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101. Effect Of Different Doses Of Bovine Somatotropin Hormone In-Ravi Buffaloes On Growth, Milk Production and Physiological Parameters

by Hafiz Faisal Majeed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effect of different doses of bovine sornatotropin hormone (bST) on milk production, milk composition, growth! body weight, and physiological parameters (Hemoglobin, Total protein, 1-lernatocrit values, Cholesterol, Glucose, Urea and ESR level). For this purpose 21 Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes were involved in this experiment. They were kept at Livestock Experimental Station Bahadur Nagar Okara with similar stage of lactation were selected. They were randomly divided in to three groups A, B and C with 7 animals in each group. The group A was injected with full- recommended dose of bST hormone (250 mg /animal) with trade name of Boostin-250 S/C at an interval of 14 days, while the animals of group B were given S/C injection on alternate days with divided doses of(36 mg/animal). The group C was kept as control. The maintenance requirement of the animals was met through by available green fodder at the rate of 40-50 kg per animal per day while production requirements were met through concentrate ration at the i-ate of half of the milk production. Milk production was recorded daily and milk sarnpes weve coXeeted on weakly basis or analysis. The blood samples were collected on fortnight basis to see the effect of bovine Sornatotropin hormone on physiological parameters. The research trial continued for 6 month till the completion of lactation. The average (rnean± SD) milk production of groups A, B and C were 7.38±1.30, 7.29±1.20 and 6.66±0.80 litters respectively. The increase in milk production was found to be 11% as compared to group C (control). The average (mean± sd) Fat, SNF and T.S percent in animals of group A were recorded 6.59±0.10, 9.13±0.28 and 15.73±0.34, respectively Where as in group B it was 6.58±0.15, 9.28±0.26 and 16.01±0.30 respectively. The averages (mcan±SD) Fat, SNF and TS percent in control group C were, 6.42±0.111, 8.83±0.47 and 15.45 ±0.245 respectively. There was improvement in Fat, SNF and TS percent of the treated group versus control group. The average (mean±SD) body weight found in subgroups A, B and group C was 528.78±50.64, 561.02±91.35 and 518.06±37.50 kgs respectively. There was slight increase was observed in treated group. The average values of Hemoglobin, 1-Iaernatocrit, ESR, Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, and Urea in experimental animals of group A were I 1.44g/dl, 32.84%, 94.15mm/h 173.87mg/lOOrni, 10.99g/dl, 567.57 g/dl, 86.25 mg/dl, and 4.089 rng/dl and respectively. In animals of group B there were 11.96 g/dl, 32.04%, 74.70 mm/h 181.10 mg/lOOm!, 11.10 g/dl, 548.03 g/dl, 84.655 mg/dl and 3.7474 rng/dl respectively. Whereas in-group C (control) the average values of Hemoglobin, Haernatocrit, ESR Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, Urea were 12.20 g/dl, 33.11%, 83.11 mm/h 190.78, mg/lOOm!, 10.60 g/dl, 557.32 rng/dl, 84.92 rng/dl and 3.8848 g/dl, respectively. It is concluded that the bovine Somatotropin hormone had no desirable effect on physiological parameters. It is concluded that treatment of bovine sornatotropin hormone had no effect on blood composition, milk composition and physiological parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. It is also concluded that dose of bSt of 250mg injected at 14 days interval is beneficial for overall performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloe. To overall bST had positive effect on economic parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0950,T] (1).

102. Standardization Of Tuberculin Test In Buffaloes And Detection Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Blood Through PCR

by Asad Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In bovine it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. It is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. Bovine TB is still a significant zoonosis in many parts of the world and it accounts for 25.8% of TB in man. A study was conducted to standardize the tuberculin test in buffaloes and to detect the M bovis in buffalo blood samples through PCR based techniques. A total of 100 buffaloes were tested by Single Comparative Cervical Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCCIDTT) for this research and 100 blood samples were also collected from the same under aseptic condition. Data was also collected from owners & milkers of buffalo before and after SCCIDTT. A PCR (is a nucleic acid-based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of micro-organism) assay was described which could detect M bovis in blood samples. Blood of 100 buffaloes was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Over all two (2.0%) out of 100 buffaloes were found positive to tuberculin test while fifty four (54 %) out of 100 blood samples of the same buffaloes were found positive for M bovis in PCR. The positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that the animals herd was crowded and were reared much closed to each other for a long time. It suggested that they got infection from other animals. It was an evidence of bovine tuberculosis of M bovis in buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0951,T] (1).

103. Comparison Of Multiplex Pcr & Conventional Methods For The Diagnosis Of Tuber Culosis (TB) in Human, Buffalo & Cattle in Lahore District

by Naima Mumtaz | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rarf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis, one of the most widespread infectious diseases, is the leading cause of death due to single infectious agent among humans and animals in the world. It is endemic in Pakistan with about 1.5 million people infected, and Pakistan ranks seventh among the 22 high-burden tuberculosis countries worldwide (WHO, 2006). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of human TB, but an unknown proportion of cases are due to Mycobacterium. bovis. The study was conducted in Lahore to compare the multiplex PCR and conventional methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by M tuberculosis and M bovis in 300 humans' sputum and 1000 bovines' milk samples. Conventional methods included Ziehi Neelsen staining, culture and biochemical tests. For M tuberculosis and M bovis the pncA gene and specie -specific 500 bp fragments were targeted respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was found statistically significant in comparison to Ziehl Neelsen staining and culture for the differential diagnosis of TB. Pyrazinamide resistance was found in 15 (34.8%) out of 43 isolates recovered from media inoculated by sputum and milk. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0954,T] (1).

104. Studies On The Physico-Chemical Factors Affecting In Vitro Replication Of Foot And Mouth Disease Virus (Serotype"O")

by Muhammad Taslim Ghori | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhamamd | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani ( | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Effect of physical (temperature, U.V light, and pH) and chemical factors such as sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium permanganate, formaldehyde, citric acid, fin-virus, iodine and sodium hypochlorite on the replicating ability of"O" type of FMD virus on BHK cell line was determined. The FMD virus of known TCID was exposed to 37, 57 and 77°C for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. Each of the virus's aliquot exposed to temperature was inoculated to 8 wells of the 96-well cell culture plate containing adherent monolayer of BI-IK cell line. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 48 hours. The results showed that the temperature more than 57°C can inactivate the virus within 15 minutes. The virus was admixed in the MEM-199 maintenance media at pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. The results showed that the virus was survived at pH 7 but virus was inactivated at pH 3, 5, 9 and 11. The FMD virus of the known TCID o was exposed to U.V. light (1 foot distance) for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The results indicated that the virus tolerated UV light of 252.7nrn as it showed cytopathogenic effects (CPE). The FMD virus of known TCID was exposed to 0.5 x, lx, and 2x concentration of each of the iodine, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, formalin, finvirus, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite and citric acid for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Each of the virus's aliquot exposed to either of chemical factors was inoculated to 8 well of the 96-well culture plate containing adherent monolayer of the BI-IK cell line. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 48 hours. Development of CPE indicated the virus inactivating ability of the chemical factor. The results showed that formalin, iodine, finvirus and sodium hypochiorite are more effective against FMD virus. The results of the study are helpful to curtail the spread of virus, to implement the effective bio-security measures in our local conditions and in processing of animal products fit for export. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0955,T] (1).

105. Comparative Studies On The Sensitivity Of Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Conventional Serological Methods For the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellqsis

by Raheela Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof. Dr. Asim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The polymerase chain reaction was standardized and its efficacy was evaluated against Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Milk Ring test (MRT) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 200 cows and buffaloes from Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab. Under aseptic measures 200 serum and 200 milk samples were tested by RBPT, MRT and PCR on both milk and serum samples in both cows and buffaloes as described in materials and methods. RBPT showed high sensitivity values (27.7% in cows and 45.2% in buffaloes) than serum PCR (25% in cows and 3 9.6% in buffaloes) but on other hands MRT showed low sensitivity (11.1% in cows, 25.4% in buffaloes) and high specificity (98.4% in cows and 93.6% in buffaloes) than milk PCR with sensitivity of 13.8% in cows, 29.4% in buffaloes and specificities of 95.2% in cows and 89.3% in buffaloes respectively. The comparison of PCR assays conducted on both types of samples showed high sensitivity of serum PCR against milk PCR. The comparison of RBPT and MRT in both species showed high sensitivity of RBPT than MRT. But due to low positive predictive value of RBPT and instability in its results in both species it is concluded that there is no significant difference in PCR and serological methods so no single test can be used for the exact diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0957,T] (1).

106. The Effect Of Gossypol On The Semen Quality Of Buffalo Breeding Bulls

by Muhammad Irfan | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Muhammad Ashique | Prof. Dr. Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Buffalo breeding, an important form of livestock production, is practiced throughout the world and makes an important contribution to overall global agricultural production. The buffalo is an important provider of milk and meat in our country. Cottonseeds and its by-product, e.g., cottonseed cakes are mostly used as protein source in livestock rations. In the present study gossypol contents of cotton seed cake in the experimental rations was determined. Moreover, the effects of diets containing cotton seed cake on the semen quality in buffalo breeding bulls were investigated. For the determination of free gossypol contents seven samples of cotton seed cake used in the experimental rations were collected. These samples were analyzed for the free gossypol contents using American Oil Chemist's Society Official Method, Ba 7-58. To study the effects of gossypol on semen quality, fifteen adult buffalo breeding bulls were randomly divided into three equal groups named A,B and C. Bulls in group A were fed control ration "A" (without gossypol). Animals in group B were fed ration "B" which contained 15% cotton seed cake (containing free gossypol contents of 0.525 g/kg of ration), and those in group C were given ration "C" containing 30% cotton seed cake (which contained free gossypol @ 1.05 g/kg of ration). Experimental rations were fed to the buffalo bulls of respective groups according to their requirements as per NRC recommendation. The amount of free gossypol fed to the experimental animals of group B and group C were 5.25 and 10.5 g/bull/day. In addition, buffalo bulls in all the three groups were given good quality chaffed green fodder and clean water ad-libitum. Experimental animals in all groups were fed ration "A" for one month (pre-treatment period). The experimental rations were fed to buffalo bulls of respective groups for a period of two months from June to July, (treatment period). Experimental animals in each group (A, B and C) were fed with experimental ration "A" (without gossypol) for another two months period from August to September (post-treatment period). Body weight measurements were taken at monthly interval and semen samples were collected on weekly intervals and evaluated for physical characteristics of semen quality during the course of study. The amount of free gossypol of cotton seed cake averaged 0.35 ± 0.0 1345 percent whereas in rations A, B and C, it was 0, 52.5 and 105.0 g/kg respectively. The gossypol contents of cotton seed cake presenf in the experimental rations did not cause any sign of gossypol toxicity. Moreover, among the groups, the mass motility, individual motility, motility after dilution, motility after freezing, sperm concentration and live% were not affected but volume, p11 and body weight of buffalo bulls was affected significantly. Among the periods, pH, motility after freezing and live spermatozoa percent differed significantly but volume, mass motility, individual motility, motility after dilution did not differed significantly. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0958,T] (1).

107. Different Control Measures Againts Musca Domestica Associated With Poultry Farms

by Muhammad Shoaib | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0959,T] (1).

108. In Process Quality Control Factors Affecting Efficacy Of Hydropericardium Syndrome Virus Vaccine

by Muhammad Danish Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Irshad Hussain | Prof. Dr. Zafar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objective of this project was to study in process quality' control factors affecting the efficacy of Hydropericardium Syndrome virus vaccine in broilers. The parameters studied were mortality and protection percentage, seroconversion and affect of HPS infected liver homogenate vaccine on body weight gain of broiler birds. In this different vaccines were prepared from HPS infected liver homogenate having different biological titer (105.6,104.6 and 103.6 units of infectivity Animal Lethal Dose 50-ALD50) inactivated with 0.15% formalin. The other type of Hydropericardium Syndrome vaccine was prepared from chicken embryo hepatocytes having biological titre 1036 tissue culture infective dose-TCID50. At day 14th of age, groups Al, A2 and A3 were vaccinated with HPS infected liver homogenate aqueous based vaccines having different biological titre. While groups Bl, B2, B3, B4 and B5 were vaccinated against 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 doses per gram of HPS infected liver homogenate vaccine and groups Cl, C2, C3 were vaccinated with lanolin based HPS vaccine, gel based HPS vaccine, montanide based HPS vaccine respectively. Similarly group Dl, D2 were vaccinated with HPS virus chicken embryo hepatocyte vaccine and HPS liver homogenate vaccine respectively. The group El, E2 and E3 were vaccinated with HPS virus infected liver homogenate vaccine containing preservative (thiomersal sodium) stored for 30, 60 and 90 days respectively. The birds in group F served as uninnoculated controls. The HPS infected liver stored for 0-45 days at -20 C and processed for determination of its biological activity at fortnightly interval. It was observed that HPS vaccine containing more than 104.6 and 105.6 units of the immunogen provided protection to 100% in vaccinated birds. The 20 doses and 25 doses of the gel based HPS vaccine per gram of the liver developed 90% protection in vaccinated birds. Montanide based HPS vaccine provided 100% protection while HPS virus infected homogenate vaccine containing thiomersal sodium provided 80% protection up to 90 days and HPS virus chicken embryo hepatocyte vaccine provided 40%protection in the vaccinated birds. Se3rum samples were collected form all groups on 14 and 28 day post vaccination and subjected to AGPT for seroconversion. Each serum sample when monitored for anti-HPSV antibodies through agar gel precipitation test, showed undetectable titre. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0960,T] (1).

109. Incidence, Chemotherapy And Haematology Of Strongylosis In Horses Of District Layyah

by Kashif Mahboob | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. A. D. Khan Khosa | Prof. Dr, Khalid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the infection rate of strongylosis, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Endoectiven, Vermox, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Oxfendazole, to study the effect of strongyloids on blood parameters in horses of district Layyah. Horses were examined for the presence of strongylosis coprologically, till 50 horses naturally infected with strongyle spp. become available. Fifty horses were found positive for strongylosis out of eighty seven horses, so the infection rate of strongylosis was 57.47%. Fifty positive animals were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each comprising of 10 animals. Another group F comprising of healthy horses was made. Each animal of group A was treated with Endoectiven (8 mg/kg body weight.), group B was treated with Vermox (10 mg/kg body weight), group C was treated with Neem (375 mg/kg body weight), group D was treated with Systamex (10mg/kg body weight) while group E was kept as positive control (untreated) and group F was kept as negative control (uninfected untreated). The efficacy of anthelmintics was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7 and 14 post treatment. Efficacy of Endoectiven (Closantel) was 0 % and 0 % on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Vermox (Mebendazole) was 91.93% and 95.16% on day 7and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) was 6.89% and 8.62% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Systamex was 96.82% and 98.4 1% on day 7 and 14 respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Oxfendazole was found most effective than Mebendazole, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel, while Mebendazole showed better results than Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel. Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) showed better results than Closantel. Haematological parameters showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0961,T] (1).

110. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Helminthases In Parrots At Lahore Zoo.

by Ashgar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was conducted to determine the incidence of helminthiasis in all breeds of parrots and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different broad spectrum anthelmintics, albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) and levamisole (Nilverm drench, ICI) used against the nematodes at Lahore Zoo. For this purpose, 130 Faecal samples were collected group wise in clean polythene bags, properly labeled for identification and examined for the identification of helminths. Eighty eight out of 130 were positive for single or mixed infection of Heterakis gallinae and Ascardia gaul have individual percentage as 73.86% and 26.14% respectively. Of 88 positive birds belonging to different breeds of parrots, 72 of the same age, weight and number were devided in three equal groups (24 each) i.e. A (love birds peach face breed), B (budgerigar ring necked breed), and C (Alexandrine parrots, Blossom headed parakeet and Blue fronted amazon breeds), while in group D (Cockatiel, Blue ring necked parakeet, Eclectus parrot and African grey parrot breeds), only uninfected and untreated birds were kept. Drug therapy was only induced to the group A i.e. albendazole (Farbenda, Farvet) @ 0.lml/kg body weight and group B (levemisole hcl (Nilverm, ICI) @ 5m1/litre of water, while infected but non treated birds were placed in group C. Faccal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of egg/gram of faeces on day"O" (pre-medication) with McMaster egg counting technique (Soulsby, 1982). Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 3, 7 and 10 of medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. The overall prevalence of gastro intestinal helminthes in different breeds of parrots was found as 67.69%. Albendazole was found to be the more effective (96.33%) among the two anthelmintics while levamisole was less effective (84.90%). The EPG rise up to 8.98% at day 10 post medication in untreated group C was noted while no infection was observed in group D through out the experimental study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0962,T] (1).

111. Immmunobiolotical Observations On Avian Influenza Virus Types H7 And H,

by Shahid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was designed to 'find the prevalence of Avian Influenza disease in and around Lahore in commercial and household poultry. A total of 1000 blood and 500 cloacal swabs were collected from Broilers, Broiler-Breeders, Ducks, Pigeons, Sparrows, Quails and Desi Chickens. The blood samples from all the flocks showed non-significant titers while vaccinated flocks showed protective titers. All the cloacal swabs were negative for virus isolation. The final conclusions from this study were the following.i.e. - Avian influenza caused by H7 & H9 type is not prevalent in broiler and broiler breeders in and around Lahore. - The vaccinated poultry flocks showed higher titers of antibodies as compared to non-vaccinated flocks which means that vaccine can play a vital role in protection of bird from H7 & H9. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0963,T] (1).

112. Seroprevalence Of Bovine Brucellosis In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Muhammad Shafee | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The sero-epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis was carried out to observe the incidence of brucellosis in slaughterhouse and Government and private dairy farm, (GDF, PDF) Quetta, Balochistan. The prevalence of this disease out of 780 serum samples of cattle and buffalo in slaughterhouse was recorded 3% by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and 3.20% by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA), respectively. The zoonotic natures of this disease was also checked by screening 20 serum samples of slaughterhouse workers butchers and veterinarians and were found (5%) 01 positive out of 20 by RBPT but no positive case was found by i-ELISA. Similarly the disease was also checked in 200 milk samples of Government and Privatly owned Dairy Farm, Quetta. The overall prevalence observed in the area by screening 1000 serum and milk samples of the target human, cattle and buffalo, was 4.2 % through i-ELISA. The prevalence observed in Government Dairy Farm (GDF), Quetta was 14.8% (11 positive out of 74) while the Private Dairy Farm (PDF), exhibited 4.76% (6 positive out of 126 milk samples) by screening through i-ELISA. At GDF, Quetta, out of total of 74 cattle, no case were found positive by MRT, although 03 cases were found doubtful while i-ELISA show 11 positive cases in cattle (14.8%) while in private dairy farm 4 out of 15 cattle (26%) were found positive and 01 was considered doubtful by MRT and ELISA detected 06 cases of cattle out of 15(40%). Similarly 2 out of Ill (1.8%) buffalo were positive and 02 were doubtful by MRT but ELJSA did not detect any positive case and the prevalence of bovine brucellosis was higher in animals with reproductive disorders especially in cases of abortion. The present study also revealed that the disease is more prevalent in cattle than buffalo both in slaughterhouse and organized dairy farm (Govt and private). In slaughterhouse 12 out of 23 cases were found positive by RBPT and 22 out of 23 were found positive by i-ELISA while in organized dairy farm all of the 17 milk samples were found positive from cattle population. The efficacy of the i-ELISA both for milk and serum samples was found higher than other two conventional tests (MRT and RBPT), as it detected higher percentage of brucellosis cases both in serum and milk samples in comparison to other two tests. The results of this study have revealed an alarming situation of bovine brucellosis in our dairy animals, which needs an emergent response from policy makers, as the disease is a potential threat to the human and animal health. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0964,T] (1).

113. Effects Of Different Disinfectatnts On Pathogens In Poultry

by Asif Abbas Malik | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Poultry sector is the second largest industry after textile in Pakistan. It is threatened by various diseases i.e; Newcastle disease (ND), Avian Influenza (Al), Colibacillosis, Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS) and Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro). The efficacy of various available disinfectants (Hygen 275 — 2000 H, Virkon S and Aldekol) was tested at 2x, lx and Y2 x dilution against Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria Coil, Newcastle Disease virus and Avian Influenza virus. Each dilution of all the disinfectant was divided into 4 aliquots i.e; a, b, c and d (each of the aliquot, for each pathogen). Each aliquot were mixed with equal volume of either of the pathogen. The mixture of the disinfectant and the pathogen was incubated at 37°C for a period of 15, 30 and 45 minutes of interaction. The contents were collected aseptically and processed to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectants. Disinfectant A (Hygen 275-2000H) showed good bactericidal as well as virucidal activity at 1% dilution. Disinfectant B (Virkon S) was able to kill all the bacteria and viruses even at 0.25 % dilution. While, disinfectant C (Aldekol) effectively killed the bacteria and viruses at 0.5 % and I % dilutions. Results of the study will help the farmers to adopt effective biosecurity measures to minimize the challenges at farm level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0966,T] (1).

114. Effect Of Sodium Bentonite On Growth Performance And Feed Efficiency

by Ghayur Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: A trial was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing sodium bentonite, to find the effectiveness of sodium bentonite on the growth performance of Sahiwal male calves. Twelve animals of almost same age and weight were selected from the available stock at Animal Nutrition Centre, Rakh Dera Chahl, Lahore. These animals were divided into three groups and fed a standard ration "A" according to their nutrient requirements. Rations of group B and C were supplemented with sodium bentonite at the rate of 2.5 and 5.0 per cent while group A served as control. The trial was run for a period of 90 days with normal managemental practices. During the experimental period body weight gain and feed consumption of the individual animals was recorded. At the end of the experiment the data were analyzed statistically. The result of the experiment suggested that addition of sodium bentonite had statistically non-significant effect on the body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversation ratio and rate of passage of digesta through the gastro-intestinal tract. Based on the results of this trial it could be inferred that supplementation of sodium bentonite may have some beneficial effect on the performance of calves. However, use of this clay over extended period of time needs to be investigated for any adverse effect in future Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0968,T] (1).

115. Effect Of Supplementation Of Different Types Of Fat On Buffalo Semen Production And Quality

by Muhammad Adeel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0969,T] (1).

116. Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuber Culosis In Deers Kept In Captivity By Pcr And Tuberculin Test

by Zeeshan Nayyer | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, granalomatous, highly communicable, zoonotic and debilitating disease. The etiological agents of tuberculosis belong to the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. A total of 50 blood samples from emaciated deers were collected from deer’s kept in captivity suspected from TB. These samples were subjected to DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction and tuberculin test for the sensitivity and specificity of these tests.The results obtained were analyzed by standardization of PCR for M. bovis. PCR is a nucleic acid based technique that enables the rapid and sensitive detection of microorganism. Results indicated that 4% and 20% of deers were positive for M. bovis infection with the tuberculin test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respectively. From the results it is evident that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is more sensitive than the tuberculin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and gives much higher percentage of positive cases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0970,T] (1).

117. Effect Of Group Size On Growth Performncl Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves During Winter Months

by Rafiuddin | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Falak Sher Khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The study was performed to investigate the effect of group size on growth performance of Nih Ravi buffalo calves during winter months. For this purpose, 39 weaned calves were reared in different group sizes. Group A having single calf, group B having four number of calves, and group C having eight number of calves, with three replicates in each group .Space was provided 16 square feet per calf, while manger length 18 inch per animal for a period of 12 weeks (24 November2006 to 15 February2007). During this period it was observed that ambient temperature ranged from 14°C to 17°C and relative humidity (RH) 59 to 64 %. Green fodder was offered adlibitum and concentrate @ 1% of body weight. During the experimental period, the following parameters were recorded i.e., daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, weekly feed efficiency, daily water consumption ,rumination, fortnightly body measurement, rectal temperature twice daily, respiration at morning, incidence of diarrhea and respiratory illness. The data indicated that calves in group C showed significantly (P<0.05) more weight gain, increased feed intake increased body measurement and the higher percentage of respiratory illness when compared with all other groups .Where as no difference in water consumption, daily rectal temperature, respiration, feed efficiency, rumination and diarrhea between the groups A, B and C was observed. This study clearly indicated that the overall performance of group C, having eight numbers of calves is better than that of others A, having single calf and B, having four numbers of calves. The calves assessed in term of increased time spend in eating of fodder / concentrates with increased dry matter consumption, full social interaction and greater access to space in group housing reflects better welfare as compared to that in individual housing and calves kept in groups of more than four calves preferable from health and growth perspective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0971,T] (1).

118. Effect Of Levamisole On The Cholinesterase Inhibition By Trichlorfon In Rabbits

by Hafiz Muhammad Irfan | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: This project was designed in female rabbits to find out Trichiorfon- induced toxicosis and its interaction with Levamisole by inhibiting cholinesterase enzyme, taking account of the administration of levamisole before trichiorfon dosing. For this purpose, twenty female rabbits with weights of 1.0kg to 1.9kg were divided into four groups. Each group (A, B, C and D) containing five rabbits. Group 'A' was considered as control, group B was given trichiorfon 10mg/kg body weight (orally), while group 'C' was treated with levamisolelomg/kg (S/C) and then trichiorfon 10mg/kg (orally) after 30minutes of levamisole and the group 'D' was given levamisole 10mg/kg (S/C). After determination of butyryl cholinesterase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity and alanine aminotransferase activity, it was observed that Trichiorfon and Levamisole significantly inhibited butyryl cholinesterase enzyme at 10mg/kg body weight Where as Levamisole pretreatment did not potentiate the inhibitory activity of Trichlorfon at 10mg/kg body weight dosage whether the Levamisole was given subcutaneously or orally. The alkaline phosphatase activity was increased significantly with Trichiorfon and Levamisole had no significant effect on it while the effect on aspartate aminotransferase was non significant. The alanine aminotransferase activity was decreased significantly with Levamisole. The results also showed that the time interval between Levamisole and Trichiorfon dosage and route of administration did not affect the cholinesterase activity. No clinical signs and postmortem lesions were observed at 10mg/kg body weight dosage while Levamisole at 50mg/kg body weight, produced signs of toxicosis. In general, there was no adverse drug interaction between Levamisole and Trichlorfon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0975,T] (1).

119. Factors Affecting Hemagglutination Potential Of Avain Influenza Viuruses (H5, H7, H9 Subtypes)

by Mubashir Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to standardize hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests for AIV H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. These subtypes were propagated in 09-day old chicken embryonated eggs and after 72 hours post incubation the allantoic fluid (AF) was harvested and confirmed by spot agglutination test and by AGPT. While standardizing HA test maximum titers were recorded using 1% RBCs of chicken, human blood group Qe and dog using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a diluting agent for washing suspension of erythrocyte and by incubating the micro titer plates at 22c or 37C for 30 minutes or 40 minutes time period. The AIV subtypes eluted rapidly with increase in temperature with maximum elution observed within the time period of 8 hours. The live AIV provided much higher HA titer when compared with the titers obtained from AJV subtypes inactivated with formalin or Binary ethylene imine (BET). The BET was found to have little effect on HA activity as compared to formalin. While standardizing the HI test the best titers were obtained using 4 HA units of AIV antigen as compared to 1 HA and 8 HA units of antigen and by incubating the micro titer plates for 60 minutes period (time given for antigen-antibody reaction before the addition of erythrocytes suspension). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0984,T] (1).

120. Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Cryptosporidium Parvum In Dairy Calves

by Amar Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian agent of diarrhoeal disease affecting many mammals, including dairy calves. Calves infected with this enteropathogen may either be asymptomatic or manifest mild to profuse diarrhoea and dehydration. Keeping in view the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy calves, the current study was conducted to find out the prevalence in dairy calves, in and around Lahore and also to find out the most effective therapeutic measure to control the infection. For this purpose, 500 faecal samples (n=250 cow calves, n=250 buffalo calves) from different dairy farms and home-bred dairy calves were collected and analyzed by using faecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 25.6% Calves were shedding C. parvum with a slightly high infection rate in the cow calves 27.2% than buffalo calves 24%. The highest infection rate was recorded in 1-30 days age group of dairy calves as 50.81% and 42.02% in the cow calves and buffalo calves, respectively. The infection rate of C. parvunm in the dairy calves of cow breeds indicated relatively high infection rate in crossbred cow calves (28.18%) than the Sahiwal cow calves (20%) and Nih Ravi buffalo calves (24%). The pattern of oocyst shedding was negatively correlated with increase in age, highest in the 1-30 days age group and lowest in the age group ranging from 9 months to 1 year and above. Diarrhoeac calves were infected significantly higher than the nondiarrhoeac calves indicating a direct relationship of diarrhea with C. parvum infection. Diarrhoea was the highest contributing factor to infection in 1-30 days age group with 58.97% infection rate in both the cow calves and 48.88% in buffalo calves than the nondiarrhoeac calves of the same age group as 36.36% and 29.16%, respectively. The infection rate was not associated with the sex of the dairy calves and the infection rate was almost equal in both the sexes. The cumulative rate of infection was relatively high (30.28%) in the physically healthy calves than weak (21.5%) and emaciated (19%) calves. Milk suckling calves were infected almost two times more than the ones utilizing both milk and fodder and almost 7 times of the fodder eating calves. The calves kept on dirt yards were infected more (28%) than the ones on the paved floor (21 .11%). A significantly high infection rate was observed in the cow calves and buffalo calves having some sort of contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats (31.3%) and (25.80%) respectively, than the calves having very little or no contact with birds, rodents, dogs and cats as 19.27% and 12.12% in cow calve and buffalo calves, respectively. The results of the comparative efficacy of a.zithromycin and cotrimoxazole and kalvangi showed that azithromycin was the most effective of the three in treatingcryptosporidial infection in dairy calves under field conditions. It resulted in significant reduction in the oocyst shedding and consequently, better weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain compared with kalvangi and Cotrimoxazole. The efficacy of Kalvangi in weight gain may be due to its vitamins, enzymes and Nigellone and Thmoquinone acting as an immune system booster. The results of Azithromycin in the present study on the overall weight gain of calves was significantly higher than the other two drugs used in the study suggesting it as a drug of highest efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0985,T] (1).

121. Effect Of Bovine Somatotropin On Meat Production Potential And Meat Quality In Growing Buffalo Calves

by Abdul Ahad | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof.Dr Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effect of Bovine somatotropin on total weight gain, fortnightly weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass composition of buffalo calves. For this purpose, 16 male buffalo calves were involved in this experiment. They were kept at Animal Nutrition Center, Rakh Dera Chal. They were divided into four groups A, B, C and D with 4 animals in each group. The group A was given simple fodder ad libiti urn and the group B was given simple fodder ad libitiurn and was injected with recommended dose of bst hormone (125mg/animal) with trade name of Boostin 250 s/c at an interval of 14 days, while the animals of group C were given simple fodder ad hhitiurn + 1% b. wt. In group D animals were given fodder ad libitiurn + 1% b.wt. Experimental ration + bst injection s/c at the interval of 14 days. Daily fodder and feed intake was recorded. The weight of each animal was recorded after fourteen days. The research trial continued for 3 months. The feed efficiency of group A to D was 8.08, 4.89, 5.91 and 4.79 with an average daily weight gain of 0.3 11, 0.486, 0.619 and 0.711 kg, respectively. The dressing percentage was 47.04, 48.35, 48.59 and 49.76 for group A to D, respectively. The percentage of blood, heart and lungs were 4.66, 4.67, 4.69, 5.16 percent and 0.5, 0.47, 0.56 and 0.57 percent and 1.55, 1.23, 1.31 and 1.38 for group A to D, respectively. The percentage of liver, spleen and kidneys were 1.8, 1.17, 1.61, 1.53 percent and 0.32, 0.44, 0.33, 0.42 percent and 0.33, 0.34, 0.32, 0.35 percent for group A to D respectively. The value for other components like mesenteric fat, feet, head and skin were 1.8, 1.84, 1.87, 2.4 percent for mesenteric fat and 3.04, 3.38,, 2.93 and 2.64 percent for feet and 5.03, 5.13, 4.67 and 4.57 percent for head and 10.5, 9.46, 10.32 and 10.0 percent for skin of group A to D, respectively. The percentage ratio of meat, bone, fat and other tissues were 49.5, 51.6, 50.5 and 49.5 percent, 34.15, 33.0, 34.5 and 35.15 percent, 7.5, 9.25, 8.0 and 9.5 percent 4.20, 3.85, 4.5 and 5.1 percent for group A to D, respectively. The chemical composition of meat revealed 74.37, 73.0, 74.87 and 76.30 percent moisture, 19.75, 20.75, 21.On and 20.50 percent for crude protein, 8.15, 9.0, 9.15 and 9.07 percent for ether extract, 6.08, 6.6,6.15 and 7.0 percent for ash in group A to D respectively. The costs of 1 kg meat production from group A to D were 123.40, 103.40, 98.97 and 107.00 rupees respectively. This revealed that minimum cost of meat production was in group C, where as calves in group A proved most expansive meat producer among the groups. The overall data suggests that use of bST has positive effect on meat production but economic feasibility is still questionable. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0996,T] (1).

122. Isolation And Characterization Of Clostridium Perfringens From Domestic Animals An Man In Punjab

by Waheeda Raana | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The objectives of present investigation were to isolate the Cl. perfringens from the domestic and zoo animals and human beings; characterize it through biotyping and pathogencity observation, and to develop a vaccine- from the common CI. perfringens isolate. For this purpose a total of 1240 samples of morbid tissues (faecal samples from animals and gangrenous tissues from humans). From cattle (n=180), goats (n=180), horses (n=250), camel (n=250), deer (n=28), wild beast (n=07), monkeys (n16), zebra (n10), elephant (n01), yaks (n=09), foxes (n07), jackals (n=08), baboons (n=08), and bears (n08) were collected and processed for isolation of CI. perfringens. In addition a total of 100 human cases; 83 wound swabs and 17 gas gangrene were also collected and analyzed bacteriologically. This study has indicated that Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens causes multiple clinical problems in animals and human beings as was indicated by good rate of its isolation from the examined morbid tissues and fecal samples. Of the total 1240 samples from various types of animals 297 (23.95%) indicated the presence of CI. perfringens. The overall isolation percentages of various types of CI. perfringens from the cattle, sheep goat, horses, camel, wild beast, deer, bear, jackal, zebra, monkeys, yak, elephant, baboon, foxes, and humans were 22.2, 12.2, 57.2, 8.0, 21.6, 57.1, 30.76, 37.50, 50.0, 50.0, 37.50, 33.33, 100.00 75.00, 57.14 and 18.00, respectively. Of the tested population of domestic animals, goats indicated the highest Cl. perfringens (57.2%) infection rate. In the zoo animal population, the elephant, baboons, wild beast, jackals, and foxes were shown to be heavily infected with various CI. perfringens types compared to other wild life animals species. Of the 298 isolates obtained through this investigation Cl. perfringens type D was obtained from 118 (39.7%) morbid samples of the domestic and zoo animals; CI. perfringens type A from 63 (21 .21%) samples, Cl. perfringens type B from 95 (31.98%) samples; and the CI. perfringens type E was isolated from 21(7.07%) samples. None of the samples indicated the presence of CI. perfringens type C. Of the total 100 samples from the humans, CI. perfringens type A was isolated from 14 (14%) and Cl. perfringens type D was isolated from 04 (4%). None of the human samples showed the presence of Cl. perfringens types B, C, or E. Of the 17 human gangrene tissue samples, Cl. perfringens type A was isolated from 09 (52.94%) samples and the Cl. perfringens type D was recovered from 02 (11 .76%) samples. However, all attempts to isolate Cl. perfringens types B, C or E from the human gangrene tissue/material samples were unsuccessful. The overall findings indicated that of the total 297 samples positive for various Cl. perfringens types 63 indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type A. Of those 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates, 49 were recovered from the animals; and 14 were isolated from the wound swabs and gangrene tissue material samples from humans. Of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates from the animals, 5 were isolated from cattle; 3 from sheep, 20 from goats; 5 from the horses; 10 from camels, 01 from the deer; 01 from the zebra, 01 from baboon, 01 from fox, 01 from the monkey, and 01 isolate was recovered from yak. Of the 14 isolates of Cl. perfringens type A from humans, 05 were recovered from the open wound swabs, and 09 strains of the organism were isolated from the gangrenous tissue material. Of the 297 samples positive for various Cl. Perfringens types, 95 animal samples indicated the presence of Cl. perfringens type B. These 95 isolates were obtained from cattle (n=22), sheep (n=10), goats (n=30), horses (n=03), camel (n=14), deer (n03), wild beast (n=02), monkey (n=02), zebra (n=02), yak (n=01), fox (n01), jackals (n02), baboon (n02) and bear (n=02). None of the human samples was positive for Cl. perfringens type B. Isolation of C/. perfringens type B from the zoo animals is a matter of concern for the human health, as the zoo visitors have the possibility to get infected with this organism. Of the total 297 positive samples of faecal and morbid tissues from various types of animals and human being Cl. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from 118 (39.7%) samples. Of these 118 isolates of Cl. perfringens typeD, 114 were obtained from various types of animals, and 04 isolates were from the humans. Of the 114 animal isolates, 10 from the cattle, 5 from the sheep, 44 from the goats, 9 from the horses, 27 from the camel, 4 from the deer, 02 from the wild beast, 02 from the monkey, 02 from the zebra, 01 from the elephant, 01 from the yak, 02 from the fox, 02 from the jackals, 02 from the baboon, and 01 isolate the bear. A total of 04 CI. perfringens type D isolates were recovered from gangrenous tissue and open wound samples from human beings. During this investigation 21 isolates of CI. perfringens Type E were obtained from domestic and zoo animals. Of the 21 isolates, 03 were from cattle, 04 from sheep, 09 from goats and 03 from horses, 01 from monkey, and 01 from the baboon. All the 21 isolations were from the fecal material of above mentioned animals. None of the human samples was positive for CI. perfringens type E. Alpha toxin was produced by all of the 63 Cl. perfringens type A isolates. Within the toxin producing isolates, there was no difference in the quality of toxin in respect to its lethality for mice, dermonecrosis effects for guinea pigs and cytotoxicity in the HeLa cells. The 07 fecal isolates were hemolytic, lecithinase (+), and positive for all biochemical characteristics of Cl. perfringens. Those isolates were not lethal for mice, indicated no dermonecrotic activity in guinea pig, and produced mild degree of cytotoxicity in the cell cultures. The activity of beta toxin obtained from 95 isolates of CI. perfringens type B isolates was determined using standard toxin-antitoxin test carried in mice and the standard serum neutralization test with antitoxin raised in rabbits. Within the toxin producing isolates, no difference was seen in the potential of toxin based on its lethality for mice. Epsilon () toxin activity of the 114 isolates of CI. perfringens type D from animals and 4 of the human isolates was also determined. Of the 114 animal isolate, 110(96.49%), and all the 4 human isolates produced E-toxin. There was no difference in the lethal potential of toxin for mice, dermonecrotis action in guinea pig and production of CPE in VERO cells. Iota (i) toxin activity of the 21 isolates of Cl. perfringens type E was also determined serum neutralization test in mice. Many isolates produced more than one major toxin. Ci. perfringens (CP) type A produced Alpha (a) toxin; CP type B produced Alpha (a), Beta (3) and Epsilon (E) toxins; OP type D isolates produced Alpha (a) and Epsilon (E) toxins, and OP type E isolates produced Alpha (a) toxin + Iota (i) toxin. The immunobiologic studies of isolates showed that many of the isolates were quite antigenic. Isolates of CI. perfringèns type D and B were found highly immunogenic as those isolates producing SN titer of 1:320. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0998,T] (1).

123. Efficacy Of Florfenicol Against Haemorrhagic Septic Aemia In Bufalo Calves

by Shoaib Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | D. /Sjeruar Afzal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqboo.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Two antibiotic preparations of florfenicol and amoxicillin were used in these trials against haemorrhagic septicaemia, singly and along with combination of a non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug (flunixin meglumin). Forty buffalo calves suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were selected and treated under field conditions. Weighed clinical score was recorded before and after treatment in each case on the basis of severity of clinical symptoms. Reduction in this score and recovery or death of animal was also noted. It was concluded that florfenicol was more effective than amoxicillin and the n of non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug reduced convalescence period and also jincreased the survival rate. Therefore florfenicol along with flunixin meglumin is ecommended as the successful therapy for haemorrhagic Septicaemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1004,T] (1).

124. Performance Of Lactating Beetal Goats Fed Diiferent Levels Of Concentrate Supplement Under Intensive Feeding

by Muhammad Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muammad Abdullah | Mr. Jalees Ahmad Bhatti | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Feeding management experiment was conducted during winter at Small Ruminants Training and Research Centre, UVAS, Pattoki on sixteen lactating Beetal goats divided into four groups four in each according to RCBD arrangement kept under tie stall intensive management for a period of thirteen weeks. Group A was given ad libitum roughages only (control), while groups B, C and D were given ad-libitum roughages and concentrate @ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of body weight, respectively. The data on daily DM1, milk production and composition, weight gain, blood bio-chemistry, feed efficiency and milk production economics was collected and analyzed. Concentrate ration prepared for feeding to goats was having 17.41, 83.26 and 71 % Crude protein, Dry matter and Total Digestible Nutrients, respectively. The Beetal goats fed on Ti, T2, T3 and T4 consumed daily 1.144±0.005, 1.322±0.005, 1.467±0.005 and 1.604±0.005 kg dry matter, respectively. Statistically significant (P<0.0 1) differences between treatments were observed. Highest milk production per day (771.34±5.54 ml) was recorded in T2, followed by T4, T3 and Ti. Statistically significant (P<0.01) differences in milk production between treatments were noted. The fortnightly weight gain in goats was 1.17±0.16, 1.16±0.19, 1.37±0.17 and 1.62±0.17 kg in treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Statistically analyzed data showed non significant (P>0.05) differences between treatments. The milk analysis performed in the milk testing laboratory of Animal Product Technology Department and goats kept on treatments Ti, T2, T3 and T4 showed milk fat contents of 4.65±0.13, 4.29±0.13, 4.42±0.13 and 4.67±0.13. SNF % in goats was 6.36±0.30, 7.47±0.30, 7.05±0.30 and 6.46±0.30, respectively. Non significant (P>0.05) differences in fat and SNF contents between treatments were observed. Blood sample were analyzed for "albumin, total protein, triglyceride, urea, blood glucose and cholesterol in the WTO quality control laboratory UVAS, Lahore. The blood albumen contents were 2.56±0.20, 2.38±0.20, 2.89±0.20 and 3.01±0.20 g/dl in goats on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Total Protein values were 8.25±0.19, 8.24±0.19, 8.11±0.19 and 7.80±0.19 g/dl and Triglyceride were 12.23±0.49, 15.00±0.49, 15.00±0.49 and 16.03±0.49 mg/dl in goats on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Mean Urea level was 1.35±0.04, 1.32±0.04, 1.36±0.04 and 1.45±0.04 mg/dl, mean Glucose level was 23.42±1.82, 30.28±1.82, 59.59±1.82 and 61.52±1.82 mg/dl and Cholesterol level was 74.91±3.17, 93.66±3.17, 88.26±3.17 and 110.81±3.l7mg/di in treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Feed efficiency was highest (0.59) in goats on Ti, followed by T2 (0.58), T3 (0.49) and T4 (0.46). The goats fed on T2 showed highest gross margin of RS. 9.17/litre of milk produced followed by Ti (RS. 8.98), T3 (RS. 7.51) and T4 (RS. 7.93). CONCLUSIONS It was concluded that different levels of concentrate supplementation improved the milk yield in lactating goats; however, the effect of supplementation on milk composition was non-significant. During winter season better performance of Beetal goats can be attained in terms of increased milk production, improved gross margin and more economically on 0.5 % concentrate supplementation in combination with roughage feeding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1007,T] (1).

125. Assesment Of Buffalo Semen By Reduction Assay

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: In this study twenty Nili Ravi buffalo bulls were used. Semen was collected once weekly and each collection comprised two ejaculates .. Total volume of the semen was observed using graduated tube and the concentration by Spectrophotometer. Both the ejaculates were pooled and a representative sample of each collection was evaluated for viability using MTT Reduction Assay, Eosin and Nigrosin Staining, Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test and Motility. The results of the study shows high correlation (r = 1.00) between the MTT reduction rate and the sperm viability. When the %age of MTT viable sperm cells were compared with the E&N, HOST and Motility a negative correlation was found suggesting the physiological difference between the tests. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the MTT reduction Assay is an objective test and more reliable than the other tests which are more subjective and can be influenced by the experience of the indivi~ MTT Reduction Assay is more reliable test for the assessment of viability as it is simple and inexpensive. The results of our study suggest additional advantages of this test in evaluation ofNili Ravi Baffalo semen. Many samples and its replicates can be measured in the same time. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where time, costs and practicability are important Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1014,T] (1).

126. Evalution Of Berseem Hay Based Total Mixed Ration In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves

by Sher Ahmed tareen | Jalles Ahmed Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The feeding management experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves raised on different levels of Berseem hay and concentrates at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Twenty four (24) buffalo calves of approximately same age (7-8 month) and body weight (77 kg) were randomly divided into four groups' six calves in each. The calves were kept in individual stalls and fed for 12 weeks on Berseem hay based Total Mixed Rations (TMR) having Berseern hay only (A), Berseern hay: concentrate ratio of 70:30 (B), Berseem hay: concentrate ratio of 50:50 (C) and diet D: Berseem hay: concentrate ratio (30:70). The data on Daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed analysis, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and comparative economics were recorded, analyzed and interpreted in the manuscript. The mean daily DM1 on treatment A, B, C and D were 503±0.16, 3.94±0.16, 3.67±0.12 and 3.12±0.11 kg, respectively. Daily DM1 showed increasing trend as the proportion of berseem hay was increased in the diets. DM1 was statistically highly significant (P< 0.01) between treatments. The mean wejght gain of calves on weekly bases was 2.48±0.13, 3.30±0,13, 3.89±0.l7and 4.46±0.21 kg for treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in weekly weight gain with the increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The weight gain data also showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) difference between treatments and weeks. The feed efficiency of the diets in different treatments was calculated considering the amount of feed consumed per unit of weight gain on dry matter basis. Mean feed consumption per kg of weight gain was 14.21±2.24, 8.37±1.04, 6.60±0.57 and 4.90±0.40 kg for calves on treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The diet D having inclusion of 70 % concentrate was found highly efficient and diet A having 100 % berseem hay was least efficient to cnvert it into one kg gain. The comparative economics calculation of feeding experiment showed that the calves on treatment D were able to produce highest daily gross margin of Rs. 40.75 followed by treatment C (Rs. 28.25), treatment B (Rs. 19) and on treatment A (Rs. 2.25/calf/day), respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in daily gross margin as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the diets and decreased with the increase in the level of Berseem hay in the diets. The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment A, B, C and D was 72.9 1±4.15, 78.79±2.15, 79.09±3.75, and 78.85±1.68 percent and mean crude protein digestibilities were 74.45±3.64, 73.51±4.62, 74.06±2.68 and 73.86±3.71 percent and mean ash digestibility vlues were 44.72±7.15, 45.35±4.16, 45.64±6.89, and 44.6 1±2.95 percent, respectively. Statistically non-significant differences were found in DM, CP and ASI I digestibility between treatments. CONCLUSION: On the basis the findings in the experiment it is concluded that the most efficient and economical feeding proportion of Berseem hay and concentrate is 30:70 on dry matter basis. It is suggested that Berseem hay and concentrate proportion of 30:70 is desirable to achieve higher growth rate. A ratio of 50:50 of Berseem hay and concentrate also resulted in handsome weight gain but it was relatively less efficient than treatment D (30:70). For fattening purposes in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves these combinations can be used according to the availability and prevailing prices of Berseem hay and concentrate. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1025,T] (1).

127. Effectis Of Supplementation Of Phytase On Growth Performance And Mineral Utilization (Ca, P & Zn) In Japanese Quail

by Muhammed Arshad Shad | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Two third of phosphorus present in poultry diets is in bound form (Phytate P) and is predominantly not available to poultry, as non ruminant species lack sufficient endogenous phytase activity. Phytate probably compromises the utilization of protein/amino acids, energy and minerals including calcium, ferrous, zinc, magnesium, potassium & many others and can contribute to mineral deficiencies. Dietary inclusion of phytase enzyme economically generates blo-available phosphorus and reduces the Phosphorus load on the environment. Phytase is the requisite enzyme to degrade phytate and notionally phytase has the capacity to hydrolyze the phytate and release inorganic Phosphorus. Keeping this thing in view a 28 day long feeding trial was planned. A total of 900 day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments each having 10 replicates of 15 birds. Six corn soybean based diets (A & B) were formulated in such a way that they contained similar levels of CP and ME (24% & 2900 kcal/kg) but were different in Phosphorus & Calcium levels. Diet A was in accordance with the nutritional requirements of Japanese quail as specified in NRC (1994) whereas, diet B had lower levels of total Phosphorus and Calcium(0.20% and 0.15% less relative to diet A respectively). Five levels of phytase enzyme (250, 500, 750, 1000 FTU/kg of feed) were added to diet B to obtain diets C, D, F and F, respectively. Body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, zinc retention, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash%, toe ash%, deficiency symptoms, mortality % and economics of all experimental rations were the parameters considered. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The difference among the treatment means were tested by Duncans's Multiple Range (DMR) Test. The results of the experiment revealed that body weight gain, feed consumption, FCR, plasma calcium and phosphorus, keel /shank length, dressing %, tibia ash% and toe ash% of groups E and F were significantly higher than group B, C and D, (P<0.05).The performance of group E and F was comparable with that of group A (+ve control). No significant difference was observed between these groups. As far as deficiency symptoms and mortality is concerned, a large number in the groups B (39.30%), C (2 1.33%) and D (16.00%) was found suffering from leg weakness, swollen joints and crippled legs. A higher mortality rate was also recorded in these groups (4.67%, 3.33% and 2.67%, for groups B, C and D, respectively). Very less number of birds showed the above mentioned signs in groups A (0%), E (8.67%) and F (3.33%), similarly mortality percentage in these groups also remained considerably low (1 .33%, 2.67% and 2.00% for groups A, E and F, respectively). Data pertaining to economics of the experiment revealed a considerably low cost of feed/kg of the group F than all the other treatment groups. The difference between group F and A was calculated as Rs. 1.89. A large amount can be saved as profit if diets are formulated with out DCP and are supplemented with phytase ensuring optimum utilization of phytate. From the results of above experiment it is concluded that phytase supplementation ensures phytate degradation making available, the minerals and other nutrients chelated to it. Phytase supplementation not only facilitates the feed formulatin but also make possible the inclusion of ingredients which contain anti nutritional factor named, "phytate". This consequently results in considerably improved performance and ultimately higher profitability of the farm. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1038,T] (1).

128. Comparison Of Reproductive Efficiency Of Beetal Goats In Different Management

by Muhammad Younos | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof.Dr.Hafiz | Prof.Dr.Ijaz Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at two fanns (1) NH goat fann at Raiwind and (2) BN at Okara. The study consist the reproductive efficiency of beetal goats in different management systems. In this study we compared two management systems of goat production i.e. (1) seasonal (2) year round breeding were compared on the basis of reproductive efficiency and growth parameters, moreover cost effectiveness of the both systems were compared on the basis of their outcomes. In this study, reproductive and productive parameters of n = 72 adult goats + 2 bucks in each flock were collected and analyzed. Data regarding pubertal and twinning of their progeny born during a period of a year were collected and compared. Goats of same breed and comparable ages and body weight, body condition scoring were used in this study. Study was carried out at similar period of time for one year. The conception rate was higher at NH than BN goat fann. It was 0.809± 0.058 in BN and 0.88 ± 0.066 in NH respectively. The birth weight of male and female kids ofBN fann was higher than NH kids. It was (3.824 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids (3.513 ± 0.20 kg) in NH kids respectively. While the weight of female kids were (3.503 ±0.083 kg) in BN kids and (3.456 ± 0.10 kg) in NH kids. The age at puberty was higher at BN (245.3 ± 2.9 days) than NH goat fann (242.4 ±1.9 days). The kidding interval at BN was higher than NH flock. It was (314 ± 20 day) and (224.8 ± 0.915 days) days respectively. The post partum anestrous exhibited only in NH does, because in this fann the buck was free all around the year and after (50.0± 3.95 days) the does mate if they are in estrous, while in BN fann, bucks were free during the season. The body condition scoring (1-5 point) was higher in NH goats (2.44 ± 0.14) than BN goat fann (1.91 ± 0.11). The Body weight of does between both flocks were higher in BN (42.47 ± 0.92) than in N H goat farm (41.10 ± 1.9). The high concentrate feeding intake between two farms showed that the concentrate feed intake was higher in BN 491.5 ± 8.5 gm per day per goat than N H goat farm (146 ± 30 gm per day. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the reproductive efficiency of Beetal goats in N H goat farm was higher than BN farm~ because the seasonal breeding at BN has limited the kidding frequency. Where as~ all year round breeding was efficient and the kidding distribution almost doubled in the same year. The cost of feeding was higher in BN than NH goat farm~ because they provide concentrate daily~ but the cost of labour and miscellaneous was higher in NH than BN goat farm. The management of feeding~ green fodder was higher and there were sufficient green fodder for whole year in NH goat farm. The reproductive performance of Beetal goats can be improved by good managemental systems and all year round breeding. Research and development efforts can significantly improve reproductive efficiency of goats and simultaneously enhance the livelihood of the poor. Structuring the whole system via adapted reproductive techniques (thus allowing high levels of productivity). Findings of this study would be useful to determine the viability of systems on the basis of reproductive efficiency and may provide basic guidelines to establish goat farms in the future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1048,T] (1).

129. Clinico -Therapeutical Trials Of Lactic Acidosis In Small Ruminants

by Haq Aman Ullah | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: During the present study clinical examination of 200 small ruminants (sheep and goats) any breed, age and sex with the history of diarrhea was performed at the Outdoor Hospital, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore and adjacent areas. A total of 38 animals were diagnosed positive for the disease. Temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, rumen pH, serum pH, ruminal movements and ruminal protozoa of affected animals were studied before and after treatment with two drugs magnesium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate. It was found that rectal temperature, rumen pH, blood pH, ruminal movements decreased significantly in lactic acidotic sheep and goats before treatment as compared to control group. While increased pulse and respiration rate were observed in lactic acidotic group before treatment as compared to control group. Thirty diseased and ten healthy animals were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D each having ten animals. Group 'A" was provided with magnesium hydroxide at a dose rate of 1.11 g/ Kg body weight orally mixed in water at a rate of 450 g/ 3.5 liter once, group "B" was treated with sodium bi carbonate at a rate of lg/ kg body weight orally once, group "C" was kept as diseased untreated control and group "D" acted as healthy control. Mean values obtained before treatment were rectal temperature 99.74 F° + 0.67153, lOO.59F° 1 0.75580, 101.25 F° ± 0.49448 and 102.86 F° ± 0.30155 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Rectal temperature values after treatment were 102.47 F° ± 0.2 1294, 101.9 + 0.27849, 101.19 F°±0.41965 and 102.95 F° ± 0.16142 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean pulse rate values for group A, B, C and D before treatment were 100.6/mm ± 3.40008, 97.2/mm ± 4.24745, 103.6/min ± 2.5636 and 86.3/min ± 1.85626 respectively while after treatment were 88.55/min ± 1.77768, 92/min ± 1.75123, 94.3/min ± 1.90938, 86/min ± 1.06460 respectively. Mean respiration rate values before treatment were 24.1min ± 0.86218, 28.2/min ± 2.52020, 24/min ± 0.84329 and 19.8/min ± 0.59256 for group A, B, C and D respectively while after treatment were 20.55/min ± 0.78953, 22.8/min ± 0.80001, 24.5/min ± 0.79234 and 20.7/min ± 0.66751 respectively. Mean rumen pH values obtained before treatment were 4.43 ± 0.14533, 4.49 ± 0.13287, 4.76 + 0.17075 and 6.39 ± 0.13699 while after treatment were 5.66 ± 0.17125, 5.41 ± 0.13506, 4.94 ± 0.18683 and 6.42 ± 0.08035 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean d pH values obtained before treatment were 7.18 ± 0.04667, 7.1 ± 0.05375, 7.21 ± 0.05044 and 7.33 ± 0 .02808 while after treatment were 7.37 ± 0.02806, 7.25 + 0.02390, 7.18 ± 0.03837 and 7.41 + 0.0383 7 for group A, B, C and D respectively. Ruminal protozoa were completely absent in ruminal fluid of lactic acidotic group. Ruminal stasis was also observed in lactic acidotic group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1052,T] (1).

130. Molecular Detection And Speciation Of The Canme Piropiasm

by Isma Nazli Bashir | Prof. Dr.Zrafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Peter J.Irwin | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: An epidemiological study of babesiosis in dogs was conducted at Pet center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, for one year and information on age, sex and breed was gathered. It was found that from a total number of 6204, dogs up to two years of age were more susceptible than other age groups (2-4, 4-6 and above 6 years).The data regarding genders revealed that males were more prone to the disease than female dogs. As far as the breeds were concerned, crossbred dogs were more susceptible followed by Pointers, Alsatians, German shepherds and Bull terriors.Hot and humid months (June to September) have greater impact on the occurrence of disease. The study regarding identification of ticks revealed that Rhiphicephalus sanguinus is the predominant vector of the disease in Pakistan. Molecular studies were conducted to characterize and identify the species responsible for canine babesiosis in Pakistan. In this regard, a nested polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was employed on different specimens (Blood, Body tissues and Ticks). For this purpose blood samples were collected from twenty four chronically infected dogs and applied on the Flinders Technologies Associates (FTA) cards for transportation to Australia. Different body tissues (Liver, Spleen, Kidney, Intestine, Bone marrow and Pancreas) were procured after euthanizing the two dogs and DNA was extracted, for further studies. Similarly, the eighty eight ticks were also collected from the infested dogs in the 70% ethanol for transportation to Australia. A nested PCR-RFLP assay was used for the detection and differentiation of Piroplasm species on the basis of the 1 8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay potentially amplified and identified Babesia gibsoni as the main canine piroplasm. Similar assays on the DNA extracted from body tissues and ticks revealed Babesia gibsoni as the main piroplasm. The PCR was found to have a high detection limit (equivalent to i0 dilution), when using the DNA extracted from blood applied to FTA cards, body tissues and ticks. A new technique was developed for extraction of DNA from FTA cards and tick, in this technique, instead of using the FTA specified punching machine, we used scalpel blades, and so the rest of the chemicals used are'generally and easily available. The same protocol was used for extraction of DNA from ticks, only chemicals used in different quantities with different spinning times. Both of which, resulted in cost reduction, less effort and speedy DNA extraction. The technique reported here has the potential to be standardized for routine DNA extractions from FTA cards and ticks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1061,T] (1).

131. Comparative Study On Physico-Chemical ,Microbiological & Chemical Adulterants Of Raw & Processed Milk.

by Qasim Raza | Prof.Dr. Muhammed Ayaz | Prof. Dr Muhammed Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural sareas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk. Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added. In addition to that microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer health Keeping in view this study the main object of this study is to determine the hysico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in raw and processed milk available in Lahore. The raw milk samples ware collected from local market of Lahore city Gawalas, Retail milk shops, Small Dairy Farms sale points and Milk Plants collection centers. A total of 80 samples of raw and 40 samples of processed milk were collected from Lahore Raw milk samples were collected from Retail milk shops and Gowalas at four different locations of Lahore city i.e. Defence, Allama Iqbal Town, Samanabad and Inside the wall city, from Small Dairy Farms sale points Sakhian pul and Shadera Town areas. Five samples were also collected from experimental dairy farm of UVAS and collection centers of 4 companies. UHT and Pasteurized milk samples of five different brands were collected from Lahore. A total of 120 milk samples were collected for Physico-chemical, Microbiological and Chemical Adulterants study. Physico-chemical, microbiological analysis and adulterants detection tests were performed in WTO Laboratory , University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Color, Taste and flavor of most of the samples were found normal in color, taste and flavor except a few samples of raw milk from shops and Gawalas. Temperature of raw milk was ranged from 4.80±0.096 °C to 30.48±0.611 °C. UHT brands were at ambient temperature and Pasteurized milk brands were stored at refrigeration temperature. Density in raw milk was ranged from 18.100±0.575 to 27.738±0.16203, lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk ranged from 26.142±0.088 to 28.222±0.3 15 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 26.280±0.527 to 27.377±0.147. The highest mean of freezing point recorded was -0.325±0.0 10 °C in Gawalas and lowest -0.542±0.003 °C observed in UVAS Dairy milk. URT milk ranged from -0.487±0.006 °C to -0.463±0.007 °C and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.480±0.002 °C to - 0.455±0.008 °C. Fat in raw milk ranged from 4.038-0.056% to 6.340±0.060% lowest was in shops and highest in UVAS Dairy milk. UHT fat ranged from 3.472±0.006% to 3.492±0.006% and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.452±0.020% to 3.495±0.005%. SNF in raw milk ranged from 5.386±0.13745% to 8.226±0.026% lowest in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk fat ranged from 7.465±0.033% to 8.082±0.09151% and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.563±0.125% to 7.905±0.023%. Protein in raw milk ranged from 2.131±0.060% to 3.162±0.017%, lowest was in shops and highest was in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk protein ranged from 2.99 1±0.026% to 3.2 10±0.038%, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from3.001±0.053 to 3.146±0.009. Lactose in raw milk ranged from 2.768±0.067% to 4.364±0.041%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy. In UHT milk lactose ranged from 3.827±0.011% to 4.107±0.050%, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.870±0.070 to 4.020±0.044. Ash in raw milk ranged from 0.512±0.017% to 0.786 ±0.004%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest in UVAS Dairy farm. In UHT ash ranged from 0.698±0.0 1 1% to 0.739±0.007%, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.689±.008% to 0.739±0.007%. Water added in raw milk ranged from 0 to 36.527±1.945%, lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest Gawalas milk. In UHT water added ranged from 5.939±1.094% tol2.229±0.407% in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 6.975±0.045% to 12. 150± 1.769%. pH in raw milk ranged from 6.726±0.019 to 7.052±0.027, lowest was in UVAS Dairy and highest was in Gawalas milk, In UHT milk pH ranged from 6.839±0.019 to 6.870±0.0 19, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.800±0.024 to 6.886±0.03 1. Acidity in raw milk ranged from 0.147±0.001% to 0.161±0.000%, lowest was in Gawalas and highest was in Dairy plant collection centers. In UHT milk acidity' ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003% and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.158±0.003% to 0.161±0.003%.To study the microbiological quality, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and S. aureus count were made. TPC in raw milk ranged from 2.9 x iO± 2.2 x i04 to 1.7 x l0 ± 8.1 x 10± 8.1 x 106. Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk, in Pasteurized milk TPC ranged from 5.0 x 10±l .2 x i04 to 6.8 x 10±2.3 x 104. Coliform count in raw milk ranged from 3.1 x i0± 3.0 X 102 to 4.4 x i05 ± 4.3 X i03. Lowest was 3.1 x i± 3.0 X 102 in UVAS dairy farm and highest was in Gawalas milk. In Pasteurized milk Coliform count ranged from 58±3.856 to 344±161.272. Staph aureus Count in raw milk ranged from 6.4 X l0±6.7 X 102 to 8.7 X 10±2.2 X i0 Lowest was in UVAS Dairy farm and highest was in Shops milk, in Pasteurized milk Staph aureus Count ranged from 61.87lO.901 to 276.62±105.178. All UHT brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform count and Staph aureus count. The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T). Kit. In raw milk the major adulterants found were Urea, Formaldehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, Neutralizers, Boric acid and QAC. All adulterants were found negative in the milk of UVAS dairy farm. In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and Hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that multiple factors can markedly affect the quality of milk. Water addition was one of the major adulteration present in every step of milk marketing. All the raw milk samples were found inferior for their Phsicochemical quality. In processed milk the fat percentage was in the normal range while other parameters were inferior. Microbiological contamination was also higher in raw and pasteurized milk samples. Adulteration of milk with chemicals such as caustic soda, urea, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, sugar and salt were also detected in raw and processed milk. The high microbiological contamination and presence of chemical adultrants in raw and processed milk showed that the milk constitutes a potential public health hazard. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1062,T] (1).

132. Development Of Ration For Increasing Milk Fat Percentage In Nili-Ravi Buffaloees

by Shiraz Nasim | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof.Dr.Muham | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was designed to see the effect of different rations on the milk production as well as milk fat percentage. For this purpose 20 Nili-Ravi early lactating buffaloes were selected from the existing herd and randomly divided in to five groups A, B, C, D and E. The animals were selected on the basis of their age and stage of lactation. The group A was treated with conventional ration (control group) while group B and C were supplemented with oil @ 3 % and oil + niacin @ 15 g / day / animal respectively. While group D and E were supplemented with megalac @ 3 % and megalac + niacin (1 5g/day/animal). Green fodder was given for the maintenance requirement of the animals, while the production requirements were met through experimental rations. The research trial was continued for three months at BRI, Patokki. Milk production was recorded daily. Milk composition was analyzed on weekly basis. The milk production among the different groups was 7.13 ± 0.59, 7.70 ± 1.30, 7.31 ± 1.02, 7.31 ± 0.81 and 7.46 ± 0.61 liters. Statistical analysis showed that the milk production in groups was similar and not significant between the groups but significant among the weeks. Milk composition in terms of fat and its fractions (Solid Non Fat, Total Solids) protein and lactose percentage will be determined on weekly basis. The economics of milk production on various rations was estimated. The milk fat contents of groups were 5.29 ± 0.35%, 6.23 ± 0.37%, 6.31 ± 0.21%, 6.67 ± 0.33% and 7.41 ± 0.3 1%, for control (A), vegetable oil (B), vegetable oil + niacin (C), megalac (D) (rumen bypass fat), and megalac + niacin (E) groups respectively. The SNF contents of milk were 9.31±0.23, 9.27±0.10, 9.20±0.14, 9.50±0.30 and 9.24±0.16 for groups A, B, C, D and E respectively, while the TS contents were 13.81 ± 0.49, 14.78 ± 0.34, 14.88 ± 0.15, 15.49 ± 0.59 and 15.84 ± 0.40for groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. The milk protein contents of different groups were 3.24 ± 0.07, 3.27 ± 0.07, 3.32 ± 0.08, 3.27 ± 0.10 and 3.32 ± 0.19 respectively for control, vegetable oil, vegetable oil + niacin, megalac (rumen bypass fat), and megalac + niacin groups respectively. The lactose contents of milk were 4.20 ± 0.05, 4.30 ± 0.08, 4.39 ± 0.12, 4.32 ± 0.08 and 4.46 ± 0.14 for groups A, B, C, D and E respectively Blood samples were collected on fortnightly basis. The blood samples were analyzed for the total proteins, urea, cholesterol and glucose level. Blood samples were collected from all animals of the groups. The serum total protein for different groups were 3.41±26.4, 3.14±42.47, 3.71±39.05, 3.36±35.02 and 3.17±38.07 g/l in buffaloes in groups A, B, C, D and E. The blood urea contents were 15.47±1.62, 22.03±2.26, 18.71±2.19, 19.65±1.34 and 16.60±4.59 mg/dl in buffaloes in groups A, B, C, D and E. The blood cholesterol contents were 139.79±41.47, 180.21±8.52, 164.77±7.79, 168.45±4.89 and 137.90±9.88 mg/dl in buffaloes in groups A, B, C, D and E, while the blood glucose contents were 44.96±2.66, 35.18±9.65, 43.57±3.24, 37.66±18.94 and 35.73±1.12 mg/dl in buffaloes in groups A, B, C, D and E. Body weight gain of the animals was recorded on fortnightly basis. The weight of the animals was recorded early in the morning. CONCLUSION Dairy animals of high genetic merit require nutrients in addition to those produced from ruminal fermentation to achieve their potential and maintain milk quality. Fat and proteinaceous feed supplements should be designed to achieve optimal microbial efficiency in the rumen and to maximize digestibility and absorption fats and proteins from the small intestine. The degree of protection of fat supplements from ruminal metabolism should be as high as possible in order to minimize their deleterious impact on microbial metabolic activities. Fat supplements should also contain a fatty acid profile that allows the composition of milk fat to satisfy the nutritional demands of consumers and to provide the special physicochemical properties that are required for manufacturing Buffaloes would be expected to exceed cattie in fat test by 1 to 3%, depending on breed and environmental conditions, but fat percentage of buffaloes appears to be influenced by environmental factors such as age and season of calving in about the same proportions as for cattle. The buffalo is less efficient as a milk producer, slower in reaching maturity, and subject to longer calving intervals than Sahiwal cattle in Pakistan. The high fat content of buffalo milk, coupled with larger fat globules, results in buffalo milk having higher utility on small farms than cattle milk because of ease in removal of the fat. It is concluded that as the animals were fed concentrate ration, there is milk fat depression in the milk of dairy animals. So to maintain the milk fat for most dairy producers, the most effective method of maintaining an adequate milk fat percentage in the milk is: o ensure that adequate fiber is in the ration, and o include buffers in the concentrate mix or total mixed ration of the dairy animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1076,T] (1).

133. Biological Health Markers Of Pregnant Crossbred Cows

by Shaista Abbas | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pregnancy is a period characterized by an increase in metabolic demand owing to changes in female physiology and the requirements for growing fetus. The changes that take place in various body systems during pregnancy result in an increased oxygen demand and changes in energy substrate utilization by dam, especially in the feto- placental unit. Pregnancy, though a physiological state, is a stressful condition that favors the oxidative stress and results in an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems of the body leading to potential damage. Metabolic demands associated with late gestation, parturition, and initiation of lactation has been supposed to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (RGS). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the dynamics of different biological health and metabolic markers in crossbred cows at different stages of pregnancy and non-pregnant stage. The study was carried out on 40 (age range between 4 and 11 years) clinically healthy crossbred cows (Sahiwal + Holstein-Friesian). The animals were divided into four groups; first trimester, second trimester and third trimester of pregnancy, and non-pregnant, with 10 cows in each group. The results revealed that serum total oxidants, ceruloplasmin oxidase and tri- iodothyronine_ concentrations were higher (P<0.05) during third trimester of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant crossbred cows. Serum arylesterase concentration was lower (P<0.05) during second and third trimesters of pregnancy compared to non-pregnant stage. The concentration of serum total homocysteine was higher (P<0.05) during third trimester compared to first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The concentrations of serum total antioxidants, paraoxonase, total thyroxine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were not different during pregnancy and non-pregnant stage in crossbred cows. In conclusion, the biological health markers specially total oxidant status, aryl esterase, ceruloplasmin oxidase, total homocysteine and tri-iodothyronine of pregnant crossbred cows can provide useful information about the progression of pregnancy and can also be used as management tool for the improvement of the health status during pregnancy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1087,T] (1).

134. A Study Of Plasma Homocysteine And Copper In Patients Of Coronary Artery Disease

by Umer Saeed Ansari | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was carried out on 60(56 males and 4 females) stable coronary artery disease patients selected from the angiography department of Shaukat Khanum Medical & research Laboratories. Only those patients were selected as cases, who verified angiographically, as having coronary artery disease. Thirty controls were also selected from angiography department of Shaukat KhanumMedical & research Laboratories. These were the patients who on angiography were verified as having normal coronary arteries. The patients were between the ages of 30-60 years. Mean age of the cases was 43.95±5.6 years and the mean age of controls was 42.87±7.27 years (Table 1). No significant difference was found between the distribution of patients age among cases and controls. Among the cases 93% were males and 7% were females. Various risk factors which predispose to coronary artery disease were also . recorded in our study such as history of hypertension, smoking, history of hyperlipidemia, family history of coronary artery disease, obesity, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum copper and plasma Homocysteine. Regarding the history of smoking, there were 51.7% smokers among the cases. In the control group only 30% were smokers and this difference was statistically not significant (p value 0.05) (Table 3). History of hyperlipidemia was present in 17 cases and 4 controls. The family history of coronary heart disease was seen in 33 cases and 11 controls. There was no statistical difference between the distribution or these factors among cases and controls (Table 3). The cases had a mean BMI of 27.38±3.75and the controls had a mean BMI of 27.l4±5.56. In the control group 63.30/0 were overweight and obese and among the cases 71.6°1<> were overweight and obese. A number of biochemical tests including serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum copper and plasma Homocysteine, were done on the study population. The mean serum cholesterol among the cases was 184.23±37.83mg/dl and in the controls it was 171.07±48.24mg/dl. No difference was found between the distribution of mean cholesterol levels in cases and controls (Fig 5). The mean triglyceride level was 207±84.71mg/dl among the cases and 160±71.27mg/dl in controls. The difference was statistically significant (Fig 6). The principal observation of this study is that mean plasma tHcy of cases was significantly higher (15.21±2.67Ilmol/l) as compared to controls (10.88±1.88Ilmol/l) (p value <0.01) (Fig 7). The other major observation was that there was a significant difference in the distribution of serum copper among cases and controls when serum copper was divided into groups (Table 8). This study observed more patients with conventional risk factors in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects (n=36) than the patients having low Homocysteine level (n=54). In spite of this no association was found between hyperhomocysteinemia and these risk factors except serum copper (p value <0.01). The mean serum copper in subjects with normal plasma Homocysteine level was 81.96~g/dl and in the patients with hyperhomcysteinemia it was 1 00.82~g/d1. A positive correlation was found between serum copper and plasma Homocysteine (r=0.44) Coronary artery disease is associated with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in our study and it shows a positive correlation with serum copper. It does not show any association with other risk factors. Since hyperhomocysteinemia is commonly seen in our patients, it is prudent to manage these subjects with vitamin supplements and adequate nutrition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1094,T] (1).

135. Nutritional Evaluation Processing Ang Utilization Of Rumen Contents For Livestock Feed

by Azmat hayat Khan | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Saima | Mr.Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The cost of feed, as percentage of total production costs, accounts for about 5 0-60% of ruminant feeding systems. According to estimates, Pakistan is deficient by 40 and 80 percent in forage and concentrate feeds. For economical production of balanced feed for livestock, poultry, fish and pet animal, non-conventional feed resources need to be explored to find solution to the existing gaps. For this purpose the present study was conducted to determine the nutritional profile, processing and utilization of rumen contents in buffalo feed. The study was conducted in three phases. In phase one, bovine rumen contents were collected from the slaughter house near Bakar Mandi and were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory, UVAS, Lahore. In phase two, rumen contents were ensiled with wheat straw, with and without addition of 5% molasses for a period of 60 days at Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Proportion of rumen contents and wheat straw were 1:1 on DM basis. Wheat straw was also treated alone by reducing its DM to 43% with water and by addition of 5% molasses. The pH of silages of rumen contents and wheat straw, with and without molasses were 4.8 and 4.92, respectively. The silage containing rumen contents and wheat straw showed a little increase in C.P. In phase three, a metabolic trial was conducted at Buffalo Reaearch Institute, Pattoki, in which 15 male buffalo calves were fed the diets having total mixed ration (TMR) (Ti), TMR with 43% DM in wheat straw (T2), 50% TMR plus 50% ensued wheat straw and rumen contents (T3), TMR with 5% molasses in wheat straw (T4), and 50% TMR plus 50% ensued wheat straw with rumen contents and molasses (T5). The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by Duncan's Multiple Range test. Among the treatments containing ensued rumen contents, DM intake, DM and nutrient digestibility as well as N retention were significantly (P<O.05) higher for silage without molasses treatment. However, the digestible energy (D.E) was significantly (P<O.05) higher for silage treated with molasses. When means were compared there were significant differences among all treatments for DM intake, DM, CP, CF, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility, D.E and N retention but not for T5 and T3, T4 and T2 and T2 and Ti in case of DM intake and EE, NDF and ADF in case of digestibility. It was concluded that rumen contents could replace 50% of conventional TMR without any adverse effects on digestibility and health of buffalo calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1096,T] (1).

136. Studies On Levels Of Calcium And Phosphorous In Sheep And Goats Of Different Eclogical Zones Of Punjab

by Muhammad Ilyas | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: To determine the values of Calcium and Phosphorous in blood of Sheep and Goats of Centeral Mix Zone (Lahore, Kasur and Okara) and Cotton Zone (Sahiwal and Pakpattan), about 1000 blood samples were collected. In addition to blood, samples of feed, fodder, soil and water were also collected from same sites. Species under the study were sheep and goat. Sampling was done in two seasons i.e., summer and winter. For blood collection, animal were subdivided in two groups i.e., adult and young stock. In Sheep and Goats 50% samples were taken from adult animals and 50% from lambs and kids. Heparin was used as anticoagulant in blood samples. By using centrifuge machine blood plasma was separated and preserved in freezer. Feedstuff and soil samples were dried in oven and ground to 1mm particle size by using Willy mill. Water samples were given no treatment except filtration. Plasma samples were digested by using 10% TCA, whereas soil and feedstuff samples were subjected to wet digestion. After dilution all samples were run in atomic absorption spectrophotometer for estimation of Calcium and Phosphorous. The mean plasma calcium values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.15±0.5, 8.73±0.45, 10.08±1.23, 10.12±1.3 and 8.99±0.76 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.18±1.1, 8.83±0.98, 9.96±1.22, 10.6±1.32 and 8.77±0.76 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for kids in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.15±1.21, 8.73±1.12, 10.1±1.67, 10.1±1.78, 8.99±1.13 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for kids in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.18±1.13, 8.83±1.11, 9.96±1.23, 10.6±1.76, 8.77±1.45 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.24±1.34, 9.26±1.22, 10.1±1.43, 9.74±1.1 and 8.4±0.98 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 9.09±1.1, 8.80±0.99, 10.1±1.56, 10.2±1.58 and 8.93±0.99 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for Lambs in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 9.24±1.21, 8.88±0.98, 10.0±1.76, 10.2±1.88 and 8.71±1.34 respectively. The mean plasma calcium values for lambs in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 8.84±0.98, 8.60±0.89, 9.98±1.13, 10.1±1.88 and 8.81±0.95 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 5.19±0.5, 6.10± 0.45, 4.84±0.34, 6.33±0.34 and 6.02±0.65 respectively. The mean plasma phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 5.3 1±0.45, 6.12±0,56, 4.81±0.34, 6.29±0.75 and 6.00±0.67 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Sheep in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in winter season are 4.95±0.45, 6.16±0.80, 5.07±0.56, 6.4±0.8 and 5.79±0.55 respectively. The mean plasma Phosphorous values for Goats in Kasur, Lahore, Okara, Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts in summer season are 5.56±0.54, 6.19±0.65, 4.72±0.43, 6.38±0.74 and 6.17±0.8 1 respectively. The Phosphorous is present in normal range in the plasma of goats in the districts of Kasur, Okara and Pakpattan in the winter and summer seasons but the Lahore and Sahiwal districts are deficient in winter and summer seasons. The calcium is present in normal range in the plasma of sheep in the districts of Kasur, Okara and Pakpattan in the winter and summer seasons but the Lahore and Sahiwal districts are deficient in winter and summer seasons. The oat fodder, jantar, maize fodder, sorghum fodder, wheat grains, corn grains, oat grains, rice grains, wheat straw, wheat bran, rice husk and feeding plan like sorghum plus wheat straw are deficient in calcium in all the district of both zones but the grasses, barseem fodder, toria fodder, millet fodder, lucern fodder, sawank, kasni, Cotton seed cake and feeding plans like grazing, barseem plus wheat straw are normal for calcium concentration for all districts in both of the zones. All the districts are in normal range for calcium concentration in soil. Water mean calcium values were found higher in Sahiwal (3.42 ppm) district as compared to Lahore (2.65 ppm) district. The Phosphorous is present in normal range in the plasma of goats and sheep in all the districts in the winter season and summer season.The grasses, barseem fodder, toria fodder, millet fodder, jantar, lucern, sawank, kasni maize fodder, sorghum fodder, wheat grains, corn grains, oat grains, rice grains, wheat bran cotton seed cake, grazing and feeding plans like barseem plus wheat straw, sorghum plus wheat straw are normal or marginal normal but the oat fodder, wheat straw and rice husk are deficient in phosphorous for all the districts of both zones. The Okara and Sahiwal districts are in normal range for phosphorous concentration but the Kasur, Lahore and Pakpattan are marginal deficient for phosphorous concentration. Water mean phosphorous values recorded in this study were higher in the Pakpattan (123 ppm) district and lower in Lahore (24.2 ppm) district. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1112,T] (1).

137. Nutritional Evaluation Of Sorghum At Different Stages Of Growth

by Shahid Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique | Mr. David McGill | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pakistan's economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock production. Fodder crops cover 16 to 19% of the total cropped area in the country. The country is still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons) and digestible protein (1.76 million tons), which is still not sufficient to meet the feeding requirement of livestock in the country. The shortage of fodder is a major limiting factor for livestock growth. A study was planned to focus on nutritionally improved high yielding sorghum variety (JS2002) on two different topographically sites viz Okara and Bhakar districts. Initially the soils of the selected sowing sites were analyzed for its type and pH before sowing. The chemical composition of sorghum fodder was determined to assess the nutritive value at different cutting stage of growth in district Okara and Bhakar. Sorghum samples were analyzed for proximate analysis, macro minerals and In-situ digestibility using fistulated animals. The results of present study showed that average dry matter, moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash, NDF and ADF values from all the cuts of sorghum fodder were 24.29%, 75.56%, 8.5 1%, 28.26%, 2.34%, 7.5%, 62.95%, 61.04%, 38.41%, percent respectively from district Okara and were 23.48%, 76.53%, 7.95%, 27.5 1%, 2.23%, 8.25%, 61.04%, 37.04 percent respectively from district Bhakar. The dry matter, crude fiber, NDF and ADF also increase as plant gets maturity. The average In-situ digestibility at 24 hrs and 48 hrs from all the cuts of sorghum fodder were 67.53%, 78.5 1% and 67.16%, 77.90% from Okara and Bhakar respectively. In-situ digestibility decreases as fiber increases. The average Ca, P. Na, K values from all the cuts of sorghum were 0.40%, 0.11%, 0.05%, 1.86% in Okara district and were 0.32%, 0.14%, 0.03%, 2.02% for Bhakar district. The average yield of sorghum fodder was 21.73 t/ha in Okara and was 18.41% in Bhakar districts. A significant difference was seen in nutritive value of sorghum fodder from all the cuts from Okara and Bhakar districts. This differenc3e might be due to the temperature fluctuations, water availability and soil fertility. It was concluded that topographically the Okara district is better for growing sorghum fodder. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1113,T] (1).

138. Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Buffalo Breeds By Mitochondrial D-Loop And Microsatellite Analyses

by Tanveer Hussain | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Irshad Hussain.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: Pakistan has various dairy breeds of buffalo and cattle, but the genetic data of different buffalo breeds like Nih, Ravi, Nihi-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli is lacking which need to be established for their genetic characterization. Blood samples of unrelated true representatives of all breeds were collected from their respective home tracts i.e Nih Ravi (LPRI Bahadarnagar, Okara, BRI Pattoki, Rakh Dera Chahi, Lahore); Nih (Pakpatan, Minchnabad, Arifwala, Hasilpur); Ravi (Kamahia, Tandlianwala); Kundi (Tandojam, Tando Muhammad Khan, Dadu) and Azakheli (Directorate of Livestock Research & Development Station Surezai, Peshawar and Matta, Swat). DNA was extracted with the use of standard protocol and amplification of the mitochondrial D-loop region was done with specific primers in Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory in the department of Livestock Production. Sequencing of amplified portion of mt DNA D-loop was done. Sequences were analyzed with the help of software blast2sequence. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and comparison of 52 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of all buffalo breeds was done. Genetic distance and identity between five buffalo breeds were calculated and phylogenetic tree was constructed using BioEdit and MEGA 4.1 softwares showing the relationships between different haplotypes. Domestication events were also observed through network analysis. For further confirmation of the genetic structure of buffalo breeds 8 dye labeled microsatehhite markers (recommended by ISAG) were used and genotyping was done. Results were analyzed with the help of different softwares. Genetic diversity, Allele frequencies, observed and expected homozygosity and heterozygosity, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, F-Statistics and Gene Flow for all Loci, population's dendogram, Neis genetic identity and genetic distance/ diversity was calculated. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffalo population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1114,T] (1).

139. Comparision Of Mineral Profile In Lactating And Non-Lactating Nilli-Ravi Buffalo

by Mohammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saghir Ahmed Jafri | Dr. Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Nih Ravi is the well established breed of buffalo in Punjab. There are about 140 million buffaloes in the World out of which the largest buffalo population is in India, China and Pakistan. It is a multipurpose animal and fulfils milk and meat demand of mankind. In Pakistan it contributes about 74% of total milk yield. The annual rate of increase in buffalo population is 2.5% and increase in milk production is 3.5% in India and Pakistan. To fulfil the increasing demand of milk and meat, there is an immense need to improve the health status and production potentials of dairy animals. This can he achieved only if we are abreast with physiological norms, the disturbance of which lowers productivity. There are numerous problems of health, reproduction and milk production of Nih Ravi buffalo. Despite this very little information is available on blood chemistry of buffalo belonging to different agro-clirnatic conditions. There are various factors which play important role in their rate of production and minerals are one of those factors. Imbalances of minerals, produces deterimental effect on the performance of livestock e.g. Mineral imbalances lead to syndromes manifested in form of retarded growth, low production, late maturity, wasting disease, non infectious abortion, infertility, silent heat, retained placenta, dystokia and prolapse of vagina and uterus. To cope with the situation more research is required on the subject to locate the extent of mineral imbalances. The conclusive results will produce direct or indirect effect on the production and reproductive performance of livestock. The study is therefore planned to find out the serum mineral profile of lactating and non lactating buffaloes from different areas of Punjab and the effect of stage and number of lactation on mineral profile and to find the correlation of serum mineral profile with prolapse of vagina and uterus. To determine the mineral profile in lactating and non lactating Nih Ravi buffaloes 200 blood samples were collected from Okara, Jhelum and Lahore/Sheikhupura. The serum was separated from blood by centrifugation. Serum was analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron on spectrophotometer. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and the differences in means were tested by using (L.S.D. test) least significant diference test. The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on overall basis were subjected to statistical analysis and found non significant differences. However serum magnesium levels were found to be significant in lactating and non lactating buffaloes. The means values of serum minerals in buffaloes of various districts were subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and significant differences were found between districts (P <0.05) for sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron, while non significant differences were found for calcium and chloride (P>0.05). The mean values of serum mineral in lactating and non lactating buffaloes on the basis of lactation number were subjected to analysis of variance and L.S.D. test and found non significant differences for serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron, while serum phosphorus showed singificant differences on the basis of lactation numbers and stage of lactations. The differences in the mean values of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and phosphorus were found to be significant. While calcium and iron showed non significant differences within distircts. The serum sodium showed deficiency in Lahore/Sheikhupura district while serum potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and iron values were found in normal range in all districts. However serum phosphorus level were slightly higher in buffaloes of all the districts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1131,T] (1).

140. Epidemiology, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Giardiasis In Bovine

by Sultan Ayaz | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Giardia is a protozoan parasite of the small intestine that causes extensive morbidity worldwide. Dairy calves can excrete high numbers of the cysts of Giardia and the disease in cattle is clinically important and can reduce the growth performance of the ruminants. Giardia is the cause of non-viral diarrhoea in humans and is responsible for epidemics in the developed and developing countries. The cyst is the infectious form, is ingested in contaminated water or food or directly from faecal-oral contact. Giardia duodenal is the only species, which is found in both humans and animals including dogs, cats, bovines, pigs, sheep and equine. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence in bovines at Military dairy farm, Gawala dairy colonies, the Government dairy farm and Household dairies in Lahore. The effect of season, sex, and age on infection rate and shedding of the cysts were also noted, and association of the Giardia infection with normal and abnormal stools was also studied. Overall 2160 bovine faecal samples (720 buffaloes, 720 cattle and 720 calves) were examined during the study period from August 2007 to July 2008, amongst calves 362/720 (50.27%) were found to be positive. The highest prevalence was recorded in the Government. Dairy farm (68.33%) followed by Gawala colonies (55%), then the Military dairy farm (44.33%) and the lowest (34.44%) was recorded in Household dairies. Overall, highest (61.6%) seasonal prevalence was recorded during autumn, followed by spring (60.83%), then summer (53.4%) and the lowest (34.1%) was recorded during winter. The highest (65%) prevalence was reported during August and the lowest (3 0%) during December. Females were found to be more susceptible (56.74%) than males (35.1%). The prevalence was significantly higher (71.52%) in younger calves than the adults (36.11%) (P<0.05). Overall prevalence in cattle was 28.05%. The highest (41.67%) prevalence was recorded at the Government dairy farm, followed by Gawala colonies (32.72%), then the Military dairy farm (22.72%) and the lowest (15%) was recorded in Household dairies. The highest (35%) prevalence was found during August and the lowest (21%) during January. A significant difference (P<0.05) was noted. Females were found to be more susceptible (29.21%) than males (18.75%). The young calves had significantly higher (3 8.88%) prevalence as compared to the adults (24.44%). Similarly, the overall prevalence in buffaloes was found to be 20.11% percent. The highest (40.55 %), prevalence was recorded at the Government Dairy Farm, followed by Gawala colonies (30%) then Military Dairy Farm (21.11%) and the lowest prevalence i.e. 12.77% was reported in Household Dairies. A non significant difference was recorded P>0.05). The highest (46.66 %) prevalence was recorded during August, while, the lowest (6.66%) during November and December. Females were found to be more susceptible than males. Where as the prevalence in a younger buffalo was significantly higher as compared to the adults. Comparison of direct microscopic examination and PCR based methods was made at the Government dairy Farm, Gawala colonies; Military Dairy Farm and Household Dairies. By direct Microscopic examination prevalence was found to be 28.05% (202/720) in cattle whereas by PCR it was 31.11%. Statistically analysis showed that the prevalence by PCR was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the microscopic examination. It was observed that the highest prevalence of Giardiasis in bovines (Calves, Cattle and buffalo) was noted during August when the average temperature was 31.48°C. However the maximum and minimum temperatures were 35.37°C and 27.6°C, relative humidity 7 1.28% and rainfall was 3.2mm. The results of therapeutic trials by using albendazole, metronidazole, and mebendazole in cattle were calculated on the basis of reduction in the cysts count in the faeces after treatment. Efficacy of albendazole at three dose levels i.e. 1 Omg/kg.b.wt, 1 5mg/kg.b.wt, 2Omg/kg.b.wt was 86.33%, 98.5% and 100% respectively, on day 27 after treatment. Efficacy of the metronidazole at 5Omg/kg.b.wt, 1 OOmg/kg.b.wt, and 1 5Omg/kg.b.wt. Was 85.42%, 87.8% and 94.02% respectively on day 27. Efficacy of mebendazole at three dosage level i.e. 7.5rng/kg.b.wt, lOmg/kg.b.wt and 2Omg/kg.b.wt was 81.15 %, 87.32%, and 90.4% on day 27 after treatment. Among these drugs, albendazole at 1 5mg/kg.body.weight was found to be most effective drug in the elimination Giardia infection. The significant (P<0.05) decrease in the CPG count after treatment in all the three groups and dose levels was noted. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the level of leukocytes and of eosinophisl of infected cattle at day 06 and day 13 post inoculation. The leukocytes/lymphocytes count of Giardia infected cattle was 58.09%. Whereas, eosinophils constituted of leukocytes 9.69%. The total proteins of the sample were studied by sodium doedocyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS PAGE). The result indicated that 8 diffeent molecular weight peptide badns were identified with size ranges from 20 to 70 KDa and common bands reported at 20, 24 and 35 K Da Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1146,T] (1).

141. Dvelpoment And Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Detection Of Avian Influenza Strains In Pakistan

by Mirza Salman Saleem | Asso. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hanif | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The pathogenic Influenza A viruses (subtype H5N1, H7N2 and H9N3), are emerging avian influenza (AI) viruses that have been causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat. Some forms having zoonotic importance (H5N1 and H7N7). So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for detection of Influenza viruses. For the detection of avian influenza, HA (haemagglutination) test and HI (haemagglutination inhibition) tests are being used for long time. But studies have shown that Influenza virus shows variability and diversity and a high rate of mutation, which makes diagnosis difficult. For this reason the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays are considered to be a helpful tool. In this study design, a multiplex RT-PCR strategy was optimized and developed for the detection of AI virus (subtypes H5, H7 and H9). Primers were designed from sequence available Influenza Database (IVDB) for Pakistan and neighboring regions. The primers were annealed at different temperatures so as to optimize a temperature at which all three primers can amplify their respective subtypes. The results clearly indicated that a multiplex RT-PCR is a quick and efficient method for the detection and it is also economical as fewer reagents are utilized. The PCR products of the reaction can potentially be used to provide additional information about strain variation, either by restriction analysis or PCR product sequencing. The core objectives achieved are the development of an efficient and economical method for detection of avian influenza viruses by designing indigenous primers and optimization of a multiplex RT-PCR for the avian influenza virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1148,T] (1).

142. Determination Of Feed Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Indian Major Carps (Catla Catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala And Labeo Rohita) Reared Under Similar Feeding Conditions

by Farzana Abbas | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Artificial feed plays an important role in semi-intensive fish farming, where density of fish is high. Fish feed development is the least developed sector in aquaculture, particularly in third world countries. The formulation of nutritionally balanced and acceptable diet for fish feed is possible only if information regarding its digestibility is available. It is well known that these two parameters, nutritionally balanced diet and its digestibility, play a key role for the development of artificial feed for fish. Determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step in evaluating the potential of an ingredient for use in the diet of reared species. Information on digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients is very useful not only to enable formulation of diets that maximize fish growth by providing appropriate amounts of available nutrients but also to reduce fish wastes. The present study was therefore, designed to find out the digestibility of nutritionally balanced diet that contains cheap and easily available ingredients. The experimental and reference diets were evaluated for comparative growth and diet utilization efficiency in three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus rnrigala). The highest weight gain was observed in the Cirrhinus miri gala (20.57 ± 2.8 g & 0.7 ± 0.4 cm) followed by Labeo rohita (19.17 ± 3.02g & 1.1 ± 0.4 cm) and Catla catla (19.23 ± 3.Og & 0.4 ± 0.3cm), with the experimental or test diet (TD). The lowest growth was also observed in the Catla catla (14.6 ± 3.8 g & 0.2 ± 0.1cm) with reference diet (RD). Growth, FCR and digestibility of nutrients (Protein, EE, DE) were assessed. Proximate analysis (i.e., crude protein, gross energy, dry matter and marker estimation) of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. The highest protein digestibility was observed in Labeo rohita (83.4±3.5%) followed by Cirrhinus mn gala (82.2 ± 4.2) and Catla catla (81.8± 4.6%) The over all digestibility's of nutrients was higher for experimental diet in three fish species i.e. crude protein (84.4 ± 2.1), dry matter (33.3 ± 8.4), crude fat (82.1± 3.1) and gross energy (61.0 ± 5.1). Nutrient digestibility of reference diet were lower (crude protein 77.2 ± 1.3, dry matter 53.0 ± 3.0, crude fat 78.7 ± 0.58 and gross energy 58.3 ± 4.5) as compared to the experimental diet. Similarly the FCR and FCE values for experimental diet (3.1 ± 0.12 and 32.4 ± 0.69) were better than the reference diet (3.8 ± 0.06 and 25.6 ± 0.58). Among three fish species the Cirrlzinus miri gala has better FCR and FCE (3.4 ± 0.57 and 29.6 ± 5.1) followed by Cat/a catla (3.5 ± 0.42 and 29 ±.0 4.2) and Labeo rohita (3.5 ± 0.49 and 28.5 ± 4.95), respectively. FCR and FCE ratios for reference diet was the lowest in the Labeo rohita (3.9 and 25.0), whereas Cirrhinus mrigala and Cat/a cat/a showed similar ratios (3.8 0 and 26.0), respectively. Key physico-chemical parameters viz, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, were regularly monitored during the study period. All the parameters showed positive significant correlation with each other except DO which showed negative significant correlation. The correlation of physico-chemical parameters with growth was negatively significant whereas positive correlation was observed between DO and growths indicating that DO have a significant effect on the growth. The over all results showed that the experimental diet (40% protein level) has better growth and nutrient digestibility as compared to the reference diet (24.5% protein level) which resulted poorer growth and digestibility values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1151,T] (1).

143. Effect Of Vegetable Oils Blend On Physico Chemical Sensory Characteristics Of Low Fat Ice Cream

by Gohar Abbas Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammed Abdullah | Dr. Jalees | Muhammed Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Ice cream is the most popular dairy product and equally liked by people of all ages. Milk fat is important to ice cream because t increases the richness of flavor, produces a smooth characteristic texture, gives body to the ice cream and contributes good melting properties. intake of milk fat has been associated with coronary heart disease. Vegetable Cats are used extensively as fat sources in ice cream. Palm oil having low melting point and high iodine value which is also used in ice cream manufacturing as source of vegetable fat. In this research work of ice cream manufacturing, milk fat was replaced with palm oil and sunflower vegetable oil to find out the optimum level at which milk fat could he replaced with vegetable oil blend and to develop a more health friendly ice cream which has lower level of saturated fatty acids and no trans fatty acids. The experiment was involved in making five types of ice cream and fifteen batches of ice cream were prepared. Mix was heated to 80 °C. homogenized in a clean and sanitized double stage homogenizer. Pasteurized and homogenized mix was cooled immediately to 4 °C and will be aged at this temperature for 24 hours. The mix was then frozen. Analysis of ice cream for chemical tests including pH, acidity, fat, protein, ash, total solids and physical tests including color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability, physical parameters of ice cream for whippingability, hardness, overrun measurement, melting test, viscosity and storage study was determined. The data obtained was statistically analyzed to find out the effect of treatment and storage intervals. Compositional attributes like fat, protein, ash and total solid contents were not influenced by the addition of vegetable oil blend at all levels i.e from 25% to 100% replacement. Compositional attributes were not influenced by storage period of 60 days. Addition of vegetable oil blend did not have significant effect of pH and acidity of different treatments. During storage of 60 days pH slightly decreased while acidity increased non significantly. The addition of vegetable oil in different treatments of ice cream tended to decrease the whippingability with increase levels of vegetable oil blend. Whippingability decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. Decrease in whippingability may be due to increased level of vegetable oil blend in ice cream. Overrun varied between different treatments of ice cream .The maximum level of overrun was observed in T2 (81.91) and minimum level in T4 (65.11). Decrease in overrun may he due to increased level of vegetable oil blend in mix of ice cream. Effect of storage on treatments was significant. The interaction between treatments and storage was also non significant. Melting resistance varied between different treatments of ice cream and maximum level of melting resistance in T2 (45.83) and minimum level in T0 (2 9.83). l) Decreased in melting resistance may be due increase level of vegetable oil blend in mix of ice cream. Flavor of different treatments of ice cream varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (8.08) and minimum in T4 (6.74). Flavor slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. Statistical data for color of different treatments of ice cream indicated that all treatments varied significantly among each other and the maximum score for flavor was in T2 (8.97) and minimum in 14 (5.64). Color slightly decreased throughout storage period of 60 days in all treatments. The mean scores for taste of modified vegetable fat in different treatments of ice cream showed that maximum level of score of taste was in 12 (8.23) and minimum in 14 (5.89). Decline in flavor score may be due to increase in modified vegetable oil in ice cream. Overall acceptability scores were affected significantly with different treatments of ice cream with modified vegetable fat addition and storage interval and also significant. Judges placed 12 (8.08) at the top which differed significantly with other treatments of ice cream while the lowest mean overall acceptability scores were assigned to '1,4 (5.77). Storage also had significant effect on overall acceptability scores. The main objective of this research work was to replace milk fat with vegetable oil blend in the production of ice cream. Replacement of milk fat at 12 level i.e (50% milk fat and 50 % vegetable oil blend) did not have adverse effect on fat, protein,ash, total solids, pH and acidity of ice cream. As evident from the sensory scores T2 obtained maximum score for color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability and did not influence significantly from control. It is concluded that satisfactory quality ice cream can be manufactured by replacing 50% milk fat with 50% vegetable oils blend Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1152,T] (1).

144. Breed Characterization Of Red Sindhi And Tharparkar Cattle Breeds By Mitochondrial D-Loop And Gytochrome

by Nabeela Akhtar | Mr. Tanveer Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Livestock plays an important role in economy of Pakistan. Different livestock animals used for for meat, milk, draught, and sports. The genetic data of different cattle breeds like Red Sindhi and Tharparkar is not available which needs to be established for their genetic identification, conservation and to find their genetic diversity among them. Blood samples of pure bred animals were collected from their respective home tracts. The Red Sindhi cattle samples were collected from (Barani Livestock Production Research Institute, Kherimurat, Attock, Govt. Red Sindhi Cattle Breeding Farm, Tando Muhammad Khan and Department of Livestock Management, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam) and Tharparkar cattle samples were collected from (Department of Livestock Management, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Tharparkar cattle Farm at Nabi Sar Road and from Tando Qaiser in Sind). DNA was extracted with the standard protocol in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory of Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Specific primers were designed by using special softwares Primer 3 for mitochondrial D-loop region and Cytochrom b gene from NCBI accession no. AF492350. Then after primers optimization PCR amplification was done. Then sequencing of target fragments was carried out. Sequences were alligned with the help of software blast2sequence. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP5) were identified and comparison of 5 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of two cattle breeds was done. Sequences were analyzed and compared with already reported sequence of Mitochondrial DNA of Bos indicuss, Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis available at NCBI. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4.1 software (http://www.megasoftware.net/MEGA4.1.html) showed that Pakistani, European and Asian cattle are genetically same but different from Buffalo. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of cattle population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future. This work is very helpful about breed characterization of two cattle breeds (Red Sindhi and Tharparker) and developing understanding about genetic architecture of cattle breeds as present study conclude that six SNPs were present in both breeds, four private to Red Sindhi and 22 were private to Tharparkar. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1155,T] (1).

145. Prevalence Of Cestodes And Comparative Efficacy Of Niclosamide, Mebendazole And Fenbendazole In Pet Dogs

by Muhammad Shahid | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cestodes infestation in pet dogs in district Lahore and to evaluate the efficacy of niclosamide, mebendazole and fenbendazole against them. For this the samples were collected from three different clinics in Lahore for a period of 3 months. A total of 400 samples were collected. Three types of cestodes were identified (E.granulosus, T.hydatigena and D.caninum). The highest prevalence revealed was that of T.hydatigena and the lowest was of D.caninum in pet dogs. For the drug trials, 32 dogs were divided into four groups named group A (niclosamide), group B (mebendazole), group C (fenbendazole) and group D (positive control). The sampling was performed on day 0, 7 and 21 & the treatment with each drug was made on 0 and 7 days. Later on the reduction in EPG and the calculation of efficacy revealed that mebendazole is the best drug among the three drugs used and the efficacy of fenbendazole was found to be very poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1164,T] (1).

146. A Comparative Study On Clinico -Hemotological & Therapeutic Trails In Indigestion & Lactic Acid In Small Ruminents

by Muhammed Abdul Basit | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The Indigestion and lactic acidosis are most common non infectious managmental problem in small ruminants that have been causing global concern as a potential threat. Some cases shows the clinical signs very early while some shows late clinical signs most of which arc common among these two diseases. So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for differential diagnosis and quick response of the therapeutical agent. It was found that rectal temperature, Ruminal fluid pH, and ruminal movements decreased significantly in Indigestion and lactic acidosis in sheep and goats before the treatment in comparison to the control group. On the other hand it was observed that pulse and respiration rate were increased in both groups D-l and D-2 as compare to control group. In present study design, 2 groups of animals were designed for Indigestion and lactic acidosis (I for each disease). Each group was divided into 4 sub group each comprising 10 animals (sheep and goats). The group 1-1 of D-l was provided with Acetic Acid Vinegar 500-800 ml per animal per oral while 1-2 of D-l group was treated with Stomach powder @ 50-70 grams per animal per oral. Similarly sub group LA-l of D-2 was treated with sodium bicarbonate 5% 200-3 00 ml per animal intravenously and sub group LA-2 of D-2 group was provided with sodium bicarbonate @ 40-60 grams per animal per oral. On the other hand sub group 1-3 of D-l and LA-3 of D-2 was kept as diseased untreated control and subgroup 1-4 of indigestion group and LA-4 of Lactic acidotic group was kept as healthy control. Mean values obtained after treatment for D- I group (Indigestion) were rectal temperature increases more significantly in I-I than that of 1-2 while pulse rate of 1-2 sub group was significant than I-i. Respiration rate change was also significant in I- I sub group. Blood pH of 1-2 was significant while ruminal fluid p11 increases more significantly in 1-1. On the other hand mean values obtained allcr treatment for D-2 group (Lactic acidosis) were rectal temperature and pulse rate changed significantly in LA-i sub group. Respiration rate change was significant in LA-2 sub group Blood pit of LA-i & LA-2 in similar range while ruminal fluid pH increases more significantly in LA-I that LA-2 sub group. Ruminal protozoa were not seen in ruminal fluid of both groups. Ruminal movements was rarely observed in indigestion group and not observed in lactic acidotic glol''). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1167,T] (1).

147. Staphylococcal Coagglutination Test For Rapid Detection Of Foot And Moth Disease Virus

by Baitullah Khan | Dr. Atif Hanif | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious, viral disease of cloven hoofed animals and causes high economic losses. Rapid detection of FMD is necessary to control the disease from spreading. Although several reliable tests like ELISA, CFT' and PCR already exit but none of them applicable in field conditions. The aim of this study was to optimize rapid, economical and sensitive test for the detection of FMD. For this purpose rabbits were used to raise immune sera against FMD virus with one uninnoculated control. Immune sera collected from these rabbits at different time interval and presence of antibody was determined by using AGPT. Immune sera were then conjugated with satbalized and inactivated staphylococcus aureus cell using different dilutions. Cell wall of S. aureus contains Protein A which naturally binds with Fc portion of IgG leaving the Fab portion to interact with antigen. In presence of homologues antigen causing agglutination was seen with nacked eyes. Light blue background was found best while observing results. The coagglutination test was applied on FMD known antigen. Clear agglutination on slide was observed by mixing equal quantity of COAT reagent and its respective antigen. Total 40 vesicular fluid samples from FMD infected animals were tested with COAT, in which 38 yielded positive results and the remaining two yielded negative results. COAT reagents were also tested against PPR virus depicting negative results. COAT was found specific for FMD antigens. This test is quick and generates results within five minutes. This reagents of CAOT also applied on two fold dilution of vesicular fluid from FMD infected animal and positive result were observed up to 1:32 dilution. This test is sensitive, specific, economical and rapid for detection of FMD. This test was successfully used for detection of FMD in filed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1176,T] (1).

148. Identidiation Of Genetic Susceptiblity Of Myopic Loci In Families From Punjab

by Maria Fareed Siddique | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Prof. Dr. Abu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a condition in which the eye cannot focus on distant objects and sometimes closer ones too. In past different authors reported different loci responsible for myopia. They used specifically synthesized markers for different loci and after conducting linkage analysis through genotyping the myopic families were found to be linked for those loci, whereas, in some studies the cause of myopia was environmental. Till now, linkage studies have identified at least 18 possible loci in 15 different chromosomes associated with myopia, although some of these remain to be confirmed. In past, no study was done in Pakistan on myopic families for finding responsible myopic locus in this regard. So, more conclusive and well-designed studies on family pedigrees of individuals with high myopia were needed to be conducted in Pakistan by using genetic markers associated with myopia. In this study, a panel of microsatellite markers was developed. Blood samples were taken from six myopic families. DNA was extracted. PCR was performed for amplification of these I microsatellite markers on 34 samples belonging to 6 families. Genotyping analysis was performed for the PCR products of microsatellite markers. These results were studied by constructing and analyzing haplotypes on the basis of PAGE gel bands. Heterozygosity, homozygosity, polymorphism with all microsatellites markers, specific for two loci were checked. One family MYO-4 was found to be potentially linked with markers for the locus MYP-18. Another family MYO-5 showed potential linkage for the locus 2q37.2. Remaining four families (MYO-l, MYO-2, MYO-3 and MYO-6) were totally unlinked with all the markers (D14S984, D14S63, D14S999, D2S2202, D2S2968 and D2S338 for both loci demonstrating genetic insusceptibility of myopic loci in developing myopia and thus suggesting the complex genetic variability of myopia. This study will serve as the pioneering database for further research on identifying the genetic heterogenic complexity of myopia. Results of this study lead to development of a panel of microsatellite markers which can be used for linkage studies of more myopic families in Pakistan. This study opens the door for new geneticists as the results can also be helpful in carrying out genetic counseling for the myopic persons who are going to be married and specifically for those who have dominant inheritance. This was a preliminary study on myopic patients in Pakistan and data produced during this study will be helpful for drawing and determining genetic inheritance of expected babies with affected parents and siblings. Moreover this study can become the basis for further research investigations on myopics in Pakistan. CONCLUSION This was a pioneering study to develop panel of microsatellite markers for conducting linkage analysis and genetic characterization of myopic patients in Pakistan. As a result of this successful study a reliable, efficient and very informative panel of microsatellite markers was successfully developed which was capable to interpret individual diseased allelic identity, to be used for conducting linkage analysis through genotyping of myopics in Pakistan. This study will serve as the database for further research on identifying the genetic heterogenic complexity of myopia and also these successful results can be further analyzed in future on more myopics from different areas of Pakistan. This work provokes the need for further research purposes in identifying the genes influencing myopia that could help develop targeted treatments for children who are genetically predisposed to developing myopia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1177,T] (1).

149. Identification And Genotyping Of Vp1 Genses Of Fmd Viruses

by Atia Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Irshad Hussain | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Within two decades after its first report in 1954 from Pakistan, Foot and mouth disease has become endemic in the country and poses a serious threat to large as well as small ruminant population. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is prevailing in cattle and buffaloes and is caused by either 0, A, Asia-i serotype of the FMD virus in Pakistan. The present study was undertaken to study the mutation rate of FMD virus and also molecular typing of the strains prevalent in Pakistan was done. A total of 60 samples from buffalo and cattle were collected from five districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Okara and Sheikhupura. Soon after extraction of their RNA, all of them were reverse transcribed and then subjected to amplification by using different sets of the primers including universal as well as serotype specific primers. Then their VPI portions were amplified by using VP1 specific primers. Among 60 samples, 48 were positive with universal primers. Other 12 samples were not amplified with these primers hence not processed. Among 48 FMD positive samples, 24 were positive with serotype 0 specific primers, 16 with serotype Asia-i and remaining 8 were positive with serotype A specific primers. After their amplification, the amplicons were run on the gel. These amplicons were extracted by using DNA extraction kit. After their purification, they were sent to Macrogen® (Seopl, Korea) and Centre of Excellence for Molecplar Biology, Pakistan (CEMB) for sequencing. Each amplicon was sequenced thrice and the consensus sequence was established eliminating sequencing errors. Sequence identity and multiple sequence alignment of molecular sequences (nucleotide and amino acids) were performed with Clustal W algorithm (Thompson et al., 1994). Neighbour joining trees were constructed by using MEGA version 4.0 (Kumar et al., 2004). Nucleotide distance matrices were computed by Kimura two parameter algorithm based on the total nucleotide substitutions and evolutionary trees for VP1 genes were constructed. For FMDV serotype '0' phylogenetic analysis, 14 VPI sequences from various field isolates were compared with some previously published Pakistani FMD 0 type VP1 specific sequences available with GeneBank and some recently published VP1 sequences reported by countries bordering with Pakistan including India, Iran and Afghanistan Similarly, 12 VP 1 sequences of FMDV serotype Asia-I isolates of this study were compared with previously published sequences and their phylogenetic relationship was established. However, the sequencing results of serotype A were inconclusive and were not included for phylogenetic analysis. Three sequences of three locally available FMD vaccines were also studied and compared with the outbreak strains. Polymerase chain reaction was optimized with respect to MgCI2, buffer pH, annealing temperature, primer concentration, template concentration, and Taq polymerase. A concentration of 2.5 mM of MgCl2 resulted in the best amplification of the target sequences (Figure 1). The buffer with pH 8.8 yielded the best results (Figure 2) Although, the suggested annealing temperatures for various primers (of various serotypes) ranged from 48 °C to 63 °C, however, a temperature of 56 °C was found to be the best with all sets of primers (Figure 3). The best intensity DNA bands were observed with 0.3 pM concentration of the primers (Figure 4). Moreover, the best cDNA template concentration giving optimum amplification was found to be 3.0 p1 per reaction (Figure 5). Lastly, a concentration of 0.5 U of Taq polymerase was not sufficient for amplification of cDNAs, however, 1.0 U of enzyme was found to yield better amplification (Figure 6). VP 1 DNA sequences of six previously published Pakistani FMD serotype 0 strains were analyzed phylogenetically with VP 1 DNA sequences of 14 isolates of the study. Serotype 0 isolates of this study distributed themselves into two distinct clusters (Figure 19). First cluster comprised of Sheikhupura 1 and 2, Muridkey 1, Raiwind 1, Nankana 1, Gujranwala 1 and Gujrat I isolates (Figures 19 and 20), whereas the second cluster included Depalpur 1, Sahiwal 1, Okara I, Multan 1, Toba 1, Faisalabad I and Pattoki 1 isolates (Figures 19 and 21). The first cluster was found to be associated with previously published Pakistani isolates of 2006 mostly. However, it also showed association with Afghanistan's isolates of 2004 (Figure 20). The second cluster seemed to be mostly related to previously published Pakistani isolates of 2003 (Figure 21). The overall grouping of the 14 sequences, when compared with each other, depicted a three clustered phylogram (Figure 22). Serotype 0 isolates from Depalpur, Sahiwal, Okara, Multan, Pattoki, Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad grouped together into a clan and had more than 85% sequence similarity with each other. The second cluster consisted of isolates of Sheikhupura, Nankana, Raiwind and Muridkey. These sequences had more than 86% similarity with each other. The third cluster consisted of only two isolates which were 100 % similar to each other. However the third cluster had only 74 % sequence similarity to cluster I and 73 % sequence similarity when compared with cluster 2. When the phylogenetic relationships with previously reported isolates of Asia 1 was evaluated, FMD Asia I isolates of this study were found to be scattered into two distinct groups (Figure 16). Group one consisted of isolates of Lodhran, Toba and Hafizabad that were more closely related to Indian isolates sharing more than 98% identity with each other and more than 94 % sequence identity with isolates of Indian 2001 to 2004 (Table 5 and Figures 16 and 17). However, they shared more than 86% sequence similarity with Pakistani isolates of 2002-2005 (Table 5). Group two comprised of isolates of kasur, Lahore, Pakpattan, Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and multan alongwith vaccine A and B (Figure 16). The isolates of group 2 were found to be closely associated with previously published isolates of Pakistani and Afghani origin of year 2003 and 2004 (Figures 16 and 18). Collectively, they shared an overall 70% sequence identity with each other. However, isolates of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan and Multan shared more than 98% similarity with each other, a measurement of close relationship denoting a likely common origin as one clan or dade. Similarly, isolates of Pakpatan, Faisalabad, Okara, Kasur, and Lahore shared 88% sequence identity with each other and qualified as one clade. Although, overall amino acid sequence similarity of our isolates was not strikingly different from that of the published isolates, however, amino acid substitutions with dissimilar properties were found with a scattered pattern of distribution. For example, 15th amino acid residue which is hydrophilic in the previously published isolates had a substitution with a hydrophobic amino acid residue in our three isolates namely Sheikhupura 2, Muridkey I and Raiwind I (Figure 25). Similarly, 14th amino acid residue which is hydrophobic in nature was found to be replaced with a hydrophilic one in our last five isolates. Amino acid residue number 13 (Figure 25) had a substitution with a hydrophobic residue in some of our isolates etc. etc. It is interesting to note that such substitutions with amino acids having dissimilar properties have also been found, albeit at lower rate, in previously published sequences by many researchers (Figure 25). A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in the critical VP I region of FMD serotype Asia I revealed that most of this study isolates shared very high homology with sequences of Vaccine A. However, the sequences of isolates of Lodhran, Hafizabad and Toba did not match much with that of either vaccines, A or B (Figure 23). Sequences of Vaccine A had a "K" which seemed to be replaced by a "T" in the sequences of most of the isolates. Considering the properties of various amino acids, this change does not signify a major shift in the three dimensional picture of the protein as K is a lysine, a positively charged amino acid, whereas a T is threonine, a hydrophilic amino acid in nature. Next substitution in most of the isolates is a "P" for "A" in comparison to the vaccines. Again, it is not a significant change as both P and A share the same property, hydorphobicity. Similarly a K with an R can be substituted without much change in the overall shape of the protein molecule. Next amino acid substitution is a leucine instead of methionine. Again both are hydrophobic in nature; hence their impact on the overall picture is minute, if at all. However, glycine and arginine are two very different amino acids; the former is a hydrophobic amino acid whereas the latter is positively charged one. Such amino acid substitutions may have the potential to make a major impact in terms of the epitopic differences in the capsids of vaccinal and field viruses. A comparison of the deduced amino acids of FMD serotype 0 isolates also exhibited such changes with the vaccinal virus (Figure 24). Of the three hyper immune sera raised against three different vaccines in rabbits, only one vaccine induced a measureable immune response yielding good precipitation line against various FMD virus antigens. In summary, RT-PCR for diagnosis of serotypes A, 0 and Asia 1 of FMDV was optimized and could be used for prompt and precise diagnosis of FMD in the country. Although, RT-PCR data pertains to bovines in the current project, but PCR optimization parameters are equally applicable to FMDV infections in other FMD susceptible animal species such as sheep and goat. The combination of PCR and sequencing of the VP1 gene to detect and analyze FMDV in disease outbreaks is fast (less than 6 hours for PCR and about 24 hours for sequencing), and it can give an accurate immunologic characterization of the virus, thus providing a rational basis for choice of vaccine. In fact, the molecular epidemiology of field isolates is a powerful tool to monitor the circulation of viruses (Saiz et al., 1993). Secondly, various isolates of serotypes 0 and Asia 1 were sequenced along with some vaccinal strains. Sequence similarity tree analysis indicated that most of our isolates were closely related to previously reported Pakistani isolates and to those of neighboring countries such as India, Afghanistan and Iran. Additionally, amino acid sequence similarity data of major immunogenic site that forms 13G-13H loop in FMDV serotypes revealed that serotype Asia 1 vaccinal strain and Asia 1 isolates of this study possessed high degree of similarity suggesting a likely host immune response against the vaccine that may afford some protection against most field isolates of serotype Asia 1 type. Lastly, of three vaccines tested, only one was found to afford protection against field isolates of FMDV suggesting more work on vaccine issue in the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1179,T] (1).

150. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Carvediolol In Healty Male And Female Volunteers

by Alishba syed | Dr. Sualeha Riuffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in 6 healthy male and female volunteers. The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six healthy female volunteers. Only those male volunteers were selected who were of age between 18-30 years, not suffering from any disease. Female volunteers were also between age of 18-30 years, who were not pregnant and not suffering from any disease. Written consent was taken from them and they were be informed about objectives of the study, frequency of blood sampling, and possible side effects of drug which they might face during the study. The male volunteers were considered as group A and healthy female volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Carvedilol 12.5mg tablet per orally to each individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hr from vein through 5ml B.D syringe of 22guage needle after oral administration of Carvedilol. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -40°C till analysis. Carvedilol concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC method. All pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in healthy male volunteers and in healthy female volunteers were compared. Data was analyzed byapproprite statistical methods and no significant difference was found between AUC and Cmax. Absorption rate was highr in females as compared to males. AUC of Carvedilol was 0.076±0.021 µg.h/ml in healty male voluneteers and 0.197±0.105 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. The half life was 5.205±1.824 hours in healty male volunteers and 6.6768±1.328 hours in female volunteers. The Cmax was observed as 0.024±0.004 µg.h/ml in healty volunteers and 0.048±0.018 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1180,T] (1).



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