Prevalence & Chemotherapy Of Ascariasis & Its Effect On Various Blood Parameters In Horses
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1999 Dissertation note: (Albendazole) was 64.95%, 52.26% and 44.02% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Oxafax (Oxfendazole) was 99.18%, 98.36% and 97.95% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) was 100%, 10O% and 100% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. It was concluded from above results that Ivermectin was found the most effective than Albendazole and Oxfendazole, while Oxfendazole showed better efficacy than Albendazole.
Haematological parameters showed reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV).
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Study Of Changes In Hematological Laboratory Profile Induced By Vinorelbine In Cancer Patients
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Publisher: 2000 Dissertation note: The present study was carried to investigate the hematological alterations in the patients diagnosed as cancer and were administered vinorelbine as part of their chemotherapy at Shoukat khanum memorial cancer hospital and research centre. It was carried in the chemotherapy department, pathology laboratory, medical record section, pharmacy department, and data processing department of the hospital. For investigating there were a total of 60 adult cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCL), metastatic breast cancer (MBC), and cancer of cervix (CC), with age between 24 to 71 years (Mean±SEM: 42.73±2.69) selected. Which were divided into two groups: Group - I for those patients who were on the treatment protocol of Vinorelbine alone (25 mg/m2/day one, weekly x 4) and group - II for those patients who were on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine base combinations Vinorelbine/Doxorubicin (Vinorelbine - 20 mg/m2/day one and day eight, Doxorubicin - 50 mg/m2/day one only) and Vinorelbine/Cisplatin (Vinorelbine - 20 mg/m2/day one and day eight, Cisplatin - 40 mg/m2/day one only). The Laboratory tests (C.B.C.) of all the patients were performed in the Pathology Laboratory of the hospital. After completion of the study, the collected Hematological values were statistically analyzed by student pair test. By the overall comparison of mean values over time, there were significant leukopenia (neutrophile, eosinophil, & monocyte), anemia and decreased hematocrit value observed in the patients on chemotherapy protocol of Vinorelbine alone and significant leukopenia (neutrophile only), anemia and decreased hematocrit value and hemoglobine conc. observed in the patients on chemotherapy protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. By an independent comparison of mean values of two groups at every week, there were significantly higher toxicities 1 e leukopenia at week-3 (neutrohpil at week-3, eosinophil at weekI, lymphocyte at week-i &2) and thrombocytopenia at week-i observed in the patients on the treatment protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. When the mean values observed before therapy were compared with that of at week-4 of both of the groups, there were significant decreases noted in TLC, neutrophil count, monocyte count, erythrocyte count, hemotocrit value and Hb conc in the patients on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine alone, and erythrocyte count, hemotocrit value and hemoglobine conc. in the patients on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. It is concluded from this study that, there is insignificant difference in the overall hematological toxicities produced by both of the chemotherapy protocols. The clinical oncologist, consultant physicians and pharmacist, therefore now suggested to select the either of the of the chemotherapy protocol with respect of the therapeutic efficacy only
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Detection And Chemotherapy Of Sub Clinical Mastitis In Dairy Catlle And Buffaloes
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The aim of this study was to detect subclinical mastitis in bovine and to find out the most appropriate antibiotic for its treatment. For this purpose, Milk samples were taken aseptically from 500 apparently healthy animals (n= 250 cattle and n= 250 buffaloes) for screening tests. Two different tests, Surf Mastitis Test (SMT) and Somatic Cell Count (SCC) were used. Milk samples declared positive by both of the above mentioned tests, were subjected to culture sensitivity test. Six different antibiotics were evaluated i.e. Enrofloxacin, Norfioxacin, Amoxicillin, Oxytetracycline, Gentamicin and penicillin G. On the basis of sensitivity test; two topmost drugs were selected and be given to two equal groups of animals. Each group was comprised of equal number of cattle and buffaloes. Each antibiotic was given for 5 days as intramuscular (IM) injection. A positive and a negative control groups were also kept. To detect the in-vivo efficacy of antibiotic, again the milk samples of all the groups were examined by SMT and SCC on day 10 and day 20 of first injection. The results obtained were the following;
Sub clinical mastitis was found 42.8% in cattle and 37.6% in buffaloes. Out of
the total of 201 mastitis positive milk samples cultured, bacterial growth occurred in
98 (48.75%) of milk samples. The various bacterial species isolated from milk
samples of cattle and buffaloes were E. coli Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus,
Kiebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Pasteurella with overall percentage of 50 %, 17.34 %,
3.06 %, 12.24%, 10.20%, 2.04% and 5.10 % respectively.
The in vitro efficacy of Enrofloxacin was found to be the best one i.e. 77.55 % followed by Norfioxacin (67.34 %), Gentamicin (53.06 %), Oxytetracyclin (30.61 %), Amoxicillin (22.44 %) and Penicillin G (4.08 %).
After chemotherapy, there was significant difference between treatment groups and control groups (P<0.05). The difference in the efficacy of enrofloxacin and norfioxacin was statistically non significant (P>0.05), however mathematically, the recovery rate by enrofloxacin was greater (93.75%) then norfioxacin (87.50%). Recovery rate was more at day 20 for both antibiotics.
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A Study On Mastitis In Pregnant And Non Pregnant Cattle And Comparative Clinical Trials At Bahadur Nagar
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Mastitis is a mutifactorial disease-complex resulting from pathogenic- host-environment interaction. The local information on the epidemiological dimensions of mastitis in Pakistan is extremely inadequate. This information is imperative for planning an intervention strategy for this costly dairy disease. All immunization procedures developed against the disease have been remained unsuccessful due to multiple etiological agents. The aim of present project was to study the incidence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in pregnant and non pregnant cattle at Livestock Experimental Station, Bahadur Nagar and to conduct the comparative clinical effectiveness of parentral and intramammary treatment routes. The incidence of clinical mastitis at Bahadur Nagar, Okara was 18.6 % (56/300) and incidence of sub-clinical mastitis was 3 1 .6% (89/300). Research was conducted to determine the association of some host, management and housing determinants with clinical mastitis in cattle. Analysis of data showed that the relative risk for clinical mastitis increased with the increment of age. Similarly the chances of occurance of mastitis increased with increase in lactation number and stage of lactation. The length of dry period during the preceding gestation was inversely proportion to the risk for clinical mastitis.
The managemental data showed that risk factor for mastitis was maximum with calf stimulus. Teat dipping found to be an important measure to prevent from mastitis..
When housing data was analysed it was found that risk was maximum for the animals kept on brick floor and minimum for those kept on katcha floor. Risk for clinical mastitis was higher in animals kept with uneven surfaces. The relative risk gradually decreased when the frequency of dung removal increased.
The misuse of antibiotics at low level over longer period may cause the therapeutic failure and the development of drug resistant (uni-or multi-resistant) strains of staphylococci and other bacteria. Therefore, regular studies on the antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates are needed for the effective and economical treatment of the disease. For this purpose milk sample was examined by Whiteside test. Clinically positive naturally infected animals was divided into four groups A, B, C and D. Group A, B, C was treated with Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) l/M, Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) 1/Mm, Enrofloxacin (Encure-l0, Nawan Laboratories, Karachi) I/M and I/Mm respectively and group D acted as positive control. Another group E, comprised of healthy non infected animals acted as negative control. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of clinical recovery of the animals and Whiteside test pretreatment and post treatment results. It was found that best route of treatment was intramammary route. It was also found that clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was more prevalent in non pregnant but lactating animals than that of pregnant animals.
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Helminths In Peafowl (Pavo Cristatus) At Lahore Zoo
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the infection rate of helminths in peafowl and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthalmintics.
For this puiose, eighty seven different breeds of peafowl like Blue peafowl, Java green peafowl, White peafowl, Black shoulder peafowl, Emerald peafowl and Pide peafowl of different ages, both male and female were selected which were present at Lahore Zoo. Faecal samples of 87 birds were collected in clean polythene bags, properly labeled and examined for the identification of helminths in the laboratory of Clinical Medicine & Surgery department, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore. Faecal samples were examined by direct smear and centrifugal floatation methods for qualitative examination. For quantitative examination McMaster Egg Counting technique was used.
Moreover, chemotherapeutic trials were conducted by making four groups of birds. Albendazole (Methyl [5-(Prophylthio)-IH-Benzimidazole-2-yl] carbonate) (Selmore Pharma) at the dose rate of O.lml per k.g. of body weight in drinking water and Pyrantel Pamoate (1 Methyl-2-(2[2-thienylj-l, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydropyrimidine, 4, 4-methylenebis (3- hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) (Pfizer) at the dose rate of O.lml per k.g. body weight oral suspension only once in the experimental trial was used and there percentage efficacy was determined. Drugs were administered orally to each bird using crop needle.
After the collection and laboratory examination of pre-medicated eighty seven faccal samples, the positive birds of different breeds of peafowl were divided in to three equal groups that were A, B and C. Forty nine out of 87 birds were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae, Ascaridia gaul, Davenia pro glotina, Capillaria columbae and Acuaria spiralis with there individual percentage was 36.73%, 26.53%, 6.12%, 18.37% and 12.24% respectively. Out of 49 birds 48 positive birds were divided in groups, each group consisted of 16 birds respectively. Group 'A' consisted of (Blue peafowl, Java green peafowl, White peafowl, Black shoulder peafowl and Emerald Peafowl, Pide peafowl). Group 'B' consisted of (Blue peafowl, Black Shoulder peafowl, Emerald peafowl and White Peafowl, Java green, Pide peafowl). In group 'C' birds included were (Blue peafowl, White peafowl, Pide peafowl and Black shoulder Peafowl, Emerald peafowl). While in group 'D' (White peafowl, Java green peafowl, Pide peafowl
& Blue Peafowl) only uninfected and untreated birds were kept.
Drug therapy was only induced to group A i.e. Albendazole 0.lml/kg body weight and group B Pyrantel pamoatc 0.lml /kg body weight, while infected but untreated birds were placed in group C.
The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in different breeds of peafowl pre-medicationwas found as 56.32 %. While the healthy birds were 43.68%. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 03, 07 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. On day three the percentage efficacy of Albendazole was 44.76%, on day seven 73.01%, and on day ten 94.92% respectively. In the same way percentage efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate on day three was 29.27%, on day seven 50.13% and on day ten 78.34%.
The percentage EPG rise up to 3.75%, 6.24% and 6.99% at day 03, 07 and 10 in untreated group C was observed. While no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. In the current study no mortality of peafowl was found so no postmortem examination was conducted. There was no any side effect of Abendazole and Pyrantel pamoate was found in both the groups which were A & B respectively.
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The Comparative Efficacy Of Various Feed Additives On The Resistance Of Broiler To Experimenmtally Induced Cecal Coccidiosis
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry and is caused by the apicomplexan parasites Eimeria. Drugs and live vaccines are the two main control measures of the disease; however, due to increasing concerns with prophylactic drug use and the high cost of vaccines, alternative control methods are needed. Recent evidence that various dietary and live microbial supplements can influence host immunity against enteric diseases prompted me to investigate the role of prebiotic, probiotic on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Neem fruit (azadirachta indica) and diclazuril is also used in the experimental trial due to their anticoccidial activity. For this purpose a total of 300 day old chicks free from coccidial infection were randomly divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F) each comprising 50 birds. The dietary treatments for groups A-F were basal diet only, basal diet + Diclazuril 0.5%, basal diet + lactobacillus based probiotic, basal diet + Mannan-oligosacchrides (MOS), basal diet + neem fruit (Azadirachta indica) and basal diet only, respectively. The birds in groups A-E were challenged oesophageally with 10000 viable sporulated E. tenella oocysts, while the birds in group F were remained unchallenged and serve as negative control. The oocyst per gram (OPG), clinical signs/severity of diarrhea, lesion score, body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, mortality rates, hemoglobin estimation, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count were the parameters considered. The efficacy of various treatments was estimated on the basis of reduction in OPG, clinical signs/severity of diarrhea and lesion score. The effect of coccidiosis on hemoglobin, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count were also recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The difference among the treatment means were tested by Duncans's Multiple Range (DMR) Test.
The results of the experiment revealed that oocyst per gram (OPG), clinical signs/severity of diarrhea, lesion score, mortality rates, feed consumption, hemoglobin estimation, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count of group D and C were significantly lower than group A, B and E (p<O.O5) respectively except group F (-ye control), but feed consumption of group C and D is significantly lower than group F (p<O.05). Body weight gain, and FCR of group C and D were significantly higher than group F, followed by E, B and A (p<O.O5) respectively.
From the results of above experiment it is concluded that both prebiotic and probiotic not only facilitate as an anticoccidial but also helpful in body weight gain. These consequently result as an alternative drug free approach to antibiotics for the control of coccidiosis because of drug resistance as well as growth promoter and ultimately reduce the economic losses due to coccidiosis.
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Preualence And Chemotherapy Of Nematodes In Pigeons At Lahore Zoo
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Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Pigeons came from South Asia where they have selected for their flight ability. During the last 150 years, they have periodically been released in several sites as potential game birds but without success since they migrate away from the release point (Williams, 2000).
The present study was carried out at Lahore Zoo and University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore and postgraduate laboratory UVAS, Lahore. To record the prevalence of various nematodes of Pigeons, a total of 150 faecal samples were collected (75 reared at floor and 75 in cages) under different managemental conditions. Faecal samples were examined by three different techniques i.e. Direct smear, Flotation and Mc Master Egg counting technique. Out of 150 samples 33.5%) pigeonss were positive in cage system and (37.5%) were positive on floor system. Overall prevalence in both the systems of management was (35.5%).
Chemotherapeutic trails were conducted by using Albendazole and Mebendazole. For this purpose a total of 45 birds from the 105 positive birds were selected. These were randomly divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C having 15 birds in each group. l3irds in group A and B treated with Albendazole and Mebendazole. At their recommended dose rate respectively whereas birds in group C were not given any treatment. The efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole was 97.54% and 82.68% respectively.
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