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1. Development And Evaluation Of Mozzarella Cheese Influenced By Type Of Starter Culture And Fat Content Of Milk

by Imran Taj Khan (2013-VA-866) | Mr. Muhammad Junaid | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Mr. Muhammad Saadullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Pakistan is the 4th largest milk producing country in the world having 50.99 million tons/year in which buffalo and cow add 61% and 35% share, respectively to total milk production in Pakistan, while the rest 5% of the total milk is contributed by other species like small ruminants and camel. Out of the total produced milk only 7-8% of the milk is processed and passes via milk supply chain while the remaining is distributed as raw milk (GOP, 2013-14). Processing of milk into cheese is a small segment in Pakistan, moreover the eating habits are not developed in Pakistani population along with the increase in price of local as well as imported cheese. The manufacturing of cheese is one of the best examples of preserving milk, dating back from 6000-7000 BC till now. Cheese like other value added dairy products are among the highly nutritious diet of the world. Cheese comes in great variety of tastes and flavors, in a wide array of shapes, and are highly healthful and nutrimental (Walstra et al. 2006). The utilization of cheese in the form of pizza garnishes, cheese mixes, salads, sandwiches, stuffing has expanded because of dietary resemblance, ease and extensibility being used and cheese quality (Fox et al. 2000). Cheese manufacturing is increasing worldwide at the rate of 4.9% every year (Valhovic et al. 2014). Cheese is the value added dairy product acquired by the seepage (of fluid) after coagulation of milk proteins through utilization of rennet and starter. Cheese is a mainstream nourishment because of its differing qualities in application, wholesome quality, accommodation and appealing taste. The assorted qualities are because of an expanding information of the innovation of cheese making and the natural chemistry and microbiology of cheese maturing (Sulieman et al. 2013). There are 500–800 assortments of cheese accessible in the universal business sector (Razzaq, 2003). Mozzarella cheese is placed in the group of “Pasta filata” or stretched cheeses. Stretching is a treatment that gives the curd elasticity which is a dominating functional characteristic of Mozzarella cheese. Melting and stretching are the most important characteristics of Mozzarella cheese which is highly acknowledged in the making of Pizza as it is a chief ingredient (Owni et al. 2009). Mozzarella cheese is a standout amongst the most prominent cheese varieties on the planet, in light of its essential use in the pizza topping (Kindstedt et al., 2004). The funtional attributes of Mozzarella cheese like shape, composition, meltability, stretchbility and color are changed by the components like milk composition, culture source or type and maturing environment dominating in the midst of the cheese availability (Luecy et al. 2003). Mozzarella cheese is produced utilizing a paired lactic acid bacteria starter cultures of Streptococcus salvarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus (Ahmed et al. 2011). At a certain point, Mozzarella was made just from water buffalo milk. Presently, it is normally produced using milk of bovine, goat and sheep. There are two types of Mozzarella cheese; i.e. regular Mozzarella which is accessible in low-fat and nonfat structures and has a semi-delicate in texture, versatile composition and is drier than fresh Mozzarella while, Fresh Mozzarella is produced using entire drain and has a gentler texture and sweet pleasing flavor and is commonly pressed in water or whey (Ibrahim, 2003). Mozzarella cheese also has numerous therapeutical advantages; it is a decent wellspring of protein, vitamins and minerals. Utilization of Mozzarella cheese may secure against gout, an agonizing condition that outcomes in the development of uric acid stones in the joints. The calcium found in Mozzarella cheese additionally has its commitment in body weight reduction and gives insurance against breast tumor and metabolic disorder, which is a gathering of conditions that build the danger of creating cardiovascular disease or stroke (Ibrahim, 2003). Low fat Mozzarella cheese is a nice wellspring of protein and calcium, furthermore it is non calorie-dense and less in saturated fat, which can prevent from cardiovascular illness, type 2 diabetes, joint inflammation, and memory loss, also block weight reduction endeavors upon consumption. Eating low fat ("part-skim") or fat-free Mozzarella cheese is an extraordinary approach to gain by its alimental advantages while minimizing unfortunate additional items. The calcium in Mozzarella cheese aides keep up healthy pulse rate and blood pressure (Bauer, 2014). Mozzarella cheese production in the country in demand based being its most use in the pizza sector while its limited use as fresh product. Moreover the industry is using commercial imported culture for production of this cheese. The high price of the culture is one of the factor in the high price of the final product. Therefore the present study was designed with an objective to utilize the local culture for production of Mozzarella cheese. The idea was to maintain the quality of product at its higher regime. Furthermore its quality attributes were compared with the standard cheese produced from commercial culture. In addition the effect of change in fat level of milk on the quality and overall acceptability of the produced Mozzarella cheese was assessed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2266-T] (1).

2. Identification Of Variations In The Coding Region Of Myostatin Gene In Thalli And Pakkarakul Sheep Breeds Of The Punjab

by Armughan Ahmed Wadood (2006-VA-38) | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Mr. Muhammad Saadullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In a developing country like Pakistan, livestock sector has a significant importance. Meat is an important food component in human diet and its source varies from different organisms like cattle, buffalo, camel, deer, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken etc. Small ruminants especially sheep, has a unique role in meat production, due to its feeding and adaptive behavior. The myostatin (MSTN) gene is known as a candidate gene for development and growth of livestock because it plays its major role in muscle growth. Selection is an important tool to improve the meat production and thus enhance the economic conditions of livestock farmers. For this purpose genetically characterization of meat type animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is not common. The variations in the myostatin gene have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants in the world but it has been scanty studied in sheep breeds of Pakistan. Thalli and Pak-Karakul are well known sheep breeds present in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to characterize the genetic variation in the myostatin gene in Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep breeds. In this research study, twenty adult animals of two different sheep breeds (Thalli and Pak-Karakul) were selected from Small Ruminants Research and development Centre, Rakh Khairewala, District Layyah, Pakistan. Five mL blood sample was collected from each animal in a 15mL falcon tube containing anticoagulant. Primers were designed by using Primerfox online software. Primers were optimized using specific protocol and PCR was performed. DNA was extracted using modified inorganic method of Sambrook et al. (1989). PCR was carried out using all primers and later sent for sequencing to 1stBase Laboratories, Singapore. Molecular analysis was done using CodonCode Aligner and MEGA6 softwares. Ten samples of each breed were sequenced to detect polymorphism in both Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep populations. Sequencing revealed G↓T transition at 3995 position in Summary 44 genome (accession number, DQ530260.1) in Thalli and similar transition in Pak-Karakul at the same position. In Thalli sheep 50 % of experimental animals were heterozygous, higher level of heterozygosity makes it a potential candidate for higher growth rates. On the other hand the Pak-Karakul sheep is medium weight breed and frequency of mutant allele was 0.2 or 20%. The observed heterozygous individuals were also with higher live body weights. The gene frequency shows that this breed has medium potential for its body growth. The information‟s so generated and further association studies in both breeds will be helpful in devising breeding plans for increasing mutton production at national level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2288-T] (1).

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