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1. Epidemiology Of Giardia Duodenalis And Cryptosporidium Parvum Infections In Calves And Young Dogs

by Khalid Saeed | Dr. William P. Shulaw, Advisor | Dr. Margaret A. Masterson | Dr. Thomas E.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In recent years Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum have been considered by some investigators to be important causes of diarrhea. The role of G. duodenalis as an enteropathogen in animals remains undetermined. Limited information is available concerning the effect of age and season on G. duodenalis and C. parvuni infection in calves. A year long prospective longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effect of age and a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the effect of season on infection rates and shedding intensity. Associations between Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections and abnormal stools were also determined. A separate case control study was conducted to investigate the association between Giardia, and Cryptosporidium infections and diarrhea in young dogs admitted to two animal shelters. Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts/oocysts were frequently identified in fecal samples from calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 54% and 24% of samples respectively from 1 day to 387 day-old calves. About 80% of individual calves had at least one positive sample for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections. Age was a significant factor in determining Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections and cyst/oocyst shedding levels (P< 0.01). The highest proportion of Cryptosporidium-positive samples was from 2 week-old calves. Giardia cysts were most frequently identified in samples from 8 week-old calves and about 80% of samples had cysts. Giardia cysts were less frequently found in samples collected in winter than in other seasons (P <0.01). Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was not influenced by season. Among infected calves, Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding levels were higher in winter than in other seasons. Giardia cysts were more frequently found in normal stools than in abnormal su)ols (P 0.01). Lrvptosporu.tiiein oocysts were more frequently identified in abnormal stools than in normal stools (0R3.5; P <0.001) and among infected calves higher oocyst shedding levels were observed in abnormal stools than in normal stools (P <0.01). No association between Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidiuni oocyst shedding levels and diarrhea was observed in the young dogs studied. Giardia infections were more common in females than in male dogs (P- 0.03). Gender was not associated with i3pru,,poriduun infections (Pr- 0.32). but higher mean oocyst shedding was observed in males than in females (P < 0.01 ). Mean body condition scores of cases was slightly lower than that of control dogs (P= 0.04). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0945,T] (1).

2. Prevalence Of Trichomonas Foetus In Large Ruminants Of District Hafiizabad

by Amjad Atta Bhatti | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Trichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a protozoan parasite of reproductive tract of large ruminants and causes abortion. This organism is found in males and females associated with varied pathology and clinical symptom. Disease has venereal transmission and male remain infected throughout the life. Pakistan is a developing country and artificial insemination facility is not available to all farmers and some are reluctant to avail it. This study was designed to check the prevalence of T. foetus in large animals in district Hafizabad. One hundred and fifty preputial and vaginal samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes 75 each. These samples were from 100 females and 50 males. Vaginal mucus from females was thoroughly examined for T. foetus in direct smear and in smear stained by Giemsa stain. Male samples were subjected to examination by direct smear, centrifugation and stained smear performed from sediments for detection of T. foetus. Overall prevalence of T. foetus was 12.0% (18/150) in sampled animals and species wise T. foetus infection was 8% (6/75) for cattle and 16% (12/75) for buffalos. Sex related prevalence of T. foetus in cows is 6% (3/50) and in buffaloes was 14% (7/50). Infection was more common in buffalo bulls 20% (5/25) as compared with cow bulls 12% (3/25). There was no difference in diagnosis of T. foetus in females by direct smear or by examination of stained smears. Whereas stained smears prepared from sediments of preputial washings were more sensitive in diagnosing of T. foetus infection as compared with direct smear method. Study also indicated that infection was exclusively seen in animals that were involved in natural breeding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1438,T] (1).

3. Molecular Diagnosis Of Anaplasmosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Salman (2008-VA-135) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne haemo-rickettsail disease, caused by Anaplasma species transmitted mechanically by flies, biologically by ticks and blood contaminant fomites. It is an economically important tick-borne disease of buffalo in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In current study, we developed and optimized PCR first for detecting Anaplasma at genus level in buffaloes. One hundred (100) blood samples were collected from buffaloes around the Lahore region. The stained thin blood films were examined microscopically and 37% blood samples were found positive for intra-erythrocytic bodies which were then selected for DNA extraction. The DNA was extracted using commercially available kit for eventual use in optimization of PCR for diagnosis of bovine Anaplasmosis. The primers were designed targeting 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. For the detection, the PCR product was run in 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and thirty seven samples showed the amplification band at 179bp. The selected samples were sent for ABI sequencing to Singapore for the accurate detection of the Anaplasma species. The sequencing results were blasted with database of Genbank and we observed homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We found 37% prevalence of Anaplasmosis in buffaloes through PCR. However more studies are required to confirm the species of Anaplasma infecting buffaloes (Bobalus bobalis) by designing species specific primers. Furthermore, additional studies are needed to establish the epidemiology of Anaplasmosis by using molecular tools in different geographical areas of the country for their better control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2389-T] (1).

4. Occurrence And Economic Losses From Theileriosis On Commercial Dairy Farm Of Holstein Friesian

by Muhammad Rashid (2014-VA-503) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Liaquat Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Background: Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease and it is transmitted by the bite of ticks. Previous work on disease problems in the study area suggested that Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (TTBDs) are the major constraints to cattle production. They cause economic losses to farmers in terms of cattle mortality, loss of body weight, loss of milk production and costs of control of TTBDs by use of acaricides. Theileria is one of the major threat to cattle as it causes anemia, weight loss, decrease production, mortality, treatment cost and cost for the control of theileria. The proper data for losses atributed to theileriosis is still not available in Pakistan. For this purpose a study was carried out in a commercial exotic dairy farm to evaluate losses associated with theileriosis Methodology: The study was done during the period of theileriosis to calculate its economic effect on animal health and production. A total of 150 animals were selected randomly using random number sample formula. The animal tag numbers were compared with random number table, comparing animals were slecteded for study. Thin blood smear was performed for diagnosis haemoparasite, further PCR was performed on those animals that were found +ve for intraerythrocytic bodies. Faecal examination, California mastitis test, teat abnormality and parturition history were recorded for the screening of these factors that decrease milk production. After final grouping, milk production was recorded to identify the effect of theileriosis on production. As theileriosis cause anemia due to destruction of RBC’s. body condition scoring was also performed. Physical examination (lymph node and body temperature) of animals were also performed to evaluate the clinical and subclinical theileriosis. Results: For the evaluation of theileriosis, microscopy was performed on all the animals’ blood samples. Haemoparasites were found in 28.67%. These were further processed by PCR for the CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 55 detection of theileriosis. Theileria was found in 27.90%. Screening of clinical and subclinical mastitis by Califirnia Mastitis Test and microscopy for gastrointestinal parasite were performed. On faecal examination, there found nematode, cestode and balantidium in 51.72%, 60.92% and 42.53%% respectively. After deworming with Valbazine and curafluke, nematode, cestode (monzia), balantidium and coccidiosis were found in 0%, 39.13, 43.48% and 4.35% respectively. Before grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were found in 5.38% and 24.62% respectively. After grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were evaluated by California mastitis test with two weeks interval. At 7th week clinical and subclinical mastitis were 3.85% and 7.69% due to improved management. The decrease in milk production for clinical and subclinical theileriosis was 87 lit./animal and 42.77 lit./animal. Costs for control, treatment and mortality were 0.12%, 0.20% and 13.09% respectively from overall farm expenditure. The prevalence of haemoparasite was 28.67%, while the prevalence of theileriosis was 8%. The new cases of theileriosis were recorded and incidence of theileriosis was found to be 2.25%. Overall losses due to theileriosis was 13.70%. Outcomes: We can conclude from our finding that theileriosis has drastic affect on the profitability of the farms. Then losses can be attributed to decreased milk production and mortality. Medications and control measure for theileriosis have added effect on the losses at exotic animal breed dairy farms. Perspectives: Cost analysis studies need to be done on different dairy farms of cattle of different breeds at different ecological/climatic zones of Pakistan so that investors would know the risks of establishing dairy farms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2515-T] (1).

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