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151. Urbanization: Consequences On Increase Of Garbage Eating Birs In Lahore, Pakistan

by Muhammad tanveer | Dr. Zulfiqar Ali | Dr. Ali Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Nureen Aziz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This proposed study was analyzed the increase of garbage eating birds in Lahore. Five Important sites were selected in Lahore as whole longitudinal belt of Lahore was covered. Many birds species were recorded, and especially garbage eating or scavenger birds' population was observed and its consequences on other birds species and ecosystem was studied. Different field observation methods for birds along with field guides was adopted. In this 12 month study, month wise record of birds was depicted a picture of population of birds in Lahore. The vultures were totally extinct in Lahore and were not observed at any sites. During the study observed most of the birds were the resident, few were winter visitor and very low numbers were the summer breeders. Urbanization is a major cause of habitat loss and fragmentation. According to present study density of birds were recorded at Jinnah garden, Racecourse Park, Woodland Safari Park, Mehmood Booti and Old Ravi Bridge. Different threats to the birds were also been recorded and appropriate conservation measure towards a sustainable ecosystem was proposed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1181,T] (1).

152. Dna Fingerprinting Of Pakistani Buffalo Breeds (Nili-Ravi, Kundi) Using Microsatellite And Cytochrome B Gene

by Rashid Saif | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Mr. Asif | Prof. Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Customarily, classification of breed was based on phenotypic traits. In some cases, recent genetic studies have found differences in the structure proposed. In buffalo ,one has to bear in mind that morphological changes were not the result of adaptation to the environment, but have a social significance thus may not be indicative of the genetic relationship. In recent years microsatellites have proved to be very useful for the determination of genetic relationship among population. Comparative studies beiween microsatellite and protein markers have highlighted the advantages of the former. The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly in Pakistan but the genetic data of different buffalo breeds like Nili-Ravi and Kundi is lacking, which need to be established for their genetic identification. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of both breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundi) were collected from different government livestock farms in Punjab and Sindh respectively. DNA was extracted by inorganic method and amplification of the mitochondrial Cytb gene and microsatellite was done with especially designed primers in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory at Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Cytochrome b gene markers have been proved as an efficient and powerful tool for breed characterization and species identification of buffaloes. Several panels of microsatellite markers have also been reported for this purpose. In this study, a panel of nine microsatellite markers has highly Polymorphism Information Content (PlC) were selected, Specific primers were designed for these microsatellite and Cytb gene partial amplification using primer3 software. Then primers were optimized for successful amplification with minimum reagent concentration. PCRs were performed for amplification of these microsatellite and Cytb markers on each sample, Genotyping and sequencing was conducted on all amplicons to find out the different SNP to design haplotypes with the help of bioinformatics software e.g. Blast 2sequence and Chrornas Lite, Further statistical analysis was done by the help of some other software e.g. Popgene version 1.31, Power Stat., Genetic diversity, Allele frequencies, observed and expected homozygosity and heterozygosity, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, F-Statistics and Gene Flow for all Loci, population's dendogram, Nei's genetic identity and genetic distance! diversity was calculated. The results obtained from this study can contribute to the establishment of routine DNA typing services, beneficial for the buffalo industry as well as in animal forensics for litigation and expedite the police investigation services in Pakistan, which will also be useful for breed characterization and phylogenetic study of aforementioned breeds of buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1183,T] (1).

153. Use Of Antioxidate Containing Extender To Improve Post Thaw Quality Of Canine Semen

by Zia Ullah | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and viability of spermatozoa) using the Labrador retriever dog frozen semen. Dog is a unique animal in terms of its semen ejaculation which is in fractions with a highly variable sperm concentration in different fractions as compared to other mammalian species like bull, boar, ram, human which have their ejaculate as a single fraction. In this study, BHT was found to improve post thaw motility, sperm viability, plasma membrane integrity and the acrosomal integrity at an inclusion level of 1.0mM in the extended semen. However, the higher concentrations than this were found to have detrimental effects on the parameters mentioned above. The reasons for these detrimental effects could be the change in osmolarity of the semen that varies in different species. The ROS production is associated with normal physiological functioning of the spermatozoa and when a semen sample is diluted the endogenous antioxidant mechanism of the semen is compromised and addition of exogenous antioxidant is needed to equilibrate. Therefore the addition of BHT at an inclusion level 1.0mM in study was found optimum and higher concentrations of this had detrimental effect on the spermatozoa, which could be due to two reasons as explained by Ijaz et al., 2009, i.e., firstly higher concentration of BHT reduce the physiological functions of the spermatozoa by extremely reducing the ROS which are needed to a certain level for physiological function of the spermatozoa and secondly it increases the fluidity of the plasma membrane above the desired levels thus making it prone to more damages. In conclusion, BHT was found useful for dog spermatozoa at inclusion level 1.0mM, however, further studies are required to investigate the fertility of the canine semen having inclusion levels of BHT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1184,T] (1).

154. The Effect Of Statin Therapy In Combination With Zinc On Glucose And Lipid Profile Of Type-Ii Diabetic Patients

by Muhammad Omar Khan Lodhi | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. M.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism characterized by insulin deficiency and peripheral resistance to the action of insulin.Hyperglycemia predisposes to atherosclerosis due to glycosylation of proteins in the vessel wall that results in endothelial dysfunction and hence atherosclerosis. It was a comparative study conducted on 120 patients,divided into six groups. The basic purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin and atorvastatin alone or in combination with zinc supplement on overall glycaemic control and mean change in plasma lipids after six weeks of treatment.The patients of group-5 were given only zinc therapy whereas the patients of group-6 were given placebo alone to serve as control group.All the patients were put on metformin 500mg three times daily except Group-6.Periodic assessment were done at 2,4 and 6 weeks to assess over all change in blood glucose,plasma lipids and liver enzymes. Atorvastatin and Simvastatin showed excellent results in control of lipid profile however Atorvastatin was found to be superior than Simvastatin regarding control of LDH and Triglycerides. Supplementation of Zinc with Statins proved to be a good combination regarding achievement of controlling hyperglycaemia and reduction of lipids. Atorvastatin with Zinc was the only group that showed excellent results as compared to the rest. Zinc alone showed modest results that shows it acts synergistically with Statins when given as adjucant therapy. The group which was treated with placebo showed no improvement instead worsening of blood glucose and lipid profile. The elevation of liver enzymes was slightly higher in subjects who were treated Statins, however the subject who were treated with Atorvastatin showed slightly increase in the liver enzymes as compared to Simvastatin proving that Atorvastatin is more hepatotoxic as compared to Simvastatin. Zinc alone shown no such derangements in liver enzymes proved that Zinc is not hepatotoxic at all. The therapeutic efficacies of statins and zinc with high doses as well as their toxicity may be further evaluated by other scientists. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1186,T] (1).

155. Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan

by Waseem Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1188,T] (1).

156. Development And Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Identification Of A, O And Asia 1 Strains Of FMDV In Pakistan

by Muhammad Ikram | Dr. Atif Hanif | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picomaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, 0, C, Asia I, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry. So priority is to develop quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV and to limit the spread of disease outbreak. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. Multiplex PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done with in three hours after the receipt of samples. Present study has been designed to optimize multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection of FMD virus. RNA was extracted from virus stock obtained from QOL, UVAS Lahore and from field samples. After RNA extraction the samples were subjected to synthesize cDNA by the use of Reverse Transcriptase enzyme. After cDNA synthesis PCR reaction was carried out. The amplified products were resolved on 1.5% Agarose Gel. A multiplex RT-PCR strategy was optimized and developed for the detection of virus serotypes A, 0 and Asia l. Restulst of this study helped to develop an efficient and economical method for rapid detection of FMD virus and also helpful in differential diagnosis from other vesicular diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1189,T] (1).

157. A Study Of Giardiasis And Its Chemotherapy With Metronidazole And Albendazole In Dogs

by Ayesha sara | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Giardiasis is an intestinal pathogenic protozoan which infect humans and a wide range of animals including dogs prevalence of giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization and population studied. The objective of the study was to determine the percentage of giardiasis in dogs, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. The study was conducted in pet center of university of veterinary and animal sciences (UVAS) and private clinics in Lahore; collected sample were processed in medicine laboratory, department of clinical medicine and surgery (UVAS), Lahore. Faecal samples of five hundred dogs suspected with giardiasis were collected and assessment of giardia cyst were seen using zinc sulphate floatation technique and sucrose gradient centrifugation method, then the positive dogs were separated and divided into four groups viz A, B, C, groups D was negative control, group A was treated with Metronidazole and its efficacy wasll.3 %,64 % & 85 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment while group B was treated with Albendazole & its efficacy was 16.3 % ,44.2 % & 74 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment the results showed that the Metronidazole was better in efficacy then Albendazole, C group was serve as positive control & all these results were compared with negative control (healthy dogs) that is group D.The efficacy of the drugs was determined by the disappearance of giardia cysts from feceas. The blood examination total leukocyte count & Differential Leukocyte Count was conducted before & after the treatment with drugs & it showed that there was mild increase in TLC but not more increase in DLC & no adverse effect of drugs on blood parameters and values were almost normal and close to the values of negative control(healthy dogs). It has been observed during the present study that metronidazole & albendazole showed their mild effect on blood parameters as a result of curing giardiasis. Statistical analysis of data revealed non significant difference (p>O.O5) between groups, A, B, & D (-ye control) on day 3 & 7 of treatment. it was observed that metronidazole was the most effective 85% followed by albendazole 74% against giardiasis in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1192,T] (1).

158. A Study Of Parasitic Causes Of Diarrhea In Cattle Calves In District Gujranwala

by Muhammad Salman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The loss of fluids through diarrhea can- cause severe dehydration which is one cause of death on diarrhea sufferers. In present study cattle calves up to six months of age in district Gujranwala were examined for parasitic infestation. The samples were collected from different Government farms, veterinary hospitals and from villagers having livestock. A total number of 300 cattle calves were examined during the period of three months. The effect of parasitic diarrhea according to the factors like sex and age were studied, the percentage of parasitic diarrhea in cattle calves were also studied. Collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory of university of veterinary and animal sciences Lahore. Fecal samples were processed for different coporological tests, including direct smear, floatation, sedimentation, McMaster and for cryptosporidial examination, staining of fecal smears were used. Blood parameters like Hemoglobin level, TLC & DLC was also be studied. The faecal samples result showed that 147 samples were positive from parasitic diarrhea out of 300 samples and percentage was 49 % including cryptosporidium, cooperia, oesophagostomum, fashiodorous, toxocara, coccidian & eurytrema. The samples were collected age wise as 0-1 months, 42 samples were positive out of 90 samples showing 46.6%, in 1-3 months 47 samples were positive out of 95 samples showing 49.47 %, 1n3- 6 months 58 samples were positive out of 115 showing 50.43 %.while the blood parameters Hb level, TLC & DLC were altered in parasitic diarrhea which showed milk decrease in TLC & DLC as compared to normal values while Hb level was also decreased in parasitic diarrhea. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1193,T] (1).

159. Comparative Study Of Primary And Secondary Bloat In Buffaloes

by Sajjad Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. M.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Bloat (tympany) is the abnormal distension of rumen and reticulum caused by excessive gases of fermentation, either in the form of persistent foam mixed with rumen contents or as free gas separated from the ingesta. The experimental study on bloat was conducted at outreach clinic of university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas. There were 500 buffaloes, out of these cases 86 were diagnosed to be suffered from bloat (60 were suffering from primary bloat, 2o were suffered from secondary bloat as shown in the table No 5 and table No 6). Six animals were expired from primary bloat as shown in the table No 10. They were expire without any treatment. Thus the disease percentage recorded was 17.4 A systemic clinical examination of each animal was conducted. The age, breed, sex and general heath of the animal was also recorded. Complete history of each affected animal was recorded. Diagnostic confirmation between primary bloat and secondary bloat was done through stomach tube. Primary bloat was easily recognizable and there were no other diseases of reticulorumen that result in ruminal tympany. Secondary bloat was differentiated from causes of failure of eructation including esophageal obstruction,chromic reticuloperitonitis, vagal indigestion, tetanus, injury and rumen impaction. Treatment trials were carried out on the basis of grouping of animals. The buffaloes which are under attack of bloat were classified into two main groups i.e. group A and group B, which were further divided into four sub groups, which were A1, A2, B1 and B2.Animals suffered from primary bloat were kept into Group A1 and A2. While the animals suffering from secondary bloat were kept into Group B1 and Group B2. Treatment trials for Group A1 and Group B1 were same, while for Group A2 and Group B2 were same. The efficacy of drug was evaluated on reversal of clinical signs. The bloat affected buffaloes recovered with in 2 to 3 hours after the administration of medicine. No Side effects of these drugs, if any, was recorded the animals was examined for 24 hours after medication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1194,T] (1).

160. Microbial Evaluation Of Raw Meat At Abattoirs And Retail Outlests (Lahore)

by Abid Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of meat. The present study was planed to determine the aerobic plate count on meat obtained from the abattoirs and local market. A total of 90 meat samples that were collected for determining the microbiological quality of meat. Half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from various abattoirs and half of the meat samples (n=45) were collected from retail outlets in Lahore City to get an idea of contamination from slaughtering point to retail outlets. These samples were processed for Aerobic plate counts, E.coli, S.aureus and Salmonella counts. Overall, this study revealed that the level of contamination on meat carcasses was higher in retail meat shops compared to the abattoir. However, the microbial contamination in the abattoir were high if we compare these results to the reports from developing countries like India, Iran and Bangladesh. Bacterial isolates identified and counted from this study were Staphylococcus aureus (44) out of 90 samples was the most abundant as 48.88%, followed by E. coli (43) 47.77% and Salmonella (26) 28.88%. Statistical analysis revealed that analysis of variance between various abattoir and the retail meat shops for E.coli, Salmonella and S.aureus showed significant differences with some exceptions. E.coli counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the meat shops and abattoirs. For E.coli most of the data were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05) with some exception in case of beef and goat samples taken from abattoirs which were non significant because of the unhygienic environments. Analysis of variance for Salmonella between various abattoir and the retail outlets were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). For S.aureus between various abattoir and the retail outlets showed non significant at 5% level (P > 0.05) with some exceptions in case of beef abattoir and goat retail outlet samples taken which were significant at 5% level (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of microbial load in fresh meat obtained in this study might be attributed to unhygienic and improper handling of animals during slaughter, dressing, evisceration, transportation and unhygienic environments at the retail shops. The usual practice of washing the carcass with the same water in which intestines and offal had been washed was considered as one of the predominant reasons for increased microbial counts of the carcasses. A complete ignorance on the part of the meat handlers/ butchers in hygienic handling of carcasses during slaughter and retailing processes might be the main factors for producing meat with high microbial load. Levels of microbial contamination in Pakistani abattoirs and traditional retail meat shops reflect the hygiene status of meat production in the developing world. Education of the meat retailers' community which runs the traditional meat shops, in terms of the importance of hygienic and sanitary precautions would go a long way towards providing wholesome and safe meat to the consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1196,T] (1).

161. Differntial Diagnosis Of Malaria And Dengue Fever On The Basis Of Clinical Findings And Laboratory Investigations

by Aqeel Ahmad | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana | Dr. Muti ur Rehman | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: I took two hundred (200) patients in total for purpose of my study. I included all cases with pyrexia of unknown origin with chills and rigors with 6-7 days history. These cases were first evaluated for Malaria by making their thin and thick films for malarial parasites. There were thirty patients out of two hundred who were positive for malarial parasites. There complete blood picture was done that is RBC count, Heamogolobin percentage, platelet count, WBC count and ESR. The cases who were negative from malaria were further evaluated for dengue viral infection by doing capture ELISA 1gM. Before doing ELISA 1gM dengue strip method test was done and the cases who were positive on strip (Paper Chromatography) were included in 1gM ELISA study. The cases that were positive for 1gM ELISA were studied for same blood investigation which was mentioned earlier. It was also found that there had been some incidence of dual dengue infection and malaria and the incidence rate was 2%. Now after collecting the data it was analyzed by SPSS. It was inferred afterwards from the data that all the patients +ve for dengue 1gM had been facing with low platelet count increased reticulocyte count, increased hemoglobin, decreased WBC and no significant effect on ESR had been seen. About 83% of dengue 1gM patients were having decrease platelet count. This thrombocytopenia varies from person to person and an inverse relationship has been found between dengue 1gM and platelet of the patients. The intensity of thromobocytopenia was more in old age patients or in patients with poor health status or in those patients in which tire of anti dengue 1gM was very high. This thromobocytopenia can be used as a diagnostic tool in addition to clinical history in patients who live in periphery where the facility of ELISA is not available. The rise in platelet number indicates recovery of the patients and it should be monitored daily till the complete recovery of patients is achieved. The rise in hemoglobin concentration has also been noticed due to hemo concentration about 76% of patients with anti dengue 1gM positive were having elevated level of hemoglobin that is ranging from 17-19 gram/dl. The increase in RBC count has also been noticed in association with increased hemoglobin concentration a mild fall in WBC count has also been noticed i-e upto 4000 in 76% of the patients. In those patients who were +ve for malarial parasites and negative for dengue 1gM, such changes in blood pictures were not appreciated although the vector of both diseases is same but AD's mosquitoes which is the carrier of dengue virus (an ARBO virus) causes more severe form of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1198,T] (1).

162. Study Of Hepatic Dysfunction In Patients Infected With Dengue Virus

by Aiysha Ejaz | Prof. Dr. Younus Rana | Dr. Muti ur Rehman | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Dengue is the mosquito born viral illness which causes a broad spectrum of disease ranging from in apparent infection, flu like mild undifferentiated fever and classical DF to the most severe form DHF and DSS in which rate of morbidity and mortality is very high. Dengue infection also causes liver damage and this liver impairment is more marked in case of DHF. My study was also aimed at depicting the fact that dengue infection also causes hepatic impairment which is directly related.to the level of dengue 1gM in the body. The serum liver enzyme level rises as the infection progress. I conducted my study over 200 patients of different age groups including both sexes. All of the patients were having history of pyrexia of unknown origin for the last 7-lO days not subsiding inspite of taking treatment. Some of them presented with mild to moderate petechiae rashes on their body. I categorized the patients into two categorize according to the WHO criteria that is the patients having high grade fever with rash and thrombocytopenia were designated as dengue hemorrhagic fever while those without rash and hemorrhagic manifestations were said to be dengue fever group. Firstly I screened all patients for anti dengue 1gM by rapid strip testing method which shows dark pink line in addition to control line in positive cases within few minutes. The strip +ve cases were further confirmed by using capture ELISA, The Dengue 1gM Capture ELISA (MACELISA) is the immunoenzymatic system recommended by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization for the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection due to its high sensitivity, ease of performance, and use of a single acute- phase serum sample. Then all the ELISA +ve cases were estimated for hepatic dysfunction by performing their liver function test. For performing liver function test the serum was obtained by centrifuge machine and enzyme including AST, ALT and Alkaline phosphatase were done by using Merck biochemistry Analyzer which calculated the enzyme itself and displayed the reading in U/L. The analysis established that DF is more common in 21-30 years of age group, more prevalent in males and the level of serum liver enzyme rises as the serum level of dengue 1gM raises that is with the increase of severity of infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1199,T] (1).

163. Molecular Diversity Analysis Of Sheep And Goat Breeds Of Pakistan Using Microsatellites.

by Misbah Shaheen | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Mr. Tanveer Hussain | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pakistan is rich in Animal Genetics Resource (AnGR) and has various breeds of sheep and goat but the genetic data in these different breeds is lacking which needs to be established for their genetic identification. The advent of molecular techniques has led to an increase in the studies that focus on the genetic characterization of domestic breeds using genetic markers. Due to their reliability and availability, the microsatellites have become preferred method for the genome mapping. Microsatellites or STRs are the 1-6 nucleotide tandem repeats present in both coding and non coding regions of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Microsatellites are powerful tools in genome mapping, forensic DNA studies, paternity testing, population genetics and conservation! management of biological resources. The present study was conducted on the molecular diversity analysis of sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan using FAQ recommended unlabelled microsatellites. Blood samples of unrelated true representative animals of two sheep and goat breeds were selected from their breeding tracts and different Government Livestock Farms throughout the country. DNA was extracted with the standard protocol and amplification of DNA was done with a set of 16 microsatellite markers in Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory in the Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. The products of touch-down PCR were examined on non denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). Genotyping results were analyzed through the sofiware POPGENE version 3.3 for calculating the number of alleles, expected and observed heterozygosity, homozygosity, Polymorphic Information Content (PlC). Average observed heterozygosity, average observed homozygosity, observed and effective number of alleles for all loci and populations were 0.8394, 0.1606, 3.6875 and 2.8693 respectively. Almost all of the microsatellite markers showed significant variations in both breeds of sheep and goat. Genotyping results of microsatellite markers were clearly different for four different breeds showing a distinct genetic distance between sheep and goat breed's. This work provided the genetic data which will be helpful in breed identification and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future according to FAO global Farm Anithal Genetic resource data. Moreover this study can become the basis for further research investigations in sheep and goat in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1200,T] (1).

164. Pharmacokinetic Studies Of Amoxcillin Trihydrate In Healthy Buffalo Calves

by Amir Rashid | Dr. Sheryar Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to determine and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox (Test Product) and Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) in healthy buffalo calves. For this study sixteen healthy buffalo calves between the ages of 6 to 12 months were purchased from the local market. They were kept in the shed of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Their health status was monitored by physical examination. All the animals were maintained under similar conditions. The calves were provided fodder and water. All the animals were dewormed with Albendazole and a fifteen days wash out period was observed after deworming. The study was cross over design. Calves were divided into two groups A and B having eight animals in each. In the first phase calves of group A were administered Farmox (Test Product) intramuscular at the dose of 15mg/kg body weight and calves of group B were administered Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) intramuscularly at the dose of 15mg/kg body weight. In the second phase of the study, after a washout period of 15 days, group A were administered Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) and group B received the treatment with Farmox at same dose rate. Then 5ml blood was collected by direct pricking of jugular vein with needle and the blood was collected in heparinized test tubes. Prior to drug administration control/blank 5ml blood sample was also collected from each animal. After the drug administration the blood samples were collected at 0.166, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 24.0, 36.0 and 48.0 hours. The blood samples were then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes. Plasma was separated in small capped plastic bottles and measured by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. Calculation of all the pharmacokinetic parameters was done by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmaceutical analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox and Amoxi-vet were compared. Data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods and it was concluded that there is no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of Farmox (Test Product) and Amoxi-vet (Reference Product) after intramuscular administration and both products are bioequivalent in their rate and extent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1201,T] (1).

165. Evaluation Of Post Peak Production Of Commercial Layers And Fed On Extruded Hatchery Waste Meal

by Rafiullah | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Poultry feed ingredients are very expensive and raises poultry input cost with an inverse impact at final outcome. To decrease the feed cost and to increase farming output, utilization of non conventional feed resources such as hatchery waste meal (HWM) may be used in layer feed and seems a good economic properties. For this purpose the present study was designed to exploit post peak production of commercial layers supplemented with dietary extruded hatchery waste meal and this trail was carried out at poultry experimental farm University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Two experiments were conducted at the poultry experimental farm. In the first experiment raw hatchery was collected from a local hatchery and was dried at oven in 60°C till constant weight was achieved. The dried sample was then cooked by extrusion processes. In the second experiment the dietary inclusion of extruded hatchery waste meal (EHWM) was determined on performance of layer birds. For this purpose two hundred and fifty (250) White Leg horn layers in start of 2nd stage of production (35 weeks old) was procured and divided in to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) in such a way that there were fifty birds in each group. Each group was then further sub divided in to five replicates of ten birds. Group A served as a control. The experimental layers were being kept in cages with the standard norms of husbandry. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. Four different supplementary levels of extruded hatchery waste meal of groups B, C, D, and E respectively, i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% were incorporated in layers diet. The parameters studied daily egg production and egg weight, while shell weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk color, and Haugh units were studied on fortnight basis. At the end of the experiment the feasibility of each ration was also calculated. The data thus collected were statistically analyses using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test. In the present study the high mean egg production was recorded in treatment 4 (53.2±1.15) in which 6% extruded EHWM was used while the lowest mean egg production was recorded in treatment 2 (49.9±1.82) in which 2% of extruded HWM was used. The result of the present study show non-significant (p>0.05) effect of extruded hatchery waste meal on egg production. Highest value of average egg weight (60.4±0.48) was observed in control group while lowest value (59.2±0.53) was observed by using 8% EHWM. Statistical analysis showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect among treatments. Highest value of mean egg shell weight (7.3±0.17) was observed by using 4% extruded HWM. Lowest value of mean egg shell weight (7.2±0.06) was observed by using 8% HWM. The high value recorded for shell thickness was that of treatment 4 (0.33±0.008) by using 6% dietary EHWM, while lowest value was recorded in treatment 5 (0.31±0.002) using 8% dietary EHWM. The result of mean shell weight and shell thickness also showed non-significant differences (p>0.05) among different treatments. The results of albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh units showed non-significant (p>0.05) effect of feeding different dietary levels of EHWM to commercial layers. However the highest values recorded for albumen weight and albumen height were (37.5±0.61) and (8.53 0.134) respectively in control group which was without of dietary EHWM. The highest value observed for Haugh units was (91.8±0.57) that of treatment 3 by using 4% EHWM. However albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh unit showed statistically non significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM fed on experimental commercial layers. The values for yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color were observed in order of merit for treatment, 2 (2% EHWM) (16.0±0.17), treatment 3 (4% EHWM) (38.8±0.11), and treatment 5 (8% EHWM) (5.5±0.15) respectively. Statistically the yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM on layers performance. The economic feasibility of each ration was calculated at the end of the experiment. The feed cost per kg and the cost of 1 kg eggs were decreased gradually as dietary supplementary level of HW was increased from 2 to 8% in the diet of commercial layers. The most economical ration was that of treatment 5 in which 8%EHWM was used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1202,T] (1).

166. Study Of Physico Chemical And Microbiological Quality And Adulteration In Processed Dairy Products

by Sibghat Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Dairy products are perishable food items and are good source of nutrients for human being as well as microorganisms. Adulteration in processed dairy products has become a very serious and alarming issue in Pakistan. The milk and milk product adulterants include water, starch, vegetable oil, yeast, Soya protein, whey powder and hazardous substances. There is a growing demand from consumers for healthy and hygienic dairy products. Keeping in view these facts, the present study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological and adulteration in various processed dairy products. The results are summarized as follows: The highest mean values of physical tests in ice cream samples were, melting resistance 11.64 +0.030, melting quality 28.27+0.322.The highest mean values of yoghurt samples in different chemical tests were i.e. Fat 3.46 +0.140%, pH 5.67±0.01, Ash 2.63+0.208%, Total solids 14.28±0.10% and Moisture content 81.56+2.645%. The highest mean values of cheese samples in different chemical tests were i.e. Fat 31.93+0.801%, pH 4.60+0.447, Lactose 1.81+0.159%. Highest mean values for milk powder samples were i.e. Lactose 47.98+1.178%, Protein contents 23.86+1.289%, Total solids 94.82 +0.430% and Moisture content 6.34+1.72%. Highest mean values of microbiological count in yoghurt samples were i.e. Total plate count 4.60+0.627 log cfu/g, Coliform count 3.85+0.442 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 4.52 +0.577 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of microbiological count in cheese samples were i.e. Total plate count 4.93+1.128 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.28+0.759 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 4.64+1.132 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of microbiological count in butter samples were i.e. Total plate count 5.39+0.534 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.39 +0.524 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 5.35 +0.736 log cfu/g. Highest mean values of different microbiological tests in ice cream samples were i.e. Total plate count 5.76+0.690 log cfu/g, Coliform count 5.41+0.616 log cfu/g and Staph aureus count 6.38 +0.536 log cfu/g. Adulteration study in different dairy products are summarized as i.e. Haleeb and Nestle yoghurt brands were negative for chemical adulterants tests i.e. Urea, Formaldehyde, Neutralizers, Starch, Boric acid, Quaternary ammonium compounds, while H2O2 was detected positive in both yoghurt samples of Haleeb and Nestle. Similarly all the chemical adulterants tests were negative for milk powder samples of Haleeb and Nurpur brands while positive for H2O2. Results about ice cream samples shows that all the ice cream samples were negative for chemical adulterants tests i.e. Urea, Formaldehyde, Neutralizers, Starch, Boric acid, Quaternary ammonium compounds, while positive for H2O2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1203,T] (1).

167. Effect Of Differnet Physico Chemical Substances On The Production Peotential Of Phycocyanin From Spirulina and its Characterization

by Firasat Hussain | Dr. Imran Najeeb | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Spirulina is a multi-cellular, filamentous Cyanobacterium, belonging to a blue-green alga of Cyanophyta. Spirulina is recently proven in animal experiments to exhibit various biological activities such as lowering plasma cholesterol levels and blood pressure. The principal phycobiliproteins present in spirulina are phycocyanin and allophycocyanin which are made up of dissimilar ? and ? polypeptide sub units. The fresh biomass was found suitable for phycocyanin extraction. Freezing and thawing of cells was proved the best method for extraction of phycocyanin (0.4mg/ml), as compared to homogenization, hydrochloric acid and sonication. Nitrogen effects phycocyanin production from spirulina. Different concentrations of nitrogen spirulina medium were provided. Among which 1.875g/L spirulina produced phycocyanin (0.412mg/ml). Phosphate effects phycocyanin production from spirulina. Different concentrations of phosphate spirulina medium were provided.Among which 1.5g/L spirulina produced phycocyanin (0.354mg/ml). There is also effect of temperature on phycocyanin production. Spirulina medium 0.192mg/ml at 25oC, 0.390mg/ml at 30oC, 0.184mg/ml at 35oC. There is also effect of light on phycocyanin production. 0.361mg/ml were produce at 1500 Lux. Molecular weight (66kDa) of phycocyanin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and explored potential production of phycocyanin from indigenous spirulina. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1204,T] (1).

168. Prepartyion And Evaluation Of Cheddar Cheese From Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bifidobacterum Bifidum

by Irum Naz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Cheese is a food product which is made by fermenting milk by adding certain starter culture. It is highly proteinaceous and contains high content of fat. It has many flavors but Cheddar Cheese is most popular among all of its kinds. By adding probiotics in cheese it would be added to the group of functional foods. Probiotics are live micro organisms that are useful for human body if taken in proper amount. There are many food products which contains probiotics like yogurt and fermented milk but the main drawback of these products are their shelf life which is very short and probiotics does not remain viable for longer period of time . The study was formulated to manufacture probiotic cheddar cheese, chemical and sensory evaluation of probiotic cheese and to check the viability of probiotics. The data was statistically analyzed for the effect of storage and treatment on probiotic viability by using Duncan's test. The probiotic cheddar cheese was manufactured at Haleeb Foods. Starter culture and rennet was provided by Haleeb foods and probiotic cultures in freeze-died form were obtained from Christian Hansen, Denmark. The starter culture alone and in combination with different concentrations of probiotics were added to milk for cheese making. After completing all the steps involved in its preparation, cheese were removed from mould, packed in vacuum cryovac packaging and were placed for ripening for 90 days at 4ºC. Sensory evaluation of Cheddar Cheese was done by a team of panelists to check its flavor, colour, taste, texture and overall acceptability at every fifteen days interval during maturation time. There is a significant effect of different levels of probiotics on flavor, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability of Cheddar Cheese. Storage has also shown a significant effect on the sensory parameters of cheese. Chemical tests like pH, fat, moisture, protein, salt and acidity concentrations were also carried out after fifteen days interval at the laboratory of Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. There is a significant effect of pH, acidity, fat and protein on cheddar cheese. As pH lowers with the passage of time its acidity increases. So there is significant effect of storage on different treatment levels. The levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus specifically have shown an increased acidity. Viability of probiotic bacteria was checked at 15 days interval at the Laboratory of Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. During ripening Bifidobacterium bifidum has shown a good viability level of 107 and 108 cfu/20g of cheese. But on the other hand lactobacillus acidophilus have sustain its numbers for about two weeks and then decreased to a very low level. So there is a significant effect of viability on both strains during the storage. There is non significant effect of levels on viability of probiotics. The statistical analysis used was two way analysis of variance to check the treatment and storage effect on probiotic cheddar cheese by following the method (Steel et al., 1997). Significance of means was compared by using DUNCAN'S multiple range tests (1955). The research has enabled us to conclude the outcomes that the Cheddar Cheese is a good vehicle for delivery of probiotics but the lactobacillus strain needs more improvements its viability is concerned. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1206,T] (1).

169. Study Of Physicochemcial And Microbioloigcal Quality And Adulteration Of Processed Fluid Milk In Punjab

by Abdul Rehman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Jalees | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Milk production, handling, storage, transportation and marketing of milk is handled in a primitive way in Pakistan. Mostly middle man and contractors are involved in the collection, marketing and distribution of milk. Most of the milk is produced in rural areas and transported to cities where it is supplied to milk plants and also to house consumers. During transportation and distribution there is no refrigeration involved. Middle man adds ice to keep the milk cool and prevent from spoilage. In addition, they also add chemical to kill bacteria and prevent spoilage of milk. Adulteration of milk is one of the most serious issue in the dairy sector of Pakistan, causing not only major economic losses for the processing industry, but also major health risks for the consumers. Milk is a perishable item and to prevent the spoilage of milk various chemicals are added by the milk collectors. In addition, the microbiological quality of milk is very important which directly concern not only with milk spoilage but also consumer's health Keeping in view the above mentioned factors, study was conducted to determine the physico-chemical, microbiological and adulterants in processed milk in Punjab. A total of 30 samples of UHT and 30 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and examined from production units in Punjab. Density in UHT milk ranged from 22.53+0.08 to 28.44+0.27 and in pasteurized milk ranged from 23.43+0.35 to 27.21±0.17. Conductivity in UHT milk ranged from 9.72+0.38 to 11.33+0.28 and in Pasteurized milk ranged from 9.13+0.08 to 10.13±0.18. Freezing point in UHT milk ranged from -0.49+0.006 ºC to -0.45±0.005 ºC and in pasteurized milk brands ranged from -0.47+0.002 ºC to -0.45+0.008 ºC. Fat in UHT milk ranged from 3.74+0.17 % to 3.99+0.31 % and in Pasteurized milk fat ranged 3.46+0.09 % to 3.60+0.01. SNF in UHT milk ranged from 7.65+0.30 % to 8.03+0.66 % and in Pasteurized milk SNF ranged from 7.57+0.13 % to 7.89+0.08 %. Protein in UHT milk ranged from 3.16+0.11 % to 3.24+0.03 %, in Pasteurized milk protein ranged from 2.92+0.09 % to 3.05+0.03. Lactose in UHT milk ranged from 3.90+0.01 % to 4.08+0.04 %, in Pasteurized milk lactose ranged from 3.69+0.16 to 4.05+0.04. Ash in UHT milk ranged from 0.70+0.003 % to 0.75+0.003 %, in Pasteurized milk ash ranged from 0.54+.08 % to 0.73±0.01 %. Water added in UHT milk ranged from 6.36+0.33 % to 11.11+0.06 % in Pasteurized milk water added ranged from 8.74±0.04 % to 11.54+0.02 %. pH in UHT milk ranged from 6.67+0.01 to 6.82+0.008, in Pasteurized milk pH ranged from 6.38+0.19 to 6.76+0.11. Acidity in UHT milk ranged from 0.15+0.03 % to 0.16+0.06 % and in Pasteurized milk acidity ranged from 0.14+0.003 % to 0.16+0.01 %. TPC in Pasteurized milk ranged from 5.0 x 104+1.2 x 104 to 6.8 x 104+2.3 x 104 . Coliform count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 62+3.84 to 378+25.98. Staph aureus Count in Pasteurized milk ranged from 63.33+4.41 to 275.32+17.32. All UHT milk brands were found negative for TPC, Coliform, Staph aureus and Yeast and Mold count. The qualitative tests adulterants were performed by (M.A.T) Kit. In UHT and Pasteurized brands the adulterants found were Salt, Sugar, Starch and Hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion On the basis of present finding, it is concluded that water addition was one of the major factors present in every segment of milk marketing which decreases the fat and SNF content of milk and markedly effect the physical and chemical quality of milk. Consumers may also be facing potential public health hazards caused by chemical adulteration and food borne pathogens in the milk. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1207,T] (1).

170. Seasonal Variations In Zinc Status Of Livestock Of Okara And Hafizabad Districts Of Punjab

by Ahsan Farid | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Livestock doles out 51.8% of agricultural value added and it shares 11.3% to national GDP. Livestock supports the lives of 30-35 million people in rural areas. The total population of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in the Pakistan is 33.0, 29.9, 27.4 and 58.3 millions, respectively. The beef and mutton production is 1,601 and 509 thousand tons respectively. The milk production from cow, buffalo, sheep and goat is 14,982, 27,028, 36 and 719 (000 tons) (Anonymous, 2009). The livestock sector of Pakistan is very important. It is the rich source of food items like milk, meat etc. and also provides raw material to industry like leather, wool, bones, hair etc. Livestock production mainly depends on two factors; management and nutrition. The provision of feed stuffs of adequate balanced nutrition is likely to be the most limiting factor in increasing livestock production. One of the vital components of nutrition is minerals which play important role in various body functions and body structures of animals. Minerals' deficiency is the major problem of livestock and its estimation in blood, soil, forages will be helpful for providing balance nutrition to livestock. The basic aim of the study was to identify the imbalance and deficiencies of micro mineral (Zinc) in livestock of two districts of Punjab province. For this purpose, samples of blood, water, soil, crops and feed stuffs were taken. For the purpose of sampling, each district was divided into five sub-locations and these were considered as representative area of the district. Samples were taken from each sub-location. These samples were brought to laboratory for analysis. For analysis of minerals, Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was used. Samples were analyzed for Zinc. The maps were developed on basis of geographical distribution of the Zn in soil, water, forages and animals' status with the help of GIS technology based on Global Positioning System. This study was helpful in providing the information about the present Zinc status in livestock of two districts to formulate rations and premixes. The data thus collected was subjected to one-way anova and t-test (Steel etal, 1997). Significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between summer and winter seasons for Zn in plasma of goats and Kids in Hafizabad and Okara districts. Significant (p<0.05) difference was seen in Zn status of plasma of sheep, buffalo and cattle during all physiological stages between summer and winter seasons in Hafizabad and Okara districts. Significant (p<0.05) difference was found in Zn status of plasma of lambs during winter and summer seasons between Hafizabad and Okara districts. Non significant (p>0.05) was observed for Zn value in plasma of goat, kids and sheep during summer and winter season between Hafizabad and Okara districts. Significant (p<0.05) difference was seen in lactating cattle and young stock buffalo during both seasons and in young stock cattle during winter season between Hafizabad and Okara districts. Non significant (p>0.05) difference was observed in lactating, dry/pregnant buffalo and dry/pregnant cattle during summer and winter seasons between both districts. The highest value of Zn was seen in young stock buffalo (1.43 ± 0.15 ppm) in Hafizabad district during winter season and the lowest value was found in sheep plasma (0.70 ± 0.01 ppm) during summer season in Okara district. The highest value for Zn level in the soil is found in Hafizabad district (4.10 ± 0.02 ppm) during winter season and in Okara district (3.16±0.07 ppm), during summer season. The overall value of Zn for summer and winter seasons was highest for Hafizabad (3.47 ± 0.05 ppm) district. In wheat fodder, the highest value of Zn was seen in Hafizabad district (0.0228 ± 0.005 mg/kg) and for Sorghum fodder highest value was observed in Okara district (374.0 ± 177.4 mg/kg). In corn grain, the highest value of Zn was seen in Okara district (0.0288 ± 0.002mg/kg). The highest value for wheat grain was observed in Hafizabad district (680 ± 216.2 mg/kg) and for rice grain in Okara district (55.2 ± 24.9 mg/kg). In wanda, significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between both districts. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1209,T] (1).

171. Comparative Efficacy Of Intravesical Mucosal And Extravesical Apposition Techniques For Ureteroneocystostomy in Dogs

by Muhammad Talha Sajjad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shahan Azeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different techniques of Ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral reimplantation in dogs. Sixteen stray dogs were selected and were divided into two groups i.e. group A & B, comprising eight animals each. The efficacy of the procedures was evaluated on the basis of physical examination, serum evaluation for creatinine & urea, contrast radiography and post mortem findings. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia in both the groups and urinary bladder was exteriorized in both the groups. In group A, longitudinal incision was made near the bladder dome, a mosquito hemostat was passed from the surface of the bladder through the bladder wall at an oblique angle then the ureter was brought to the level of the bladder mucosa incision. A 6-0 Polyglactin 910 (Vicyrl,Jhonsons & Jhonsons Pharma) suture with double needles was then placed at each apex of the spatulated ureter and the full-thickness of ureter anastomosed to the bladder mucosa in one layer with a continuous, nonlocking stitch. In group B, two small incisions were made at the outer part of the bladder wall until the mucosa was seen through the cuts. Then a submucosal tunnel was dissected between them and the graft's ureter was introduced. Once the ureteral end has been spatulated, a reabsorbable 4-0 suture thread with independent needles at each end was passed (each needle goes from the outer to the inner side of the ureteral wall. Afterward, both needles were advanced into the bladder by the creation of a mucosal incision at the distal hole; these two needles then transfixed the bladder wall from inside about 2 cm distally. During knotting of the suture (outside the bladder) the distal ureter was pushed to the bladder wall that it anchored against the mucosa. The results of this study clearly indicated that both techniques are equally effective for the reimplantation of the ureter to bladder but an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy (Modified Lich Gregoir) has an edge over in intravesical mucosal apposition technique (Modified Lead better-Politano) in terms of effectiveness , safety and minimum postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1210,T] (1).

172. Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years. In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season. The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region. In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed. In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR. From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection. Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6% H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1211,T] (1).

173. Implications Of Varying Electrolytes (Sodium Potassium And Chloride And Their Balance On Growth Performance and Physiologcal Responses of Broilers

by Mirza Muhammad Haroon | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad | FAPT.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A series of experiments were envisaged to evaluate the effect of supplementation of dietary electrolytes with applicability of dietary electrolyte balance by using different salts on growth and carcass responses, body physiological responses and litter condition of modern day broiler chickens under phase feeding system. Day-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments replicated four times in such a way that a floor space of 0.09 m2 was provided to each bird. Birds were housed in environmental control system. Continuous light was provided 24 hours for the first 3 day and thereafter a light pattern of 23L:ID was adopted for the entire experimental. In each experiment, a basal diet was formulated having lowest level of each electrolyte. In experiment 1, Na and DEB in the basal diet were maintained at 0.08% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was then supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and disodium sulphate (Na2SO4) to maintain four levels of Na (0.17, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.44%) by fixing K and Cl with DEB 200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg, respectively. In experiment 2, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of K and DEB i.e. 0.70% and 160 mEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with potassium sulphate (K2S04) and potassium carbonate (K2C04) by fixing Na and Cl. So, four levels of K (0.86, 1.02, 1.18, and 1.34%) were maintained in eight dietary treatments. In experiment 3, a basal diet was prepared to contain the lowest level of Cl and DEI3 i.e. 0.17% and 320 rnEq/kg, respectively. This basal diet was supplemented with ammonium chloride (NH4CI) or calcium chloride (CaCl2), so that, in each diet, we can have the increase of 40 mEq/kg DEB at 0.3 I, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% of Cl at DEB 280, 240, 200 and 160 mEq/kg, respectively, by fixing Na and K. At the end of each phase (pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher); data of feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio, mortality, water intake, water intake-to-feed intake ratio and litter quality were collected and evaluated. At the end of each experiment, two birds were slaughtered for their carcass and body physiological responses. Blood was also collected from these same birds for blood pH. glucose and serum mineral analyses. For statistical analyses, four (4) levels of electrolyte were used with two (2) sources of salt in a factorial arrangement of 4 x 2 under completely randomized design using GLM. In experiment 1, highest weight gain and feed intake were found in birds consuming 0.17% (NaHCO3) and 0.44% (Na2SO4) dNa, respectively during d 1-10. However during d 11-20, weight gain and feed:gain were reduced with same levels of dNa. Maximum weight gain was found in diets containing 0.17 and 0.24% dNa during d 21-33 and 34-42, respectively. Improved FG was the result of diets containing 0.20% (NaHCO3) and 0.37% (Na2SO4) dNa during d 2 1-33. Linear rise in water intake was observed in birds with increasing dNa during d 1-42. Minimum litter dampness was seen at 0.37% (NaHCO3) and 0.2 1% (Na2SO4) during d 1-10. Minimum and maximum mortality were observed at 0.37% level of dNa in case of supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2SO4, respectively. Significantly increased pH and kidney weight while reduced dressing percentage were observed by amount and salt of dNa. Increased breast, thigh and gizzard weights were observed with increasing sodium. Weights of pancreas, gall bladder, bursa, and lungs, and shank length were affected by interaction of amount and salt of dNa. In experiment 2, BWG (P0.03) and feed:gain (P0.05) was improved at 1.20% dK during 32 to 42 d of age. K2S04 supplemented diets increased feed intake during I to 10 d (P<0.05), water intake during 34 to 42 d (P0.04) and mortality during 1 to 42 d (PE0.02). Water intake was increased linearly with increasing dK when supplemented by K2C03 whereas this was decreased linearly with increasing dK with that of K2S04 during 11 to 20 d (P0.002). The K2S04 supplemented diets lowered the blood pH (P0.00l), dressing (P0.04), abdominal fat (P0.03) weights and shank length (P0.02). A significant salt x dK effect was observed where low levels of dK with K2C03 and high levels with K2504 exhibited lower litter moisture during all phases. Increasing concentration of serum cations was observed by increasing dK, by balancing of increasing serum HCO3 with decreasing Cl at the end of the experiment. In experiment 3, body weight gain and water consumption were optimized at 0.73%, and 0.73% (CaCI2) and 0.45% (NH4CI), respectively, during d 1-10. During d 2 1-33, maximum weight gain and feed intake were observed at 0.42%, and 0.63% (CaCI2) and 0.63% (NH4CI), respectively. Highest weight gain (0.60% dcl), feed intake (0.61% CaCI2 0.42% NH4CI) and mortality (0.73%) while improved feed:gain (FG; 0.38% dCl) were obtained by interaction effects of amount and source of dCl during d 34-42. Fl (0.60%), feed:gain (0.3 8%) and litter moisture (0.31% NH4CI; 0.35 CaCl2) was affected during I -42d by amount of dcl. Increased blood pH, serum glucose and dressing percentage were found by dCl and replacing CaCI, with NH4C1. Improved breast meat, thigh meat and shank length while reduced abdominal fat were observed by replacing salts (CaCI2 withNH4Cl). It is concluded that birds showed better growth performance and reduced mortality against high levels of dietary sodium in Na2SO4 than NaHCO3 supplemented diets, while significant rise in pH, breast and thigh meat yield while reduced dressing percentage were observed with increasing dietary sodium. The importance of high concentration of dK for better weight gain and feed efficiency was depicted in later stages of production. K2C03 increased survivability and dressing responses but both dK levels and salts played important role for water intake, litter condition, carcass characteristics and serum mineral concentration. Birds were also suggested to be more sensitive to amount and source of dC1 in later part of their life. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1212,T] (1).

174. Effect Of Strawberry Juice On Angiogenesis Using Chorioallantoic Membrane (Cam) Assay

by Sadia Abrar | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a hallmark of almost all neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative diseases. Targeting angiogenesis with natural antiangiogenic compounds may lead to safe, effective and low cost budget therapies. Strawberries provide various vital natural substances which have a significant role in human health and disease prevention. In our study, we have focused on the effect of strawberry juice on angiogenesis using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Fresh fertilized eggs were taken, sprayed with 70% ethanol and incubated at 37 °C (humidity 55-60%). At day 5 of incubation a small window was made on each egg, 4-5 ml of albumen was removed, windows were sealed with sterile parafilm and eggs were returned to incubator. Strawberry juice was obtained from fully ripened strawberry fruits and various dilutions were prepared in distilled water. Filtered dilutions of the juice were used for experimental analysis and applied to the CAMs on day 6. of incubation. Macroscopic vascular changes were evidently observed among all treated CAMs on day 7 of incubation. Reduction in the total area and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels was observed after treatment with strawberry juice in concentration dependent manner. By using SPIP software 3D surface roughness measurements were carried out which clearly elaborated antiagiogenic effect of strawberry juice on CAMs. Strawberry juice inhibits angiogenesis, which is a common denominator shared by various major disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1213,T] (1).

175. Processing, Nutritional Evaluation And Utlilization Of Rumen Content For Fattening Of Nili-Ravi Male Calves

by Muhammad Waqar Khan | Prof. Dr. Arata Koga | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The cost of feed, as percentage of total production costs, accounts for about 50-60% of ruminant feeding systems. According to estimates, Pakistan is deficient by 40 and 80 percent in forage and concentrate feeds. For economical production of balanced feed for livestock, poultry, fish and pet animal, non-conventional feed resources need to be explored to find solution to the existing gaps. For this purpose the present study was conducted to determine the nutritional profile, processing and utilization of rumen contents in buffalo feed. The study was conducted in three phases. In phase one, bovine rurnen contents were collected from the slaughter house near Bakar Mandi and were analyzed at Nutrition laboratory. UVAS, Lahore. In phase two, rumen contents were ensued with wheat straw. with and without addition of 6% molasses for a period of 90 days at Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Proportion of'rumen contents and wheat straw were 1:1 on DM basis. Wheat straw was also treated alone by reducing its DM to 44% with water and by addition of 6% molasses. In two types of silages the wheat straw was urea treated @ 4% on DM basis of wheat straw by making 25% solution. The pH of silagesi (containing rumen contents and wheat straw 50:50 on DM basis) of ruinen contents is 4.78 and of silage2 (containing rumen content, wheat straw and molasses. 47:47:6 on DM basis respectively) is 4.70. The pH of silage3 (containing rumen contents and wheat straw (urea treated), 50:46:4 respectively) is 4.92 and pH of silage4 (containing rumen contents and wheat straw (urea treated) and molasses, 47:43:4:6 respectively) is 5.1 Irespectively. The silage containing rumen contents and wheat straw showed a increase in CJ' as compare to simple rumen content and silage which were urea treated have significant (p<O.05) increase in CF. In phase three, a metabolic trial was conducted at Buffalo Reaearch Institute, Pattoki, in which 25 male buffalo calves were fed the diets having tOtal mixed ration (100%TMR) (Tc), 70%TMR with 30% silagel ('I'I), 70% 1'MR plus 30% silage2 (T2), 70%TMR with 30% silage3 ('13), and70% TMR plus 30% silage4 (T4). The data thus obtained was statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The significant differences between means were tested by Duncan's Multiple Range test. Among the treatments containing ensued rumen contents without molasses, feed efficiency was significantly (P<0.05) more efficient than those silages which were ensiled along with molasses. I lowever, the I)M intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group and silage treated with noIasses and urea. When means were compared there were significant differences among all treatments for DM intake and feed efficiency. Comparatively efficient TMR (I &3) are those which formulated with those silages (silagel&3) which do not contain molasses. TMR1 is the most economical and the best efficient TMR which is formulated with silagel (containing just rumen content and wheat straw 50:50 without any treatment of urea and molasses). Even TMR formulated with silage I is more efficient than control 'l'MR and it also economical as compare to control TMR. It was concluded that rumen contents could replace 50% of conventional TMR without any adverse effects on health of buffalo calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1214,T] (1).

176. Linkage Analysis Of Myp12 And Myp14 In Families From Lahore

by Maryam Zahra | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Myopia is one of the most common refractive errors of the eye worldwide that can effect clarity of vision, limit occupational choices and contribute to increased risk to vision threatening conditions. Six families of different casts were enrolled from Lahore (Punjab). Total of six autosomal dominant families were screened for linkage to the known nonsyndromic autosomal dominant and QTL myopia locus, MYP12 and MYP14 respectively. 5mL blood sample were collected aseptically in a 5Oml falcon tubes containing EDTA. DNA extraction was done by inorganic method. Three markers for each locus were selected from literature and redesigned by using 'primer 3' software. These markers were optimized for their annealing temperature and specific concentration of PCR ingredients by gradient PCR. After that all of the markers were amplified separately on genomic DNA samples of each family. PCR products of each of the marker were run on 1.2 % agarose gel along with 50 base pair ladder to visualize the bands of amplified products at 110 volts for 30 minutes. Linkage analyses were carried out by genotyping through PAGE unit of Major Science, model no. MV-2ODSYS. PCR products were run on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) to examine amplified bands of microsatellites. A standard 5Obp DNA ladder was run along with the sample PCR products as a reference. By reading the alleles appeared on gel haplotypes were constructed for each member of these families. The overall results of this study did not show evidence for linkage of myopia in thee families to the selected loci MYP12 and MYP14 on chromosomes 2 and 1 respectively. It might be possible any other identified locus or any new locus involved in this population of Pakistan. The findings represented here do not represent the conclusion of this study but do provide ongoing data for further investigation into the exact gentic causes of mypia in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1216,T] (1).

177. Characterization Of Indigenious Species Of Mycotoxins Producing Aspergilli

by Gull Naz | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Pakistan's economy is based on agriculture. Agriculture crops are harvested and stored in feed mills for production of thousands ton of feed for livestock as well as poultry through out the year. In Pakistan, July and August are hot and humid months during which moulds grow abundantly on the heaves of wheat! rice/maize straw and feed ingredients and produce variety of toxins. Present study has been designed to explore different groups of moulds prevailing in and around Lahore city in each month of the year. Samples of soil and air were collected from ten different places of Lahore city. A total of 240 samples were cultured on a common Saboraud's Dextrose Agar to get single colonies of each mould. These single colonies were identified by colony characters, slide cultures and biochemical tests. Mycotoxin producing Aspergilli were isolated by culturing on specified media and placing the cultures under Wood's lamp. Mycotoxin productions potential were assessed by extracting mycotoxins of these Aspergilli. Mycotoxins produced by the Aspergilli were identified and purified through Thin Layer Chromatography. These mycotoxins were then quantified through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The identified and purified mycotoxins can be used as standards. Reference standards are important and critical for qualitative and quantitative detection of mycotoxins in field samples screening. Presently mycotoxin is a ban item. The occurrence of toxinogenic Aspergilli have economic impact directly on livestock and poultry products export. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1217,T] (1).

178. Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs

by Adeel Shahbaz | Prof Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr. Shahan Azeem | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used. In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1218,T] (1).

179. Detection Of Hazardous Organism In Raw And Pasteurized Milk With Particular Reference To 3Enterobacteriaceae

by Ayesha | Prof. Dr. Mansur ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to detect the hazardous organisms in raw milk from public health point of view. In total one hundred twenty (120) milk samples were collected from milk retail shops in and around Lahore. Out of these 120, one hundred samples were of raw milk and rests of the twenty samples were of pasteurized milk. Their microbiological quality was studied by performing standard plate count (SPC), coliform count and identification of hazardous bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The micro flora of milk was also studied for the prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Milk supplied in Lahore city was found to have poor microbiological quality. Bacterial load was determined by SPC and coliform count. The standard plate count (S.P.C) of the raw milk ranged from 4.2x106 to 7.7xl07 c.f.u/ml. The coliform counts ranged from 3.4x 104 c.f.u /ml to 6.9x105 /ml. A total of 81 isolates were identified from raw milk samples. These included Yersinia (3 strains), Klebsiella (16 strains), Escherichia coli (14 strains), Enterobacter (11 strains), Shigella (3 strains), Salmonella (19 strains) and' Proteus (15 strains).The standard plate count for pasteurized milk ranged from 1.45x104 c.f.u/ml to 3.8x 105 c.f.u/ml. The minimum and maximum coliform count was 7.2x102 to 8.4xl03 c.f.u/ml respectively for pasteurized. All samples were outside the international standard for coliform bacteria. A total of 13 isolates were identified from pasteurized milk samples. These included Yersinia (2 strains), Klebsiella (1 strains), Escherichia coli (6 strains), Enterobacter (2 strains), Shigella (1 strains) and Proteus (1 strains). All the isolates showed multiple drug resistance to various commonly used antibiotics in veterinary practices. Escherichia coli were resistant to all antibiotics used except Gentamicin (10µg). Enterobacter was sensitive to all the antibiotics used except to Ampicillin (10µg). Shigella was sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg), Kanamycin (30µg), Choloramphenicol( 25µg), but showed resistance to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg)., Salmonella was resistanct to Ampicillin (10µg), Oxytetracycline ( 25µg), Streptomycin (10 µg), Pencillin (10 µg) and Tribrissin (25µg). But sensitive to Gentamicin (10µg). .All the isolates showed greatest resistance to Penicillin (10 ug.) whereas, most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentamycin, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol. Finally, it is recommended that the members of the public should always boil raw milk before consumption because of their microbial content. Therefore, it is highly recommended that hygienic practices and regulations, such as on-site pasteurization and implementation of HACCP following established standards, should be introduced to facilitate the production of raw milk of high quality and safety. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1219,T] (1).

180. Study On Chemical Composition Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Milk

by Yasir Abrar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Jaleed | Mr. Muhammad Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Milk is a complete food and contains all the nutritional components in balanced form. It helps to meet important nutritional needs of the human body. Vitamins, minerals, sugar, Fat, and protein are present in milk. Among the established breeds of buffalo in Pakistan. the Nili-Ravi breed originated in the valleys of Sutlej and Ravi rivers is dominant in the Punjab province. The purpose of the study is to determine the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The milk animals, Buffaloes were divided into 3 groups on the basis of lactation period i.e early, middle and late lactation. Five animals were present in each group. Six milk samples. 3 in the morning and 3 in the evening from each animal was collected. A total of 90 milk samples were obtained for analysis. Milk in bottles of 500 ml capacity was transported to lab. [he samples were analyzed in Livestock Production Research Laboratory, Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurnagar (Okara). Temperature, Density, Conductivity and freezing point was determined by using Milkoscan. Buffalo samples were analyzed for proximate analysis, parameters like fat, crude protein, lactose, ash, solids not fat, total solids, pH and acidity were determined. Fatty acid profile of buffalo milk was determined by the method of AOAC (2000). Milk fat content (%)was Ihund to be significantly (p<0.05) lower in the early (6.52) and mid lactation (6.61) stages than the late lactation stage (6.85). The content of TS (%) was found to be significantly (p<O.05) higher in the late lactation (14.62 and 15.45) stage than the early (12.94 and 13.65) and mid lactation (13.76 and 14.14) stages. In contrast, the content of total protein (4.31 to 4.78%), SNF (X.4() to8.70%), lactose (4.36 to 4.74%), and ash (0.l8to 0.19%) did not vary significantly among the different lactation stages. Fatty acids profile also checked from Cl to C20. The values of Butyric acid, Caproic acid. Myristic acid, Stearic acid, and Oleic acid showed significant increase towards end of lactation. 'lhcse values of fatty acids also revealed that there is significant difference among the animals and between the lactation stages of Nih- Ravi buffalo milk. Results showed that Capric acid, Laurie acid, Palmitic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Linoleic and Linolenic acid decreased in early to middle and increased towards end of lactation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1220,T] (1).

181. Genetic Study Of Ushic/Dfnb18 By Linkage Analysis

by Muneer Ahmad | Mr. Tanveer Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Deafness refers to conditions in which individuals are fully or partially unable to detect or perceive at least some frequencies of sound which can typically be heard by members of their species. In human beings, the term hearing impairment is usually reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech frequencies. In the present study, six families were identified which were collected from FATA, Lahore and Sheikhupura and were consist of at least two deaf people. Pedigrees of the affected families were drawn using Cyrillic software. Blood samples were collected from these families. DNA was extracted through Inorganic protocol. The creening of the affected families was done for known deafness locus, USH1C/ DFNBI8. Then the PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Eletrophoresis) was done and haplotypes were constructed to determine whether a family was linked to deafness locus or not. Out of six families, no family was linked to USHIC/ DFNB18 locus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1223,T] (1).

182. Clinicopathological Changes Induced By Heat Stress, Their Resolution By Minerals And Vitamin C Supplementation In Quails

by Khurshid Anwar | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was designed to overcome heat stress in Japanese quails through potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and vitamin C solution in calculated amount in water on thermo tolerance, histopathology and hematology of quails exposed to heat stress: This experimental trial was carried out at Avian Research and Training Centre (ARTC), UVAS Lahore and tests were performed at Department of Pathology UVAS, Lahore. There were three replicates in each treatment group and each replicate was of twenty quails, each group was comprised of 60 birds. The body weight of each the bird was. recorded on weekly basis. Blood samples were collected on the 21, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30 and 31 days of treatment from each group to evaluate the serum potassium and bicarbonate level in the blood. For hematological parameters the blood samples were collected on 22, 28 and 31 day of treatment and the vital organs for histopathology were collected after slaughtering 3 birds from each group. The hematological parameters were studied and the data was analyzed by two ways ANOVA. Group A quails revealed significantly higher weight gain than those of group B, but no significant difference was observed, when all groups were compared. Significantly less weight gain was revealed by the quails of group B, when compared to all other groups. Comparison between groups A, C, D, E, F and G was non significant. The highest FCR was exhibited by the birds of group A while the group B showed the poorest FCR. Better FCR was exhibited by group C, D, E, F and G. Serum samples were obtained from each group, for bicarbonate and potassium determination by spectrophotometric method. Group A, C, E, F and G exhibited a significantly higher serum potassium level than those of groups B and D. A significantly higher bicarbonate level was revealed in the serum of group A, D, E, F and G as compared to group B and C, on day 23 and onwards. But no significant difference was observed in serum of groups A, D, E, F and G. Blood hematology revealed no significant difference in red blood cells of groups A, C, D, E, F and G. Group B exhibited a significant lower values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, basophils, monocytes and showed a significant increase H/L ratio and eosinophils when compared to all other groups. Histopathological studied showed infiltration of heterophils, hyperemia, congestion of liver, heart and adrenal gland. It is concluded that, quails of group B (kept in high environmental temperature) revealed a decreased weight gain, poorest FCR, decreased serum potassium and bicarbonate level, decrease in hematocrit, monocytes and basophils and increased in eosinophils and H/L ratio. Supplementation of electrolytes and vitamin C (125 mg/L KC1, 75 mg/L NaHCO3 and vitamin C 62.5 mg/L) in water effect on heat stressed quails exhibited the better results in term of weight gain, serum electrolytes, blood profile and histology than those quails kept in heat stressed condition with no supplementation. From the present results it is concluded that 125 mg/L of KCI, 75 mg/L of NaHCO3 and 62.5 mg/L of vitamin C solution in water, alone or in combination may be used in quails to combat the effect of high ambient temperature and heat stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1226,T] (1).

183. Impact Of Various Feeding Regimes On Growth Performance Of Male Buffalo Calves

by Rashid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animal origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem is to increase the production of meat. The potential of buffalo as a food animal to meet present and future demands of rapidly growing population deserves special attention because of its capacity to economically convert course roughages and other cereal by products into meat. Pakistan is second largest buffalo holding country in the world having 29 million buffalo. Traditional system of buffalo meat production is inefficient; animals destined for slaughter are mostly culled and old stock. Male calves are not reared specifically for producing meat but they are kept only for milk let down in villages and are slaughtered even at 6-7 days of age in pen-urban areas. So far very little work has been done to evaluate the tremendous meat production potential of buffalo calves with a particular plan of nutrition. Present study consisted of a feeding trial of about three months in duration. Fifteen Nih Ravi calves of approximately the same age and weight were selected for the subject study. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups which were reared on three different feeding regimes. Group I was fed TMR ad-libitum and 2 kg of green fodder. Group II was fed available green fodder ad-libitum and concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight. Group III was fed Lucerne hay ad-libitum and concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight. . Weighed quantity of feed was offer to every animal on individual feeding basis in a group and refusal was also recorded individually. The results of study revealed that animals fed on TMBR performed better as compared to other feeding regimes. Among three feeding groups, highest (124.60 ± 7.82 kg) weight gain was observed in TMBR group while, lowest (108.20 + 5.80 kg) weight gain was found in Hay group. As far as feed intake is concerned, highest (777.42 + 8.87 kg) feed intake was observed in fodder group while, lowest (755.10 ± 16.61 kg) feed intake was found in TMBR group. Out of three feeding groups, calves fed on TMBR showed best feed conversion ratio (6.07 ± 0.47) while, the feed conversion ratio in calves fed on hay and fodder was 7.04 ± 0.39 and 7.01 ± 0.32 respectively. Economic analysis per kg weight gain revealed that TMBR group had the lowest cost of production in rupees (101.43 ± 7.92) per kg weight gain, where as highest cost of production (130.40± 7.40) was found in hay group. Analysis of variance of serum chemistry means revealed that no significant differences were found in total protein, urea, glucose, and creatinine values for all three feeding regimes. On the basis of results of this study it is concluded that TMBR can be utilized as an alternate for our conventional feeding practices as it can meet all nutritional requirements of the animal. It is easy to handle, transport and store besides having a longer shelf life. It is suggested that further trials with TMBR be carried out on different age and sex groups of buffalo and cattle in order to evaluate its effects on the performance of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1227,T] (1).

184. Immuo-Pathological Response Of Pigeons To Challenge Infection Of Newcastle Disease Virus (Ndv)

by Yasir Amin | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This study trial was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two locally available live Newcastle disease vaccines (Medivac ND LaSota and VRI, Mukteshwar ND vaccine), also to compare two routes (Oral and Ocular) of vaccine administration in term of antibody titre and assessment of protection against field (chicken) isolated virulent Newcastle virus challenge (NDV) in pigeons. Study of clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesion in different organ of non-vaccinated and challenged birds was also the part of our present study. For this purpose one hundred and twenty pigeons were purchased from the local market and screened for Newcastle disease antibodies using Hemagglutination inhibition test. Healthy pigeons were randomly divided into six groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 20 birds each. Group E and F were kept as positive and negative Control respectively. Group A and C were vaccinated with Medivac ND LaSota vaccine at day 7th and 21st of experiment through oral and ocular route. Similarly Group B and D were immunized with VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine through oral and ocular route respectively. At 28th day of experiment all the groups except group F were challenged with velogenic field isolate of NDV at a dose rate of 0.1 ml through ocular route. Serum samples were collected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 of experiment for the determination of antibody titre. Post-infection clinical signs in control positive group were i.e. anorexia, dullness, depression, decreased feed intake, discharge from mouth, greenish diarrhea, nervous manifestations, leg and wing paralysis. Gross lesions on different organs were hemorrhages in trachea, proventriculus, spleenomegaly and greenish intestinal contents. Medivac ND LaSota vaccine produced higher immune response in term of antibody titre as compared to VRI (Mukteshwar) ND vaccine. It was also observed that ocular route irrespective to vaccine type produced significantly (P<0.05) higher immune response than oral route. Vaccine strains used in this study efficiently induced immune response through ocular route, suggesting that implementation of this vaccination programs in future may prevent ND outbreaks in pigeons, especially in racing pigeons, and may prevent NDV spread to other avian species, mainly poultry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1228,T] (1).

185. Haematologial And Immunological Effects Of Naturally Occurring Probiotic (Yogurt) And Garlic Supplementation On Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was undertaken to study the various hematological. immunological and gross/histopathological parameters in ND vaccinated chicks with different supplementation of yogurt and garlic. For this purpose one hundred twenty-six day old broiler chicks were divided into three experimental groups A, B and C. each having 42 chicks per group. The group B and C \\ere Further subdivided into 3 groups yl, y2, y3 and gi, g2. g3 respectively comprising of 14 chicks per group having different supplementation of yogurt and garlic respectively, while group A was kept as a control and fed basal diet having no supplementation. Our result showed that yogurt augmented serological response and help in increasing HI antibody titer in which 200 gm yogurt showed immense potential in increasing HI titer until last day of experiment. All levels of Garlic group augmented serological response in term of antibody titer hut remain statistically insigni flcant in increasing HI titer.The heterophil population and I I/L ratio was also improved in both yogurt and garlic groups however 40 grn garlic fed group showed a better response in increasing hctcrophil population. TLC remains insignificant both at treatment and levels throughout the experiment. Body weight gain and FCR was also improved with yogurt and garlic supplementation however 200 gm yogurt showed a curvilinear response over the range of yogurt bd levels. Yogurt and garlic supplementation also showed improvement in the development of immune organ such as spleen, thymus and liver, their I listological examination revealed that an increase in supplementation of yogurt and garlic have no lethal effect upon morphological structure of these organs. In conclusion, yogurt as a probiotic and garlic as a growth promoter agent displayed a greater efficacy in increasing HI titer, heterophils population and improving productive performqnce of broilers in which 200 gm yougurt/kg diet group and 40gm garlic/kg diet showed an immense potential in improving above traits, so their use in broiler diet should be considered instead of using costly commercial probiotics and antibiotics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1229,T] (1).

186. Feeding Management For Optimum Growth, Reproduction And First Lactation Performance In Sahiwal Heifers

by Muhammad Fiaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdulla | Prof. Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Sahiwal is well known dairy cattle breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of world for its excellent heat and tick resistance. The value of adequate nutrition and management of replacement heifers is mostly overlooked and production losses linked with slow growth rate are not entirely realized. Efficient utilization of nutrients like energy during pre pubertal and gestation periods is needful for melioration. The study included two experiments. The aim in first experiment was to investigate the effect of varying dietary energy levels on pre pubertal growth and age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. Twenty Sahiwal heifers (Age = 12 ± 2 month and avg. wt = 125 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments having five animals on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP=13.7%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% of NRC recommended level for small breed non bred heifers were fed to the respective groups until onset of puberty. Dry matter and protein intakes were not influenced by varying dietary energy levels during pre pubertal period. However, metabolizable energy (ME) 124% of NRC recommendation enhanced average daily gain (ADG) up to 571±15 g/d which was higher than all other dietary energy levels, whereas it was similar between ME 100% and ME 112% (442±11 and 450±05 g/d, respectively) but lower in ME 88% (397±07 g/d). The improvement in ADG of heifers fed ME 124% of NRC might be attributed to availability of excess energy nutrient for heifers to fulfill not only maintenance requirements but also to grow and develop body reserves. Provision of extra dietary energy improved efficiency of diets which might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. The 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum time period to have significantly highest ADG in Sahiwal heifers. This might be attributed to propitious physiological conditions under which heifers grow at faster rate. The optimum increase in body structures (Body length, height and heart girth) was achieved in ME 124% of NRC recommendations. The phase from 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum possessing significantly highest values of increase in body length and heart girth, whereas phase from 19 months to age at puberty was optimum to achieve significantly highest body height. The optimum increase in heart girth during first two phases (13 to 19 months of age) might be attributed to relatively faster muscle growth in body than bone growth. The digestibility percentages of nutrients (DM, CP, NDF and ADF) were not influenced by different dietary energy levels. No influence of dietary energy levels on digestibility of nutrients in the present study might be attributed to best adaptability of Sahiwal heifers to utilize diets even with low energy under local environment. Similarly, age at puberty was also not affected by dietary treatments and overall average was 833 ± 10 days. The optimum performance in terms of age at puberty at lower dietary energy level might be attributed to lesser energy requirements of Sahiwal under tropical and subtropical environment condition as elaborated by NRC (2000) that maintenance energy requirements of Bos indicus breeds including Sahiwal are about 10% lower. The similar pattern of influence was observed in serum progesterone concentration. The average of progesterone detected during a month before puberty was 0.44±0.005 ng/mL and during a month after onset of puberty was 1.48 ± 0.03 ng/mL serums. The similar rogesterone concentration among dietary treatments might be attributed to similar age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. It is concluded from results of first experiment that higher dietary energy level (ME 124% of NRC) enhanced growth parameters and feed efficiency but reproductive performance of Sahiwal heifers in terms of age at puberty was optimum even at lower dietary energy level (ME 88% of NRC recommended level) under local environment conditions of Pakistan. The aim in second experiment was to study the effect of feeding varying dietary energy levels during last trimester of pregnancy on 1st lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers. Five to six months pregnant Sahiwal heifers (n=16) were assigned four dietary treatments having four heifers on each treatment. Iso-nitrogenous (CP=14.1%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% percent of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers were fed to the respective groups until calving. After calving, all heifers were fed a similar diet having CP (16.2%) and ME (1.72 Mcal/kg). Dry matter and CP intakes were similar across the dietary treatments. Pre calving ADG was not different among heifers fed ME 112 and ME 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 05 g/d, respectively) but higher than other diets, whereas it was also higher (444 ± 07 g/d) in ME 100% than 397 ± 08 g/day in ME 88% of NRC recommendation. Feed efficiency was similar between ME 124 and ME 112% but higher than other diets, whereas ME 100% was also more efficient than ME 88% of NRC recommendation. The higher feed efficiency in higher dietary energy levels might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. Better body score through higher pre calving dietary energy level might be attributed to availability of energy for animal in surplus to its requirements of maintenance and pregnancy. Higher level of energy at this stage enabled pregnant heifers to develop extra body reserves needed in early lactation period to fulfill high demand of lactogenesis. The similar birth weight of newly born calves might be attributed to the factor that needs of conceptus (growth of fetus, fetal membranes, uterus and mammary glands) are accorded high priority by the homeorhetic controls it transmits to the dam. Extra energy levels beyond NRC recommendation during prepartum period were not advantageous to increase milk yield in 1st calf heifers. The performance of 1st calf heifers in terms of milk yield was only optimum through pre calving feeding according to NRC recommendations. The lesser milk yield in diets having higher energy levels than recommended by NRC might be attributed to more availability of mammary fat pad which may limit further parenchymal tissue development and consequently decrease milk yield during subsequent lactation. However, milk fat percentage increased as pre calving dietary energy level was increased, whereas milk protein, lactose and SNF percent among animals fed different experimental diets did not differ. It is concluded from results of second experiment that the optimal performance of pregnant Sahiwal heifers was achieved through provision of pre calving extra dietary energy (ME 112%) beyond the NRC recommendation but first lactation yield was found optimum in heifers fed diet having energy level as per recommendations of NRC. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1230,T] (1).

187. Prevalence Of Multiple Drug Resistant (Mdr) Bacteria In Intestinal Infections Of Dogs

by Iffat Habib | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem involving various bacterial species, resistance mechanisms, transfer mechanisms and reservoirs. Cats and dogs are the potential sources for spread of antimicrobial resistance in humans due to their close contact with them. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes through plasmids, integrons and transposons has been found to play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Canine antimicrobial resistant genes had been identified in bacteria isolated from human clinical infections suggesting the spread of resistance mechanisms from canine to human bacteria. The present study has been designed to study the prevalence of multiple drug resistant strains causing enteritis in dogs. 100 Samples were collected from different Pet clinics in and around of Lahore city. These samples were cultured for identification of MDR bacteria. Antibiotic resistance profile was studied by the standard Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer Method) for commonly used antibiotics. These MDR bacteria were isolated and identified as per standard protocols described in the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Different combinations of antibiotics were also evaluated for in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity for an effective treatment of these cases so that the load of MDR bacteria could be reduced. From the collected samples E. coli, Salmonella enterica, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter diversus and Psedomonas spp. were identified. Among all of these E.coli was most prevalent followed by Salmonella enterica, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus vulgaris and Psedomonas spp. Out of 127 E.coli isolates 52 40.94%) were declared as MDR-Bacteria following 50 Salmonella enterica isolates 17 (34.00%), 17 Citrobacter diversus 6 (35.29), 12 Proteus vulgaris isolates 06 (50%). It was concluded that MDR isolates were most sensitive to antibiotic combination (Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid), followed by (Oxytetracyclin + Tylosin), (Gentamycin + Ceftriaxone), and (Penicillin + Streptomycin). Out of 52 MDR E.coli isolates 23 (44.23%) were found to be invasive. Recommendations are made on prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in dogs, as well as on the need to develop science-based infection control programs in veterinary hospitals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1231,T] (1).

188. Prevalence And Effects Of Lernaea Spp. (Anchor Worm) On The Growth, Skin Histopathology And Hematology Of Catla

by Huma Tufail | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Mr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted for the duration of three months in four earthen ponds each having dimension 21 xl 3. 5x2. I m (length x width x depth) to evaluate the prevalence of Lernaea spp. and its effects on the growth of Catla catla (Thaila) and hematology and skin. The data regarding the growth performance, Lernaea and ulceration prevalence of fish was recorded on fortnightly basis. The parasite was individually collected from each fish in all four ponds after fifleen days and a detailed microscopic examination of all individuals was done. The species found in the pond fish was identified as the Lernaea cyprincaea. Our results show the highest weight gain was observed in the pond 4 (413.7 g) followed by pond 2 (378.7 g) and pond 1 (359.8 g), and pond 3 showed the lowest weight gain (357.8 g). There was no significant difference between weight gains of Catla catla irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species. The highest length increment was observed in the pond 2 (17.5 cm) followed by pond 1 (14.04 cm) and pond 3 (12.1). The lowcst length increment was in pond 4 (11.89 cm). There was no significant difference between initial and final length gain of Catla caila irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species infestation in all ponds. At the start of studies there was no infestation of lernaea on thaila. Fish was healthy and fast growing but after fifteen days of stocking L. cyprincaea infestation was observed. infestation was observed in all ponds. There was gradual increase in the rate of infestation till half of the experimental duration irrespective of the environmental changes in all ponds. Increase in the L. cyprincaea percentage in first half of the study was from 20.51% - 36.25% in pond no.1, 17.75% -25.25% in pond no.2, 6.5% - 10% in pond no.3 and 14.75% - 13.1% in pond no.4. In the second half of the experiment fish was treated with KMnO4 @ 1 ppm and common salt @ 1% of total water volume in the second half of the experiment there was a gradual decrease in the lernaea percentage due to treatment. However, the proliferation of the lernaea remained after some time of the treatment, although the lernaea percentage was decreased at the end of study. Decrease in the second half of the study was from 6.9%-5% in pond no.1, 5% - 6.45% in pond no.2, 10.83% -5% in pond no.3 and 5.7% - 5% in pond no. 4. The percentage of L. cyprinacea infestation was compared and there was significant increase in the percentage of Lernaea with the passage of time. However, after the treatment there was a significant decrease in the Lernaea percentage at the end of study. The ulceration percentage in fish was also studied in relation to the Lernaea prevalence and it showed good correspondence and higher the prevalence with higher the ulceration was observed. The ulceration percentage showed a significant difference with respect to time. The histopathological studies of thaila showed a vast difference b/w healthy and lernaeid fish skin. Healthy thaila skin has no change and variation in its structure while lernaeid thaila skin showed deep variation and ulceration. Skin burst from epidermis and cutis till lower connective tissues. Study of hematological parameters of lernaeid and non lernaeid fish blood exhibited a significant decreased in Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Monocytes and Thrombocytes count duration of the blood collection was four months. With respect to duration of exposure to parasites significant increase in the Hb and ESR and decrease in TEC, TLC, PCV and DLC show significant severity of parasitic infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1237,T] (1).

189. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Ear Mite Investiation In Cat

by Tariq Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Kamran | prof. Dr. M. Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cates are a common companion animal and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. The ear mite O. cynotis is the most common mange mite of dogs and cates. In the presence tudy, the prevalence of Otocdectes cynotis was reorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with O. cynotis were divided into four groups. In group A, ivermctin was applied topically in the ears at the dos rate of 500 ug/kg B.W (0.05ml) twise a week in the form of drops. The efficacy of ivermectin was observed by collecting the sample on day 7, 14 and 28 after the commencement of treatment. Similarly, in Group B, Fipronil (0.5ml) and in Group C, cypermethrin at the dose of 0.5ml/each ear were employed however, Groiup D was kept as control and was not given any treatment. The data obtained was statistically analysed under analysis of variance technique. Results showed that prevalence was 45.34%, 6.17% and 25.71% in Persian, Siamese and Local breeds of the cats respectively. Age wise prevalence i.e., biorth to 12 months, 1-5 years and 5 plus age group was 40.38%, 27.97% and 17.5% respectively. Insecticides used in study i.e, Iveremectin (A) and Fipronil (B) showed 100% efficacy while, Cypermethrin (c) was 75% in its performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1238,T] (1).

190. Comparative Study Of Differenr Treatment Methods For Improving The Nutritive Value Of Rice Husk

by kausar zeb | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof.Dr.Anjum Khalique | Prof.Dr.Muham.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010-2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1255,T] (1).

191. Effect Of Different Energy Sources On The Fattening Potential Of Buffalo Calves

by Mujahid Jamal Jami | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr.Abdul | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo is an important animal which contributes approximately 50% meat in Pakistan. Traditional system of meat production is inefficient. About 50 % of the male calves die during the first week of their life. Some calves are raised to 60-80 kg on extremely poor and unbalanced diets and only a few are raised to about 200 kg of live weight with very low average daily gains. Most of the meat produced in the country comes from end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. To improve meat production in country calves are required to be fattened through feed lot system. Energy-rich sources available in Pakistan include cereal grains (wheat, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, and rice), wheat bran, rice polishing and molasses etc. At the same time fats and oils are also rich source of energy and infrequently used in animal feeding. Molasses, a by product of sugar industry, is an excellent and cheaper source of energy. An objective of the study was to compare efficiency of energy sources for meat production. For this purpose, a fattening trial was conducted on 15 Nili-Ravi buffalo calves of approximately the same age and weight to study the comparative efficacy of three different energy rations. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each. Animals were offered three different rations. The experiment was carried out for 90 days. Group A was fed TMR having molasses as energy source, group B was fed TMR having com grain as energy source and group C was fed TMR with rumen protected fat as energy source. Daily feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, economics and blood parameters (blood glucose, total protein, urea and creatinin) were studied. The Data obtained was analyzed under CRD through ANOV A and the difference among treatment means were tested with LSD. The average weekly growth rate of group A, B and C was 6.23±0.187, 6.l85±O.l87 and 6.08±0.187 respectively. The average daily growth rate of group A, Band C was 0.89, 0.88 and 0.87 kg respectively. Total Mixed Ration taken by group A, B and C was 2064.5 kg, 2546.01 and 1993.7 kg respectively. The average daily feed intake was 4.59 ±O.l06, 5.66±0.106 and 4.43±0.106 kg per day of group A, B and C respectively. Group A, C had non significant difference (P>0.05) from each other while group B was significantly different from group A and C. The feed conversion ratio of group A, B and C was 5.16 ±0.25, 6.40±0.25 and 5.10±0.25 respectively. The results showed that calves fed ration C has highest FCR than ration A and B. The results of the study revealed non significant difference in the concentration of serum urea, creatinine, glucose and serum total protein among the experimental animals. The cost of one kg live weight for group A was Rs 78.73 while Rs 102.78 and Rs 129.1 for group Band C. The results showed th~t ration A was more economical than ration Band C. The findings of this study showed the benefit of utilization of different energy sources in the fattening ration of calves. Due to higher prices and demand of cereal grains, other cheaper sources such as molasses can be used for fattening as energy source. If there is unavailability of molasses and cereal grains then bypass fat (Berga fat) can be used for fattening purpose. The study revealed that each energy sources is equally effective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1268,T] (1).

192. Epidemiology And Controls Of Coccidiosis In Cattle

by Razia Sultana | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof.Dr.MAnso | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: Field study was conducted from September, 2007 to August, 2008 and a total of 2700 rectal faecal samples were collected from cattle farms of 3 categories i.e. Government Dairy Farm, Military Dairy Farm and Peri Urban Dairy Farms (Gawala Colonies) Lahore. Seventy five random samples were collected from each category of farms on monthly basis. The results of field study showed that overall prevalence of coccidiosis in cattle was 54.55%. Prevalence of coccidiosis in cattle at Military Dairy Farm Lahore was the highest (65.33%) during Autumn followed by summer (52.66%) then winter (47.66%) whereas the lowest (34.00%) during spring season. The highest (56.66%) prevalence was observed in animals between 6 & 12 month, whereas the lowest (46.33%) in animals under 6 months age. Prevalence of coccidiosis above 1 year of age was 50.66%. No coccidial oocysts was detected in calves less than 15 days old. In female animals prevalence was 51.22%.In the present study, the maximum oocyst per gram of feces (OPG) count was 65,000 whereas the minimum count was as 2000. The count was variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG in group A (under 6 month), group B (6 month to one year) and C (above one year) was 44000, 38000, and 22000, respectively. The four species of Eimeria were identified in all age groups i.e. E.bovis (29.28%) E.zuernii (26.03%) E. cylindrica (23.42%), E. ellipsoidalis (21.25%). The results of field study showed that prevalence of coccidiosis at Government Dairy Farm, Lahore was the highest during autumn (49.33%), followed by summer (44.33%), then winter (38.33%) where as the lowest during spring (30.33%). The highest (62.66%) month wise prevalence of coccidiosis was noted during August whereas the lowest (28.00%) during April. The highest ( 45.33%) prevalence of coccidiosis was observed in animals aged between 6 to 12 months, followed by 41.35% in animals under 6 months of age whereas the lowest (36.00%) above I year. Female animals were more frequently affected (41.28%) than males (39.50%).In the present study, the maximum OPG count observed was 55,000 and the minimum count as 2500. The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG of group A, B, C was 42,000, 35,000 and 20,000 . In the present study five species of Eimeria were E.bovis. E. zuernii E. cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. ellipsoidalis. The results of field study showed that prevalence of coccidiosis at Peri Urban Dairy Farms (Gawala colonies), Lahore was 71.55%. Month wise prevalence was the highest during August (90.66%) whereas the lowest (48%) during April. The seasonal prevalence indicated that it was the highest during autumn (84.00%), followed by summer (78.33 %), then winter (69.33%) whereas the lowest during spring (50.00%). The highest prevalence of coccidiosis (80.66%) was observed in animals under 6 months of age, whereas the lowest (62.33%) in animals above I year. Prevalence of coccidiosis in animals aged between 6months to 1 year was 71.66%. No coccidial oocysts were detected in calves less than 25 days old. Prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (74.61%) in females than in males (63.60%). In this study, the maximum OPG count observed was 65,000 and the minimum count as 2800. The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. The mean OPG of group A, B,C was 48,000, 38,000 and 23,000 respectively. Age wise analysis of Eimeria species showed that above mentioned five species were found in all age groups and most predominant species was E.bovis (26.39%) followed by E. zuernii (19.87%), E. cylindrica (23.60%), E.ellipsoidalis (18.63%), whereas the lowest prevalence of E.subspherica (11.49%)was noted (Table 16). The counts were variable in different age groups and found to be decreasing in adult animals. There was inverse correlation of OPG and the age of animals. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was the highest during autumn (66.22%) followed by summer (59.66 %) then winter (51.77%) whereas the lowest in spring (38.22). The role of Meteorological data i.e. temperature, humidity and rain fall on the prevalence of disease was also studied. The bionomical showed that humidity and rain fall played a very important role in the causation and spread of disease and also help in the development of sporulated oocyst. Increased temperature showed higher prevalence of disease. The results of histopatholgical studies showed that there was an increase cellular infiltration of leukocytes, cellular debris in most of intestinal portion. Results of therapeutic trials by using toltrazuril, amprolium, sulphaquinoxaline, lasalocid are presented in table 17. The result of therapeutic trials showed that efficacy of toltrazuril was better than amprolium, sulphaquinoxaline and lasalocid. No clinical signs of disease were observed in treated animals while in diseased animals signs of disease were observed i.e. animals showed diarrhoea, loss of weight gain. From the results it was noted that efficacy of toltrazuril was better than other drugs . Statistically, there was no significant difference between efficacies of all four drugs. The efficacy of per oxygen based disinfectant was higher as compare to oocide while non- treated animals showed clinical signs of disease. Statistically, there was no significant difference between efficacies of both disinfectants Result of chemo prophylactic products are presented in table 19. It was noted that sonicated vaccine showed high antibody titer as compare to non- sonicated vaccine. Result of the challenge experiments revealed that the inactivated sonicated vaccines gave 100% protection to the challenge calves. Their faeces were normal and no clinical sign was recorded even 42 days post vaccination. Few remaining live oocysts were not able to produce the disease in calves. The weight gain of treated animals was higher as compare to non-treated animals. The FCR value in treated animals was better than non treated animals " Prevalence of coccidiosis was the highest during autumn followed by summer where as the lowest during spring. Farm wise prevalence of coccidiosis indicated that it was higher in Peri Urban Dairy Farms followed by Military Dairy farm where as the lowest at Government Dairy farm. " Prevalence of coccidiosis was higher in calves below 9 months of age than above 9 months. All the animals examined for coccidian were naturally infected with coccidiosis. These animals were not experimental calves and prevelance of infection was based on random selection of animals. Overall Prevalence of coccidiosis was slightly higher in females than male. Species wise prevalence indicated that Eimeria bovis is more pathogenic than other species. " Results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that among the four drugs used i.e. Toltrazuril, Amprolium, Sulfaquinoxaline and Lasalocid. Toltrazuril showed the highest efficacy followed by Amprolium, where as Lasalocid showed the lowest efficacy. No side effects of these drugs were noted when were given at their recommended dose rate and marked clinical improvement in animals was noted after treatment. " Two disinfectants were tried. Per oxygen based disinfectant showed better results than. Oocide disinfectant. " Histopathological studies showed inflammatory granulocytic infiltration of the mucosa and cellular debris in most of intestinal portions. There were necrosis of villi and degeneration of villi. Haemorrhages in mucosa and sub-mucosa were noted. Some of the glands in the sub-mucosa of intestine showed degeneration & necrosis. " Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) antibody titer was higher in calves vaccinated with inactivated sonicated vaccines as compared to the calves vaccinated with inactivated sporulated vaccine. Results of the challenge experiments revealed that the inactivated sonicated vaccines gave protection to the challenge calves. Their faeces were normal and no clinical sign of disease were observed even 42 days post vaccination. " Weight in infected group was reduced. After treatment, high weight gain was reported in treated animals than control group. Recommendations: " Overcrowding should be avoided. " Provide good hygienic and managemental conditions in farms. " Proper drainage of rain. " Feeders and wateres should be above the level of the ground. " Regular use of coccidiostats is the need of the day. " Diseased animals particularly with diarrhoea should be separated from healthy animals. " Stocking density should be according to recommended of world Association of Parsitologists. " Contaminated faeces should be properly disposed off. " Grazing of animals during rainy season should be avoided. " Animals should be provided well balanced nutritive food. " Entry of visitors in the livestock farms should be restricted Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1281,T] (1).

193. Use Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant In Buffalo Semen Extender

by Tayyab Munir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The Buffalo is the major milk producing animal in Pakistan. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is the one of the best breeds of the world. Buffalo contributes seventy percent of total milk production in Pakistan. The excellent buffalo bulls are few in number and their semen volume and sperm concentration is also low as compared to cattle. The animal has lower fertility particularly when inseminated with frozen semen. There are many reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may reasons for poor fertility of buffalos and one of the most important reasons may be the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (POS) from the plasma membrane of spermatozoa causing damage to the membrane integrity due to lipid peroxidation. The addition of optimum level of antioxidants like BHT to buffalo semen extender before freezing may be answer to this problem. The main objective of the present study was to determine the level of total of antioxidants in the semen and to optimize the quantity of BHT in the semen extender of the Nili Rave Buffalo bulls. In this study semen from Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls ( n=10) was collected twice per week and diluted with Tris egg yolk citrate extender. Antioxidant BHT was added to the extended semen at the rate of 1.0mM, 1.0 mM and 2 mM while Control was containing no BHT. The semen was visually analyzed under phase contrast microscope for motility, vitality (Eosin/Nigrosin staining), plasma membrane (HOS assay) and acrosomal integrity (NAR), at three stages i.e. after dilution, before freezing and after freezing. For the determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), semen samples were transported under ice to Spectophotometric Laboratary, GC. University Lahore. Data collected was presented as mean= SEM. Treatment groups were compared using one way ANOVA and Results were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test using SPSS (version 16.0) ; SPSS Chicago IL. Result of this study show significant (P< 0.05) improvement in semen motility, vitality, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity at 1.5 mM BHT concentration as compared to Control, however, insignificant difference was noticed with in treated groups and with in bulls. Maximum TEAC value (2.42) was observed in the extended semen containing two mM BHT and minimum TEAC values (0.58mM) in the post thaw semen sample with BHT. It is concluded that addition of antioxidants in the buffalo semen improve the semen quality before and after freezing. Fortification of buffalo semen extender with BHT (@ of 1-1.5 mM) improved post thaw semen quality and hoped to increase the fertility of buffalo. However, field fertility trials need to be carried out for confirmation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1288,T] (1).

194. Antigenic Relatedness Of Caecal Eimeria Species In Broilers By Sds-Page

by Muhammad Tayyub | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is caused by various species of Eimeria. Avian coccidiosis is divided in two types (intestinal and caecal). Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix cause caecal eimeriosis.E.tenella is the most pathogenic species and its infection is causing huge economic losses to poultry industry world wide. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Kasur and Sheikhupura). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (65.25%) in both districts. Coccidiosis was found more prevalent in district Kasur (66.5%) as compared to Sheikhupura (63%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional methods like Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation.. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 67.5% and 12.25% respectively in 400 suspected caecal samples. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Kasur (67.5%) as compared to district Sheikhupura (63%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Kasur (13%) than district Sheikhupura (11.5%). Protein profiling of all E. tenella strains was performed to check antigenic related ness between different isolates of E.tenella. More tan ninety percent isolates were antigenically identical which showed that E.tenella isolates in both districts were antigenically related. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1239,T] (1).

195. Comparative Efficiency Of Routine Identification Methods With Molecular Technique (Pcr) For Detection Of Caecal Eimeria Species in Broilers

by Muhammad Yasir | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Caecl coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix and poultry industry is facing huge economic losses due to this infection world wide. Eimeria tenella is the most common cause of caecal coccidiosis but E. necatrix is also isolated rarely. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Lahore and Gujranwala). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. Prevalence of coccidiosis was found 68%. It was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to Lahore (64.5%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional (Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation) and molecular technique (PCR). Polymerase chain reaction was found the most sensitive ands accurate technique for species identification as compared to all conventional techniques. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 68% and 12.5% respectively. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Gujranwala (71.5%) as compared to district Lahore (64.5%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Gujranwala (13.5%) than district Lahore (11.5%). The difference in percent prevalence of coccidiosis and species of Eimeria may be due to difference in farm management, farming type, biosecurity measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1274,T] (1).

196. Effect Of Feeding Citrus Pulp Silage On The Growth Performance Of Sahiwal Calves

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Livestock is contributing about 53 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the national GDP with a total animal heads of 157.3 million but feed availability of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) is deficient by 38.10 and 24.02%, respectively. However, a decline in domestic feed resources and the need for Pakistan's livestock production to become internationally competitive are strong reasons for promoting the use of alternative locally available and cheap sources of feed ingredients, such as citrus pulp from fruit processing industry which do not attract competition in consumption between humans and livestock. The primary objective for the use of these by-products is to reduce the feed cost and consequently cost of producing a unit of the product like milk or meat as well as to fulfill the nutrients demands of animals. Citrus pulp is a by-product widely available in Pakistan and is mainly discarded as waste. Its cost is relatively low compared to its nutritive value but is seldom used as ruminant feed. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled in combination with dry roughage, to get the required moisture level of it. So in the present study citrus pulp with wheat straw was ensiled and the silage was fed to Sahiwal calves to observe its intake, weight gain as well as economics. Results of the present study revealed that the optimum level of 20% citrus pulp in feed gave good results while intake and weight gain decreased for 30% citrus pulp in feed. Average total weight gain were 27.5, 37.5, 28.75 and 23.75kg for ration A, B, C and D, respectively (containing 10, 20 and 30 citrus pulp, respectively). Average daily gain for group A, B, C and D were 0.44, 0.60, 0.46 and 0.38kg, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When average daily feed intake for each calf was calculated on dry matter basis it showed 4.40, 4.50, 3.39 and 3.13kg respectively for group A, B, C and D which was not significantly different between diets. By ascertaining the cost of the feed for ration groups it showed significance difference having average cost of production per animal per kg body weight 37.07, 23.80, 21.68 and 25.58 Rs for group A, B, C and D, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1284,T] (1).

197. Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )

by Noor Khan | Prof . Dr . Grant William Vandenberg | Prof . Dr . Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1290,T] (1).

198. Effect Of Various Concen Trayious Of Hydrogen Pereoxide On Chemical And Microbiogical Quality Of Raw Buffalo Milk

by Muhammad Ilyas Alam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Imran Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Milk is a complex mixture of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other miscellaneous constituents dispersed in water. Milk production in flush season is much more than in the normal. Milk production and supply fluctuate through out the year and during winter it is surplus to its demand. Surplus milk is available in winter due to new calving, less consumption of milk by the consumer. In winter season ample amount of green fodder is available to the animals which in turn increase the milk production. Milk and milk products being very delicate and perishable food require special handling prior to the consumption and further treatment. Pakistan due to its harsh climatic conditions people are using different methods, for the preservation of milk. They are using different chemicals, additives and antibiotics to enhance the keeping quality of milk. Present study was planned to investigate the various concentration of hydrogen peroxide or raw buffalo milk and its effect on chemical and microbiological quality of raw buffalo milk. Raw buffalo milk samples were collected from Dairy Animal Training and Research Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus Pattoki Fifty samples of raw buffalo milk (100ml each) were collected to studied the nutritional composition and microbiological quality of the milk after adding the hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide of different concentration i.e. 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%and 0.1% were used in this study. There was no significant change in the result regarding various nutritional composition of raw buffalo milk after adding the various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. There is a slight change in the lactose % during study of 48 h storage of milk at different temperature. Statistically the change which occurred in lactose during storage is significant whereas over all decrease in Solid Not Fat is non significant Mean value of TPC of raw buffalo milk treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide storage at the three different temperatures indicated that at 10° C TPC was very less as compared to control. TPC at 30° C after 48 h was 9.83x106.Which was very less as compared to TPC of control i.e. 1.195 x107. The effect of H2O2 on the quality of the milk is negligible as compared to the losses suffered without it. The hydrogen peroxide definitely have its effect as a preservative.. The use of preservative in milk and dairy products are not new in the countries where ambient temperature remains quite high. Our study suggests that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to be used for the preservation of raw milk is 0.05 % to 0.1 % Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1291,T] (1).

199. Survival Of Probiotic Bacteria In Commercial Infant Foods And Their Antimcrobial Activity Against Food Borne

by Rana Faheem Sakhawat Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Novel bio-therapeutic agents (Probiotics) are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate number provide health benefits to the consumer. Functional foods contain viable probiotic bacteria in sufficient population. Some manufacturing companies of multi national fame claim the presence of probiotics in their dairy and cereal products especially for the consumption of infants and growing children of different age groups. But neither a legal definition nor specific regulations governing probiotic food exist. There is no approved list of human foods and any bacterial strain of a known species that is traditionally used can be added. Pakistani parents spent huge amount to purchase the different infant formulas for the better nourishment of their children. Any information basing on scientific grounds which confirms the presence or absence of gut friendly bacteria will be of great value for the general consumers. It is important to ensure a high survival rate of these bacteria during the product shelf life to maintain consumer confidence in probiotic products. This study is presented to assess the viability, label correctness and diversity of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in powder milk and cereals recommended for infants. The viability of the probiotic microorganisms was evaluated throughout the shelf life. Antibacterial activity of the recovered strains was also measured against the common food borne pathogens. Isolation, identification and count of micro-organisms was carried out by serial ten fold dilutions prepared in PBS solution using the pour plate technique. Strains were propagated by inoculating the Lactobacillus in de Man Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Bifidobacterium species in Reinforced Clostridium Agar under anaerobic conditions at 42°C.Typical cell morphology, colony characteristics and biochemical tests are used for the identification of isolates. Survival rate of the microorganisms was calculated by the viable cell count which represents the original concentration of probiotics in the infant formulation. Out of the total 45 analyses it is concluded that cereal food contains Bifidobacterium species only and the number of Bifidobacterium species in all three products is more than the Lactobacillus species. Moreover, survival rate of both organisms showed a decline pattern in the terminal stage of shelf life. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species were identified and differentiated by the application of various biochemical tests including Catalase test, Carbohydrate fermentation profile and growth response at different temperature and NaCl concentration. Gram positive and catalase negative isolates fermented the glucose without the production of CO2. Isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the Stab overlay, Cross streak and Agar well diffusion method against the common food borne pathogenic bacteria i.e. E.coli, Staphylococcs aureus, Salmonella species and Bacillus subtilus. After the completion of experiments it is concluded that Bifidobacterium species have more inhibition effect against the pathogens as compare to Lactobacillus species. Overall effect of isolates was mild to strong inhibition. Bacillus subtilus was resistant to probiotics as compare to the rest of three pathogenic bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1292,T] (1).

200. Uterine Microbial Flora Of Sahiwal Cattle During Oestrus And Its Relayionship With Pregnancy Rate

by Habib- Ur- Rehman | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh | Prof. Dr. Nasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: In the present study uterine microbial flora of Sahiwal cattle during oestrus and its relationship with pregnancy rate was determined. According to the results a total of 11 bacterial species were isolated from 50 uterine samples of estrus Sahiwal cattle, maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRI), Bahardur Nagar, district Okara, Punjab province, Pakistan. The isolates include E. coli, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Citrobacter diversus, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. Tabulation of results showed that prevalence of these isolates was different among pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Moreover, E .coli, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter diversus are found to be thriving in uterus as normal microbial flora, whereas, Streptococcus spp. isolate as abnormal microbial flora appearing to be having some role in decreasing pregnancy rate. While, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella spp., and Proteus spp. Isolates could not be differentiable as normal and abnormal uterine microbial flora due to insignificant available data. Furthermore, complete blood counts of 50 blood samples of these same animals indicated that those animals harboring isolates like Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium spp. in their uterus, had more likelihood of abnormally increased value of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) than to presence of any other bacteria. But due to lower data of Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium spp isolated from total samples, only Streptococcus spp. seemed to be ranked as abnormal in Pakistani Sahiwal cattle cows. Interestingly all those animals from where Corynebacterium spp. was isolated, were showing increased values both of MCV and HCT (Hematocrit) which is indicative of their pathogenic role in causing uterine infections. On the basis of this study it can be modestly concluded that uterine microbial flora identification may serve as a better tool in assessing and foretelling the reproductive health status of the breeding animals. After necessary assessment, presence of any harmful microbial flora or pathogen can be effectively treated through either selecting an appropriate antibiotic by using culture sensitivity testing or by using any suitable bactericidal agent thereby help in boosting conception and pregnancy rates. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1293,T] (1).



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