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1. Modulation Of Antibiotics Resistance Pattern In Escherichia Coli By Different Plant

by Bushra Chaudary (2009-VA-232) | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed | Dr. Naureen Naeem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is Gram negative microorganism belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae. It is part of normal micro flora of gastrointestinal tract of human and all warm blooded animals (Kaper et al. 2004). Escherichia coli is source of many infectious diseases in human as well as in animals. Common E. coli infections are enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicemia and neonatal meningitis. In pets and farm animals, E. coli is associated with diarrhea (Allocati et al. 2013). Poultry industry is facing huge annual losses due to infection of avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in broilers (Oosterik et al. 2014). E. coli causes a variety of syndromes in poultry including yolk sac infection, respiratory tract infection, swollen head syndrome, septicemia and cellulitis (Buys et al. 1989) Antibiotics are chemical agents which inhibit the microbial growth and used to eradicate infections. Mechanisms of action of antibiotics provide a base to categorize antimicrobial agents. Most important classes of antibiotics act as inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis (tetracyclines and macrolides), nucleic acid synthesis (fluoroquinolones), metabolic pathway (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and cell membrane (polymyxins). Bacteria may have intrinsic or acquired resistance to antimicrobials (Tenover 2006). Urinary tract infections are mostly caused by E.coli. Antibiotics generally used for the treatment of E. coli infections include ampicillin, nitrofurntion, cephalosporin, sulphonamides (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and quonolones (neladixic acid, ofloxacine, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine) (Lin and Lin 2010). Extended use and misuse of antibiotics lead to the development of resistant bacteria. Resistant E. coli strains are common source of hospital born and community acquired infections. Ease of Introduction 2 international travelling is one of the major spreading factor for antibiotic resistance. Resistant bacteria got opportunity to move from one geographical area to another (van der Bij and Pitout 2012). New strains of E. coli resistant to carbapenems (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM- 1) are major global health issue (Kumarasamy et al. 2010). Antibiotic resistance has become a serious public health problem. Currently, world is facing great difficulty in treatment of many infectious disease of human and animals. One of the reasons of treatment failure is emergence of resistant bacteria (Levy 2002). To develop new strategies for treatment of infectious diseases, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of resistance. Efflux pump inhibitors, enzymatic degradations and alteration of target sites are major strategies by which bacteria acquire or develop resistance to antibiotics (Sibanda and Okoh 2007). Scientists are looking for alternatives of antibiotics such as bacteriopheges, naturally antimicrobial compounds and some non antimicrobial agents (Worthington and Melander 2013). Probiotics (Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) can be a prophylactic measures against E. coli and may be used to treat intestinal tract infections of E. coli and other bacteria (de Vrese and Schrezenmeir 2008). Phytochemicals, secondary metabolites of plants, have antibacterial activity against many pathogenic organisms. These phytochemicals in combination with antibiotics may show synergistic effect. Phytochemicals and plant extracts can be a source of antibiotic resistancemodifying agents (RMAs) (Abreu et al. 2012). Plant extracts shown antibacterial activity because of phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and steroids (Gobalakrishnan et al. 2013). Plant extracts are used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Plant extracts like Zingiber officinalis (Ginger) Gymnema sylvestre (Gurmar buti), Astragalus (goat’s thorn), Calotropis procera (apple of Sodom) and oputia dillenii (cactus) have antimicrobial activity (indu et al. 2006 and Kumaar et al. 2013). Plant extracts also have antibiotic resistance modulation potential (Mako et al. 2012). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2247-T] (1).

2. Pakistan ki Mashlian OUR Mahi Parwari

by Dr.Muhammad Ramazan Mirza.

Edition: 1st ed. volume 2Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan, Feroze Son, 1995Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.95491 Ramazan 18510 1st v.2 1995 Fisheries] (1).

3. Bang-e-Dara

by Dr.Muhammad Iqbal.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan: Sang-e-meel, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 891.4391 Iqbal 29386 1st 2011 Poetry] (1).

4. Meezanbank's Guide to Islamic Banking

by Dr.Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani | Dr.Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Pakistan: Darul-Ishaat; 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: Imran 24975 1st 2002 Management] (1).

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