIDR + Co-synch and 65% in 7 day CIDR + Co-synch) than the subgroup inseminated after 72 hrs interval of CIDR removal (30% in 5 day CIDR + Co-synch and 25% in 7 day CIDR + Co-synch). Follicular growth rate (mm/day) was tended to be high in 7 day CIDR treatment as compared to 5 day CIDR treatment (1.5±0.3 vs. 1.3±0.4, P=0.06). Pre-ovulatory follicle size in 7 day CIDR + Co-synch was significantly high in animals inseminated after 84 hrs as compared to subgroup inseminated after 72 hrs interval of CIDR removal (12.29mm vs. 10.74mm, P < 0.05). Similar trend was found in 5 day CIDR + Co-synch, the subgroup inseminated after 84 hrs of CIDR removal had larger pre-ovulatory follicular size than subgroup inseminated at 72 hrs interval (10.63mm vs. 11.73mm, P < 0.05). Interval from PG/CIDR removal to ovulation in 7 day CIDR treatment was 99 ± 0.9 hrs while in 5 day CIDR treatment it was 96 ± 1.6 hrs which did not differ significantly (P = 0.14). The interval from A.I/GnRH administration to ovulation in 7 day CIDR + Co-synch was significantly lower in animals inseminated after 84 hrs as compared to subgroup inseminated after 72 hrs interval of CIDR removal (15±1.2 vs. 27.±1.4, P < 0.05). Similar trend was found in 5 day CIDR + Co-synch, the subgroup inseminated after 84 hrs of CIDR removal/PG administration had lower A.I/GnRH administration to ovulation interval than subgroup inseminated at 72 hrs interval (16.2±1.3 vs. 21.6±1.6, P < 0.05). Ovulation rate was significantly high (P = 0.05) in 7 day CIDR treatment (95 %) than the 5 day CIDR treatment (80%). The estrus response in buffalo heifers was not significantly different between the treatments (90% in 7 day CIDR vs. 80% in 5 day CIDR treatments, P > 0.05). In conclusion higher pregnancy rates were achieved in 7 day CIDR + Co-synch when animals were inseminated after 84 hrs interval of CIDR removal/PG administration. Acceptable pregnancy rates were resulted when timed AI was done after 84 hr of CIDR removal/PG administration using 5 day CIDR + Co-synch regimen. However further studies with larger sample size may be carried out to establish a strong statistical analysis between 5 and 7 day CIDR + Co-synch while inseminating animals after 84 hrs of CIDR removal/PG administration. Results of this study suggest that high pregnancy rate is primarily attributed to larger pre-ovulatory follicular size and appropriate time of AI in relation to time of ovulation. This study provides a way out to large dairy farmer to increase fertility with optimized management.   Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2778-T] (1).

171. Immuno protective role of newcastle disease virus vaccine (lasota)strainunder immunosuppressive confitions in broilers challanged with ndv isolates of chicken and pigeon orign

by Uqra rauf(2011-va-403) | Dr. Irshad Hussain | Muhammad Aasad ali | dr.Muhammad yasir zahoor.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: CD crupt Availability: No items available

172. Physico-Chemical Factors Affecting In Vitro Stability And Activity Of Phytase From Indigenous Isolate Of Asperillus Therreus

by Safina kouser (2011-VA-422) | Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum | Dr.jawad nazir | Dr.Muhammad Yasir zahoor.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Phytase is commercially important enzyme. Phytate in food and feed makes it less nutritive as well as acts as anti-nutritional agent. Phytate make complexes with important mineral ions and proteins. Monogastric animals and human are not able to degrade the phytate from plant based food because they lack phytase. This leads to phosphorous deficiency. Addition of phytase into food and feed degrades the phytate. It makes, phosphorous and mineral ions become available for growth and development. There is need to evaluate these factors in vitro which in real affect the stability and activity of enzyme under feed production process and digestive system of monogastric animals. Indigenous Aspergillus terreus isolate produce stable phytase to be used in poultry feed.Indigenous strains of Aspergillus terreus were identified by macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. These isolates were screened on Phytate Screening Medium (PSM) for phytase production. Phytase producing A. terreus was than analyzed for toxin production through TLC (Thin layer chromatography). Non toxigenic phytase producing A. terreus isolates were inoculated in phytate broth for phytase production through submerged fermentation (SmF) under optimum conditions (28°C for 8-10 days). After centrifugation and filtration supernatants were used as crude enzyme. Phytase enzyme was qualitatively analyzed through phytase assay. Phytases activity units observed for isolate PAST-16 was highest (271.49±8.14 FTU/mL) and lowest (79.00±8.05FTU/mL) of PAST-05. A. terreus phytase (PAST-16) was subjected to temperature, pH and metal ions treatment. Thermostability of phytases was recorted at 35°C, 55°C, 75 °C and 90°C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes treatments. Enzyme from A. terreus (PAST-16) was observed as thermostable at Summary 74 35°C, 55°C, 75 °C but not much stable at 95°C. Phytases showed 87.23±6.59, 198.34±4.47, 188.59±8.77 and 259.25±0.84 FTU/mL decreased in activity after 60 minutes of treatment at 35°C, 55°C, 75 °C and 95°C temperatures, respectively. pH stability of phytases was found at pH of 2, 4, 6 and 8 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes treatments. Enzyme from A. terreus (PAST-16) was observed as pH stable at 4, 6 and 8 but not much stable at 2 pH. Phytases showed 206.14±6.37, 169.59±6.37, 110.13±6.75 and 171.54±3.04 FTU/mL decreased in activity after 60 minutes of pH treatments at 2, 4, 6 and 8, respectively. Metal ions effect on phytase activity was found with Ba2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Na+ at the concentration of 1, 5 and 10mM. Enzyme from A. terreus (PAST-16) was observed as shows activity more with K+ less with Na+. Phytases showed 45.32±28.54 and 219.30±11.04 FTU/mL decreased in activity after 1mM conc. of K+ and 10mM conc of Na+, respectively. Conclusion: A.terreus isolate (PAST-16) produce stable phytase enzyme used in feed of poultry. In this way it tolerates condition under which feed process at commercial level and under digestive system monogastric animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2825-T] (1).

173. Study On Sero Prevalance Of Hepatitis C For Predisposition Of Diabetes In Pregnant Women From Low Economic Status Famlies

by Waseela ashraf (2015-VA-445) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Mr.Ubaid ur rehman zia | Mr.Muhammad asad ali.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: This cross sectional study is design to rule out the effect of seroprevalence of HCV infection in causing diabetes in pregnant women and also in aim of identifying potential risk factors associated with HCV infection cause in pregnant women. A total of 550 pregnant women were participated in this study.We made two groups of pregnant women to rule out the association between seroprevalence of HCV and diabetes. One group consisted of 275 women who were anti- HCV negative and second group consisted of 275 women who were anti-HCV positive. A blood sample was drawnin a gel vial for testing of anti HCV and a fluoride oxalate vial was used to draw blood for random plasma glucose levels testing among pregnant women. ELISA was performed to confirm the seroprevalence of HCV infection and diabetes status was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels in pregnant women by hexokinase method. Data was gathered and analyzed on SPSS version 20.0 software. A Chi square test was used to know the relationship between diabetes and anti HCV. This test was also used to find outlink between anti HCV and other variables collected. Most of the women in both groups did not know about their diabetic status. HCV positive group was presented with strong family history of diabetes. From the data it was suggested that possible risk factors for causing HCV infection among pregnant women were surgical procedure, blood transfusion and history of syringe use. Ear/nose piercing, history of dental, dilatation and curettage procedure and accidents were statistically not significantly associated in causing HCV infection. It was also found that number of abortions were high in HCV infected group (p-value=0.046). No association was found between seroprevalence of HCV infection and diabetes among pregnant women (p value= 0.96). Therefore our hypothesis is rejected on the basis of this study results. The most frequent age group was 18-27years of women found for pregnancy. Therefore in this age group our study results found that HCV infection prevalence was high. This group was found to be very prone in catching viral infection. S/CO ratios were also found to be too high in this age group due to the fact thatin this age groupHCV infection prevalence was high. Also there is a strong association of blood pressure and HCV infection. Blood pressure found to be varying in HCV infected group. Recommendations for further Research According to several studies there was a strong true association between hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes. But our study results were not correlated. It may be due to the lack of confirmatory tests for both diseases which we did not perform.Following recommendations are offered for related research. 1. ELISA is commonly used as initial screening method for HCV antibody in serum. This method does not differentiate between acute, active or resolved infection. In this study we usedELISA for presence of antibody in serum but presence of antibody in serum is not a confirmation of active viremia in patient. The active viremia further can only be confirmed by PCR. It also tells us the true presence of virus in infected patient.So PCR is the confirmatory test of hepatitis C virus infection and it should be used for diagnosis and true presence of virus in body. 2. Random plasma glucose is a screening method for predicting gestational diabetes. Further confirmatory tests are required for diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Confirmatory test for diagnosis of gestational diabetes is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 3. Age and body mass index are confounders in relating the association of diabetes and hepatitis C infection. High BMI and older age are risk factor in causing diabetes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2865-T] (1).

174. Use Of Activated Carbon Prepared From Agricultural Wastes For The Adsorption Of Azo Dye.

by Qaisera Parveen (2011-VA-378) | DR.Rahat Naseer | Dr.Saeed Hashmi | Dr.Muhammad Asad Ali.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Dyes are the visible pollutants of water and have toxicological and carcinogenic effects. So, dyes should be removed from aqueous solutions/industrial effluents. Many techniques are used for dyes removal from industrial wastewater discharge. From economical point of view, by the use of low cost adsorbents, basic dyes were removed from aqueous solution. For this purpose, adsorbents easily available were used to prepare activated carbon by physical and chemical treatment. Low cost adsorbents were prepared from Agricultural waste materials like sugarcane bagasse and sawdust for the adsorption of Azo dyes. Agricultural wastes were treated by physical and chemical means for preparation of activated carbon. Characterizations of adsorbents were done by FTIR and SEM. FTIR micrographs showed that the different functional groups present on fibrous materials are responsible for adsorbing the MB. SEM showed the surface morphology. The effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature was studied in batch experiment. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm was verified. Adsorption kinetic studies were done at regular time intervals using fixed amount of adsorbents. Equilibrium isotherms were studied by adding different adsorbent doses at 150rpm to attain equilibrium. Effect of pH was studied after balancing pH of the dye containing solution and analyzing the remaining dye in solution for equilibrium contact time. Effects of different parameters were evaluated and statistical analysis was applied to explore the most efficient adsorbent for methylene blue removal. as an adsorbent for Azo dye removal from wastewater without causing detrimental effects on environment. Since sugarcane bagasse and sawdust, an agriculture solid waste, used in the study, easily available, the adsorption process is expected to be economically implemented for wastewater treatment Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2854-T] (1).

175. Effect Of Ethanolic Extract Of Catharanthus Roseus On The Electrophysiology Of Jejunum Infected With Escherichia Coli In Goat

by Roomana Shams (2014-VA-531) | Dr.Imtiaz Rabbani | Dr.Khalid abdul Majeed | Dr.Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Animal products such as meat and milk are the primary source of proteins and amino acid that can be produced throughout the year. Diseases in animals initiate the biophysical and socio economic impact that varies from localized to global. Different pathogens including virus, bacteria and fungi cause different diseases in ruminants. Escherichiacoli are one of the inhabitants of intestinal tract and are responsible for watery diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. Diarrheal disease gives rise to global health problem and now a day many plants are used to treat the disease condition. Catharanthus roseusis one of the important medicinal plants used for the treatment of many diseases such as diarrheal, diabetics, wound healing and Alzheimer’s disease. C. roseus maintain the optimum performance of gut barrier by reducing the loss of minerals. The changes in the electrophysiology of jejunum with the addition of C.rouses were measured by Ussing chamber. Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of C.roseus on the barrier function of intestine influenced by E. coli. Catharanthusroseus may reduce the detrimental effects induced by E.coli and improves the gut barrier function. Five goats of uniform age and weight were selected and slaughter at local slaughter house. Jejunum was taken from the intestinal part and rinsed with standard buffer. Serosal layer was removed and tissue was mounted in Ussing chamber. After incubation period of 15-20mins different groups were treated with different treatments. Control with no treatment, group B was treated with 10% toxin of E.coli, group C was treated with 1.5% extract of C.rouses, group D was treated with 10% toxin of E.coli and 1.5% extract of C. rouses. After treatment the electrophysiological parameters like Isc and Gt was observed. C.rouses affected the electrophysiology of isolated jejunum of goats by decreasing the short circuit current which was induced by the E.coli toxin. The decrease of current between the groups is significant (p value < 0.05). ΔIscwas also significant between the groups containing E. coli toxin and C. roseus containing solution. Conductance increased significantly after the addition of E.coli and C. roseus (p value < 0.05). Data wereanalyzed by using completely randomized ANOVA followed by post-hoc Duncan’s multiple range tests. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Catharanthus roseus treatment affects the electrophysiological indices of isolated jejunum epithelium of goat presumably by closing the chloride channels and enhances the ions absorption across the jejunum epithelium. This may leads to efficient mineral utilization and better health of animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2837-T] (1).

176. In-Vitro Effect of Indigenous Medicinal Plants Against Urease Producing Bacteria

by Iram Fareed (2011-VA-392) | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz | Dr.Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr.Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: CD empty Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2826-T] (1).

177. Study Of Arginine Vasopressin (Avp) As A Candidate Gene For Evaluating Silent Estrus Behavior In Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Danish Ahmad (2011-VA-464) | Dr.Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr.Muhammad Zubair Shabir.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Buffalo is a major contributing animal in livestock and in Pakistan as an agrarian country its economy. Nili- Ravi buffalo also known as “Black Gold of Pakistan” has a high potential of productivity. But its production is often effected by certain reproductive disorders, out of which silent estrus behavior act as a major limiting factor for its production, as it is difficult to proper diagnose of silent estrus it result in low fertility and ultimately yield as low productivity in buffalo. There are a number of reasons involve in silent estrus behavior such as nutrition, environment and genetics. Estrus is a polygenic trait and according to a report about 269 genes are involve in estrus. One of the major effecting gene on estrus is Arginine Vasopressin (AVP), produced by hypothalamus and released by posterior pituitary lobe. Along with a number of role in body it influences the Social behavior neural network, located in limbic system and produce the responses like sexual arousal, partner pairing, mating process and social dominancy. So the AVP accounted as a potential candidate gene for study the silent estrus behavior in Nili-Ravi buffalo. The basic aim to conduct the present study was to identify the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in exonic region of AVP gene and find their association to the silent estrus trait. Fifty samples in blood form of Nili-Ravi Buffalo was taken from B-block research forms UVAS, Ravi campus and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. DNA was extracted using Phenol Chloroform Iso-amyl alcohol (PCI) based method, then DNA was subjected to PCR amplification, Product was precipitated and sequenced for genetic analysis. To identify the SNPs in obtained sequence the Bioinformatics tools such as BLAST and CHROMAS were applied. The three exonic regions of AVP gene were amplified using site specific primer sets. A total of 6 Summary 58 polymorphic sites were identified, those all were present in exon 1. The bioinformatics analysis using PopGene32 software was performed to analyze the association of identified SNPs to the Silent Estrus Behavior. SNP were analyzed for their effect on trait and one SNP in exon-1 was analyzed for its effect on subjected trait. This genetic characterization of AVP gene may serve as the genetic source for the development of DNA based markers for used in selection of animals with better estrus trait in studies, research and commercial purposes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2871-T] (1).

178. Genetic Identification And Molecular Classification Of Birds Commonly Found In Lahore Through Dna Barcoding

by Agha Wasif Ali Khan(2014-VA-01) | Dr.Ali Raza Awan | Dr.Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: T Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2938-T] (1).

179. Evaluation Of Pre And Post Training Food Safety Knowledge Of Food Handlers Working In Various Restaurants In Lahore

by Liaqat Ali(2009-VA-472 | Dr.Zubair Farooq | Dr.Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr.Muhammad Asad Ali.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Food-borne illnesses are common among people who eat food at restaurants. Most common reason of food-borne illness is cross contamination which occurs due to lack of food safety knowledge among food handlers of restaurants. Food hygiene is the set of fundamental standards utilized in an organized control of the environmental surroundings at the time of manufacturing, packaging, consignment/passage, storage, processing, preparation, selling and serving of food in such a way as to guarantee that food is intact to utilize and is of satisfying storing characteristics. Therefore, there is need to evaluate their food safety knowledge and provide relevant training. There is lack of food safety knowledge among food handlers associated with restaurants. This study was designed to evaluate before and after training food safety knowledge of food handlers working in various restaurants in Lahore district. Nine restaurants each from nine towns of Lahore were selected. A minimum of two food handlers from each restaurant were further being selected. A total of 180 food handlers were put to pre-and post-training evaluation about food safety knowledge. Data was processed in Excel Spreadsheet. Paired t-test was applied using SPSS version 20 for comparison of variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A pair t-test was conducted to study the impact of pre and post training food safety knowledge of food handlers working in various restaurants in district Lahore. Almost all the results were significant which revealed that training has great impact in enhancing food safety knowledge of food handlers. All the results were significant at (P < 0.05). In first section, general questions about food safety, all results were significant. It shows different mean values of pre and post training and it revealed the impact of training on general food safety of food handlers. In personnel hygiene section, most of the results were significant, except the question “do you use safe water for cooking and cleaning?” because of reasons using safe water is the basic need and CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY SUMMARY 47 training do not have impact on it. In third section, questions related to foods or ingredients, all the results observed are significant. It shows means of before and after training are different and it shows that training has great impact on the knowledge related to food or their ingredients. In last section, question related to food machinery, most of the results are significant except “can the surfaces of all equipment be sanitized?” and “Do you use same knife or/and cutting board for cutting of vegetables, raw meat and fruits?” because of the reasons the surfaces of all the equipment’s cannot be sanitized due to lack of facilities available at restaurants and because it is a common practice to use same knife or cutting boards for cutting of fruits, vegetables and raw meat and also due to some financial issues, this shows training do not have impact on it. Present study is an effort to provided valuable information about the level of food safety knowledge of food handlers. Trainings conducted at different restaurants are helpful to increase the knowledge of restaurants food handlers regarding food hazards, cross-contamination and personal hygiene. Suggestions for Future Researchers • Training materials (e.g., proforma, presentation) regarding food safety must be optimized according to Pulseberry Health Consultant and SGS Pakistan rules and regulations. • Prior to the trainings, relevant documentation i.e., permission letter must be issued and verified from Punjab Food Authority to avoid any inconvenience. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2965-T] (1).

180. Efficacy Of Anthelmintics Againsttrichostrong-Ylides In Sheep From District Nushki, Balochistan.

by Ajmal Nisar Mengal(2008-VA-202) | Dr.Muhammad Oneeb | Dr.Haroon Akbar | Dr.Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GINs) infection is one of the main components to face against well-organized feed conversion. These infections not only cause production losses as well as increase the management and treatment cost of animals in Pakistan. They are extensive in prevalence and are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world and have anxious the production probable by causing numberless deaths and indirect reasonable fatalities. (Terefe et al. 2012). Helminthes, seriously condensed the small ruminant production system and are responsible for illness in both warmer and colder parts of the world (Kumsa and Abebe 2009). Gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) highly affect the production of sheep owed to decrease in desire for food, bad body condition and score (BCS), anemia, hypo-proteinaemia, impaired digestive absorptive efficiency, many other pathogenic impediments and even result in mortalities (FAO, 1974; Barger, 1982; Steel and Symons, 1982). Both ram and ewe of different age and breed fulfilling our criteria were selected for the designed research trial. All included, sheep were either directly from rectum or fresh passed feces were sampled at random. Each fecal sample was examined microscopically in order to estimate worm burden by modified McMaster technique (Coles, 1992). Sheep found positive for gastro-intestinal parasites were selected for the evaluation of anthelmintics against Oxfendazole, Levamisole and Wormafax (Herbel product). Furthermore, 2nd and 3rd samples were colledted at the end of second and third week of drenching, respectively. The dosages of anthelmintic administered are described in table 3.1. After collection, screening of all samples was done through microscope and floatation technique followed by quantitative examination through McMaster techniques (Soulsby, 1982; Zajac and Conboy, 2006) and EPG was recorded. Before and after treatment EPG of each group was then compared, % efficacy of administered drugs were measured and significance of pretreatment and post treatment EPG within group were analyzed through one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test (P<0.05). Mean efficacy of Oxfendazole, levamisole and wormafax was found to be 87.43%, 98.2%, 99.6% respectively. Result of our designed project show that resistance have been developed against oxfendazole and levamisole in Haemonchuscontortus as per the guidelines given by WAAVP which is 95% efficacy herbal product wormafax is still effective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2967-T] (1).

181. Efficacy Of Levamisole, Benzimidazole And Ivermectin Against Nematodes In Sheep In District Jafferabad Balochistan.

by Mansoor Ahmad(2008-VA-161) | Dr.Muhammad Lateef | Dr.Saadullah Jan | Dr.Muhammad Oneeb | Dr.Muhammad Zubair Shabbir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The contribution of Livestock sector in agriculture’s share is about 11.6 % to national GDP out of which livestock share’s is more than 55 %. In Pakistan 70% of population live in rural area and nearly 35-40 million rural people directly or indirectly depend on livestock. The population receives about 30-40% of their income from livestock. The average population in each house hold is estimated to be 2 or 3 cattle, 5 to 6 sheep or goats. There are many hurdles and diseases that effecting the growth of livestock industry in the country, among these constraints parasitic infestation is one of the major growth threatening condition which affect the livestock the industry worldwide. Many commercially available drugs are used every year to control the gastrointestinal nematodes in the animals, specially grazing animals. Uncontrolled uses of these medicines have made the helminth less susceptible to the drugs. And in many regions of world the parasites have developed resistance against such anthelmintic. To overcome the issue of drug resistance scientist is thinking to develop medicinal plant as curing agent against the nematodes. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially available anthelmintic against gastrointestinal of sheep of Tehsil Usta Muhammad district Jaffar Abad Balochistan. The drugs administered in the study were Albendazole, Levamisole, and Ivermectin. A total of 80 sheep microscopically positive and having worm load of > 150 eggs per gram of GIT nematodes were randomly selected for the trial. Four groups were made with each group containing 20 animals alternately. Group A was treated with Levamisole at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The animals in group B were drenched with Albendazole at the dose rate 54 Summary of 3.8mg/kg body weight. Group C were treated with Ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight. In the results Ivermectin showed maximum reduction in EPG that is 96.17% followed by 91.71% and 84.17% of Albendazole and Levamisole respectively. The data was analyzed through repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS version 20.0. The results showed resistance against in the nematodes of sheep against the drugs Albendazole and Levamisole. Conclusion There is a serious threat of either developed or a tendency for development of anthelmintic resistance against Levamisole and Albendazole in nematode population of sheep in study area. The factors that assist to the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode population of sheep flocks recorded in the present study can be divided in to operational, inherited, and medicinal, which need to be addressed together as a part of a potent worm control program. The level of alertness, awareness and technical know-how is unsatisfactorily poor among all the farmers concerned in small ruminant farming. Therefore, there is no dewormer schedule for worm control practices in place at present, which describes a severe fear on the future of sheep and goats production on the one hand and permits an immediate attention on the problem of anthelmintic resistance. In the present study Ivermectin is commercially available and widely used anthelmintic is still effective against nematodes of sheep. Other anthelmintic were less effective in comparison to ivermectin in sheep of District Jaffarabad Balochistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2966-T] (1).



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