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251. Epidemiological Trends, Clinical Profile And Risk Factors Associated With Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever In Quetta, Balochistan

by Khushal Khan Kasi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an important disease in suburbs of Quetta in particular, and other cities of Balochistan in general. The cases of this disease are brought to the public hospital for treatment purposes. The study was carried out to understand the descriptive nature of the disease with respect to geographic, temporal and personal distribution. The second part of study comprised of cross sectional as well as case-control study for the identification of different risk factors in patients as compared to their control admitted in the same hospitals. The highest numbers of CCHF cases were from Quetta i.e. 35, 82 cases were male and 19 cases of female, small scale sheep and goat farmer has highest number of cases i.e, 59. Mean age for male patients was 30.82±15.47 years, while for female patients mean age was 29.17±16.40 years with a p-value= 0.685. Mean platelet count for male and female patients was 450n.29±35934.14 and 35388.89±18081.96 respectively with a p-value= 0.270. Mean Hemogobin level for male and female patients was 11.52±2.78 and 9.80±3.23 respectively, and with a p-value=O.023. Among the patients, 5 patients were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, 9 patients were having A+ blood group, 44 with B+, 16 with 0+, 1 with AB+ and 29 was not reported, 21 patients died and the remaining patients discharged, and the highest number of cases were between April and September. A significant association exist between platelet count with respect to cases who suffered from CCHF (p-value= 0.000), male were 1.157 times more prone to CCHF as compared to female (OR=1.157), (p-value=0.629) and (CI=0.641-2.089), and animals at home have has more susceptibility to CCHF cases (OR=3.538), (p-value=O.OOO) and (CI=2.219-5.642). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1377,T] (1).

252. Genetic Diversity And Differentiation Of Domestic Buffalo Of Pakistan Through Sky And Zfy Genes Of Y Chromosome

by Muhammad Mudassar Manzoor | Mr. Taneer Hussain | Mr. Muhammad Asif | Prof. Dr. Abu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Livestock sector plays a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. Main contribution of milk comes from buffaloes and cows. Water buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) is one of the major elements of livestock in the country and possess great importance for economy in the form of milk and meat productions. Nili, Ravi,Nili-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli are major breeds of water buffalo to be found in different areas of Pakistan. Conventional classification of breeds was based on phenotypic traits. In some cases, recent genetic studies have found differences in the structure proposed. In buffalo ,one has to bear in mind that morphological changes were not the result of adaptation to the environment, but have a social significance thus may not be indicative of the genetic relationship. In recent years Y chromosomal genes have proved to be very useful for the determination of genetic relationship among population. Comparative studies have highlighted the advantages of the SRY and ZFY genes of Y chromosome.These genes have been considered as competent and powerful tool for the purpose of breed characterization and species identification of buffaloes. In livestock sector, water buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) has shown great prospective in numerous Asian countries including Pakistan. Unfortunately, there is lack of genetic data of different buffalo breeds like Nili-ravi and Kundi which needs to be established for their genetic identification.Blood samples from true representative animals of each of the two buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundi ) were collected from different Government livestock farms and their respective home tractsin Punjab and Sindh respectively. DNA was extracted by inorganic method and amplification of the SRY and ZFY(exon 5) genes of Y chromosome was done with especially designed primers using Primer3 software in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory at Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.Specific primers are designed for these genes amplification. Then primers were optimized for successful amplification with minimum reagent concentration. PCR was performed for amplification of SRY and ZFY(exon 5)genes on each sample. Sequencing was conducted on amplicons to find out the different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to make haplotypes with the help of bioinformatics software like Blast 2sequence and Neighbour Joining phylogenetic tree was constructed by using MEGA version 5 (Tamuraet al. 2011). The results obtained from this study now can contribute to the establishment of routine DNA typing service to the advantages of the buffalo in livestock industry. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1378,T] (1).

253. Chemotheraph Of Ancylostomiasis In Cats In Lahore.

by Awais Bokhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: It has been a long time since the affection of cats is with human beings. Cats have recorded as most adoptable pet of the modern world. Cats can be found anywhere in the world. Many diseases of cats are zoonotically important and they may cause zoonotic problem in human and mainly these pathogen are involved in enteric problems. The relationship of feline with human does provide many benefits to them but also act as a cause of zoonotic diseases. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from cats and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The positive samples for Ancylostoma were 65 out of 300, indicating prevalence of Ancylostomiasis was 21.66%. For the chemotherapeutical trails 18 positive cats and 6 healthy cats were divided into four groups viz. A, B, C and D with 6 animals in each group. The cats of group A were treated with Pyrantel Pamoate @ 20mg/kg orally. The cats of Group B were treated with the Albendazole @ 50mg/kg orally. The cats of Group C were kept as positive control while the cats of Group D were kept as negative control. The fecal samples were collected on day 0 pre-treatment and then on day 7th, 14th and 21st of post-treatment. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the fecal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate on these days was 43.47%, 67.39% and 94.20% respectively, against Ancylostoma. The efficacy of Albendazole on these days was 30.77%, 60.44% and 86.81% respectively, against Ancylostoma. Thus it was recorded that Pyrantel Pamoate was more effective against Ancylostoma than Albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole. Hematological study showed that the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, B and C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leukocyte count were higher in group A, B and C as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leukocyte count gradually decrease on day 7th, 14th and 21st post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Pyrantel Pamoate and Albendazole showed their positive effect on blood parameters as a result of Ancylostomiasis with more efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate as compared to that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1391,T] (1).

254. Identification Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Olri Gene And Its Association With Milk Composition In Cattle Breeds in Pakistan

by Nusrat Majeed | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Prof. Dr. Abu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan being agriculture based country has a great potential in livestock sector. it plays an important role in the economy of the country. Milk is a balanced diet because it contains all the essential nutrients like carbohydrates; fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and enzymes required for health. In these milk nutrients fat is second most important component of milk. Primary component of milk fat is triglycerides (triacylglycerols or TAG) a typical storage form of lipids. OLRI is the major protein that binds, internalizes and degrades oxidized low density lipoprotein. Ol.Rl as a protein important for oLDL metabol ism may contribute to these effects. Oxidized fat inhibits the expression of lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid transporter genes that causes a reduced uptake of fatty acids into mammary glands. As a result the concentration of triacylglycerols in milk is reduced. OLRl as a protein important for oLOL metabolism may contribute to these effects. OLR J identified as a functional and positional candidate gene product for milk fat percentage and milk fat yield. Polymorphism in Ol.Rl gene increases the milk fat percentage. If polymorphism in Ol.Rl gene is found in Pakistani Sahiwal and Ohanni cattle breeds these were help to screen the animals at younger age and also be used to characterize the different cattle breeds as a milk fat production marker. Unrelated animals were selected for this study. Blood samples were collected from different Go\'1. livestock farms/experimental stations. DNA was extracted by organic method. Primers were designed by using Primer3 software. After DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. peR product was sequenced. Sequencing results of the full length OLR I gene were analyzed by alignment of sequences with the help of Blast2sequence software. Novel S Ps were identified. Total of twenty one SNPs were identified in the samples of all breeds that were confirmed at population level by sequencing of each sample. Then total twenty one SNPs were found in all breeds. Most of SNPs were found in intronic regions. In Sahiwal only 5 SNPs are exonic and one of them is common in both Sahiwal and Red Sindhi breeds. Out of total five exonic SNPs, only two were found synonymous and rest of the three exonic SNPs were found to be non synonymous. while all other SNPs are intronic in nature. An intronic SNP is also common between Sahiwal and Dhanni breed. In Red Sindhi a SNP was observed at 3'UTR. Results were analyzed by. using the statistical software POPgene32. The mean value of expected heterozygosity that is 0.3595 is greater than the mean of observed heterozygosity that is 0.0300 that shows low variabil ity in breeds. The mean value for Shannon's Information index (1*) is 0.5421. The aim of research is to identify gene that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk. fat composition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1396,T] (1).

255. Effect Of Cholesterol Addition To Buffalo Bull Semen During Cryopreservation Procedures On Post-Thaw Survival Of Spermatozoa

by Ahmad Yar Qamar | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Cholesterol is an important constituent in the membrane fluidity regulation. This role becomes more important in the cryopreservation of sperm cells where destabilization of plasma membrane leads to intracellular ice formation causing death of the cell. The objective of the present study was to verify if addition of cholesterol in semen extender has a beneficial effect on post-thaw semen quality in buffalo bulls. This study was carried out at Al-Haiwan Sires, Sahiwal, Pakistan. Cholesterol was added to Tris-citric acid semen extender in the form of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC). Semen was collected by using artificial vagina (420 C) from four buffalo bulls. Split pooled ejaculate (n = 7), having more than 60 % visual sperm motility, were diluted at 370 C in extender containing CLC either 3mg Iml (LOW), 4 mgl ml (MED), 5 mg Iml (HIGH) or without (CON). Motility of semen samples before freezing was checked and cryopreservation was done through routine procedures. Beneficial effect of CLC in cryopreserved semen was . assessed by post-thaw motility (%), live spermatozoa (%), morphological abnormalities (%), normal acrosornes (%) and plasma membrane integrity (%) in four groups. Analysis of variance revealed that motility before freezing was significantly (P<0.05) more in MED (68.93 ± 0.51 %) as compared to CON and HIGH but non-significantly higher than LOW. Percent post thaw motility (PTM) from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (61.43 ± 0.74 %; P < 0.05) followed by LOW (50.36 ± l.15 %; P < 0.05) or HIGH (38.57 ± 2.66 %; P < 0.05) (Table 1). Percent PTM was the lowest in CON (32.86 ± 2.07 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Mean plasma membrane integrity (PM I) from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (59.36 ± 1.32 %; P < 0.05) followed by LOW (51.93 ± 1.32 %; P < 0.05) or HIGH (44.00 ± 1.65 %; P < 0.05) and was least in CON (41.14 ± 1.71 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Mean normal acrosomes from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (52.93 ± 1.78 %; P < 0.05) followed by HIGH (40.57 ± 2.01 %; P < 0.05) and CON (34.93 ± 2.89 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Buffalo bull semen in MED & LOW had significantly (P < 0.05) higher live sperm percentage (69.64 ± 1.84 & 61.43 ± 1.62, respectively) as compared to HIGH and CON samples. CON samples had significantly (P<0.05) higher morphological abnormalities (9.86 ± 0.14 %) as compared to LOW & MED but non-significantly higher as compared to HIGH samples. All the variables under study had strong positive correlation (P < 0.01) with each other except morphological abnormalities having strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) with all others. It is concluded that addition of cholesterol in MED concentration (4 mg CLCI ml of semen extender) to buffalo bull semen can improve post- thaw semen quality. Conception rate of AI in buffaloes is generally lowered than in cows. Cholesterol is an important constituent in the membrane fluidity regulation. This role becomes more important in the cryopreservation of sperm cells where destabilization of plasma membrane leads to intracellular ice formation causing death of the cell. The objective of the present study was to verify if addition of cholesterol in semen extender has a beneficial effect on semen post-thaw quality in buffalo bulls. This study was carried out at Al-Haiwan Sires, Sahiwal, Pakistan. Cholesterol was added to Tris-citric acid semen extender in the form of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC). Semen was collected by using artificial vagina (42° C) from four buffalo bulls. Split pooled ejaculate (n = 7), having more than 60 % visual sperm motility, were diluted at 37° C in extender containing CLC either 3mg Iml (LOW), 4 mgl ml (MED), 5 mg Iml (HIGH) or without (CON). Motility of semen samples before freezing was checked and cryopreservation was done through routine procedures. Further examination was done to check post-thaw motility (%), live spermatozoa (%), morphological abnormalities (%), normal acrosomes (%) and plasma membrane integrity (%) using phase contrast microscope and hypo osmotic swelling assays. Analysis of variance revealed that motility before freezing was significantly (P<0.05) more in MED (68.93 ± 0.5 I %) as compared to CON and HIGH but non-significantly higher than LOW. Percent post thaw motility (PTM) from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (61.43 ± 0.74 %; P < 0.05) followed by LOW (50.36 ± 1.15 %; P < 0.05) or HIGH (38.57 ± 2.66 %; P < 0.05) (Table 1). Percent PTM was the lowest in CON (32.86 ± 2.07 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Mean plasma membrane integrity (PMI) from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (59.36 ± 1.32 %; P < 0.05) followed by LOW (51.93 ± 1.32 %; P < 0.05) or HIGH (44.00 ± 1.65 %; P < 0.05) and was least in CON (41. I 4 ± 1.71 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Mean normal acrosomes from semen samples containing MED concentration of CLC was the highest (52.93 ± 1.78 %; P < 0.05) followed by HIGH (40.57 ± 2.01 %; P < 0.05) and CON (34.93 ± 2.89 %; P < 0.05) semen samples. Buffalo bull semen in MED & LOW had significantly (P < 0.05) higher live sperm percentage (69.64 ± 1.84 & 6 1.43 ± 1.62, respectively) as compared to HIGH and CON samples. CON samples had significantly (P<0.05) higher morphological abnormalities (9.86 ± 0.14 %) as compared to LOW & MED but non-significantly higher as compared to HIGH samples. All the variables under study had strong positive correlation (P < 0.01) with each other except morphological abnormalities having strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) with all others. It is concluded that addition of cholesterol in MED concentration (4 mg CLCf ml of semen extender) to buffalo bull semen can improve post-thaw semen quality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1398,T] (1).

256. Effect Of Different Growth Promoters On Feed Intake And Growth Performance Of Male Buffalo Calves

by Ahtasham Atta | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is second largest buffalo holding country in the world having 29 million buffalo. Traditional system of buffalo meat production is inefficient; animals destined for slaughter are mostly culled and old stock. Male calves are not reared specifically for producing meat but they are kept only for milk let down in villages and are slaughtered even at 6-7 days of age in peri- urban areas. So far very little work has been done to evaluate the tremendous meat production potential of buffalo calves with a particular plan of nutrition. Present study related to the use of a growth promoters treatment trial of about three months in duration to further accelerate the meat production. Twenty Nili-Ravi calves of approximately the same age and weight were selected for the research purpose. The animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D), which were given four different treatment, such as, Ralgro, Boostin-250, M2 Hormone and control (non implanted) for group A, B, C and D respectively. The basal diet consisted of concentrate ration @ 1% of body weight along with chaffed green fodder ad lib. In each group, feed offered and refusal was recorded on individual basis. The results of study revealed that animals given M2 Hormone performed better as compared to other treatment groups. Among four treatment groups, highest (43.4 ± 12.00 kg) weight gain was observed in M2 Hormone group while, lowest (35.4 ± 12.5 kg) weight gain was found in control group. As far as feed intake is concerned, highest (429.79 ± 28.22 kg) feed intake was observed in Ralgro group while, lowest (412.83 ± 50.56 kg) feed intake was found in M2 Hormone group. Out of four experimental groups, calves of M2 Hormone group showed best feed conversion ratio (12.40 ± 3.01) while, the feed conversion ratio in calves of Ralgro, Boostin-250 and Control group was 12.79 ± 1.99, 14.14 ± 5.87 and 14.43 ± 2.54 respectively. Economic analysis per kg weight gain revealed that M2 Hormone group had the lowest cost of production in rupees (110.23 ± 3.79) per kg weight gain, where as highest cost of production (136.63 ± 4.72) was found in control group. On the basis of the results of this study it is concluded that M2 Hormone can be utilized as an alternate for our conventional fattening practices as it can increase body weight gain. The additional benefit of this compound is that it can be given in feed and does not have to be injected or implanted in the body. It is suggested that further trials with M2 Hormone be carried out on different age and sex groups of buffalo and cattle in order to evaluate its effects on the performance of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1401,T] (1).

257. Socio-Demographical And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With The Diseases Of Senior Citizens of Jhelum City

by Muhammad Shahzad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Research on geriatric diseases is scarce in Pakistan. This endeavor was planned to establish a baseline data for common geriatric diseases found in lhelum, Pakistan. This study reveals the prevalence of geriatric diseases in elderly people in lhelum, Pakistan. Our first objective was to collect and interpret the baseline data about prevalent diseases among the old aged people. Our second objective was to describe the socio- demographic and epidemiological risk factors associated with the diseases of elderly population of lhelum city. In order to study the risk factors associated with geriatric diseases, a geographical cluster of lhelum was selected. The study area was Tehsil lhelum which comprises of 400,000 individuals. Tehsil lhelum is further divided into 16 union councils. In this epidemiological study, multistage sampling was performed. At first step by purposively sampling, union council number 14 of Tehsil lhelum was selected which was comprising of all socioeconomic classes of our community. At second step, by using random sampling technique, home-to-home visits were done. The data was collected on pre-tested questionnaire. The data was collected by face-to-face interviews. The pre- tested questionnaire contained variable factors and questions regarding age, gender, socio economic status, education level, exercising, smoking, marital status, walk before the age of 60 years, walk after the age of 60 years, present and past employments, financial status, use of edible oils in the past, number of children and social life. Futhermore, Information was collected regarding working of different body systems like Central Nervous system, Cardio-vascular system, Digestive system, Urogenital system, Respiratory system, ENT system, Musculo-skeleton system etc. Along with system-information, name of disease of the impaired system was also asked. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS-version 16. This present interview based study reflects the prevalence of geriatric morbidities in geriatric population of Jhelum city. In the current study, impairment of digestive system (28%), cardio-vascular system (23%) and musculo-skeletal system (21 %) was on the top of the list. Impairment of digestive system was found in a good proportion among senior citizens followed by Cardio-vascular system, musculoskeletal system, centra nervous system, respiratory system, uro-genital system and E.N.T. system. Diabetes mellitus, blood pressure related problems and arthritis are the most frequent diseases. So, vwe should try to educate the people about these diseases. As compared to other studies around the globe, our geriatric population is possessing comparatively better health. Walk before the age of 60 years and walk after the age of 60 years is helpful for health. The people who used to walk more than five kilometers usually remained healthier in theelderly. Economic status, use of edible oils and social life is also associated with health of elderly people. So, there is need to promote the habit of walk in the elderly population and in young population. Disease prevention is the most cost-effective method for the maintenance of optimal level of health in elderly population. We should understand that many of the geriatric diseases are preventable. Preventive measures can be applied during the various stages of disease progression in order to either slow or stop the process of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1404,T] (1).

258. Prevalence, Serodiagnosis And Zoonotic Importance Of Hydatidosis In Small Ruminants And Humans

by Hafiz Javed Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is a world-wide zoonotic parasitic disease which is caused by the larval stage of tape worm Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. It is highly endemic in some regions of the world. Keeping in view the importance of the disease, the present study was conducted to record the age, sex, species and season wise prevalence of hydatidosis in small ruminants. The study also includes comparison of the two serological tests used for the diagnosis of this disease and efficacy of mebendazole was aIso evaluated. Prevalence and organ specificity of hydatidosis was studied in 2400 sheep and 2400 goats of different age and sexes. The overall prevalence of hydatidosis in sheep and goats was 8.25 and 6.21 percent respectively. Sex wise prevalence indicated that it was 9.85 and 7.85 percent in female and male sheep respectively whereas in female and male goats it was 5.83 and 7.23 percent respectively. A reasonably higher prevalence of hydatidosis was observed in female animals as compared with males. In adult animals hydatid cysts were present in 11.38 and 7.77 percent in sheep and goatsrespectively while in lambs and kids it was 1.79 and 1.06 percent respectively. Statistically no significant difference was observed in any season through out the year in both the species. In the present study, lungs were found to be most commonly infected organ in sheep andliver in goats. Out of 198 infected sheep, 45.45 percent had cysts in lungs, 33.84 percentin liver, 10.10 percent in both liver and lungs, 2.53 percent in spleen, 2.02 percent in heart and 6.06 percent in abdomen and thoracic cavity whereas in goats organs specificity was 34.23, 40.27, 16.78, 0.67, 8.05 percent respectively for lungs, liver, lungs & liver both, spleen and abdomen and thoracic cavity. A total of 60 cysts in sheep were examined for fertility and it was found that out of 18 cysts of less than two centimeter size, maximum (50 percent) were suppurative orcalcified and minimum (16.7 percent) were fertile in nature. Of 30 cysts of 2-4 em size, 40 percent were suppurative and 40 percent were fertile and from 12 cysts of more than four centimeter size, maximum (66.7 percent) were fertile and only 16.7 percent were sterile in nature. In goats, of 15 cysts of less than 2cm size, maximum (46. 7percent) were suppurative, and minimum (13.3 percent) were fertile. Of 7 cysts, belonging to the group of more than four centimeter seize, 71.4 percent were fertile in nature and only 14.3 percent were sterile. Overall fertility rate in sheep and goats was 38.33 and 36.96 percent respectively whereas overall sterility rate was 23.3 and 32.60 percent in sheep and goats respectively. In sheep, total number of protoscolices found in 23 cysts was 936 of which 72.65 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total proto scolices was 40.70 with standard deviation of 23.05 whereas the mean number of viable protoscolices was 29.57 percent with a standard deviation of 18.92. In goats, total number of protoscolices observed in 17 cysts was 719 whereas only 52.71 percent were fertile in nature. The mean of total protoscolices was 42.30 with a standard deviation of 17.13 whereas mean of viable protoscolices was 22.30 with standard deviation of 17.10. Blood samples of 40 positive and 40 negative sheep for hydatid disease were collected from slaughter house and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA test were applied on these samples. The sensitivity, specificity, efficacy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ELISA were 92.5 percent each whereas these values for IHA were 80 percent, 97.5 percent, 88.75 percent, 96.96 percent and 82.98 percent respectively. In goats, blood samples from 40 positive and 40 negative cases of hydatidosis were collected from slaughter house before slaughtering and ELISA and IHA were applied on all of these samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 90 percent and 95 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 75 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. A total of 12 i.e. 6 sheep and 6 goats (healthy) were purchased and kept at Ravi campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. These were divided into experimental (4 sheep and 4 goats) and control group (two sheep and two goats). In experimental group, 100 eggs of Echinococcus granulosus were given orally to all animals and then mebendazole was given to two sheep and two goats on zero day and then after two months intervals. Blood samples were collected from all animals on zero day, 90 days and 180th day and serum was separated. ELISA and IHA were applied to all samples. Mebendazole was not found completely effective and ELISA detected the infection earlier than IHA. On postmortem examination, multiple cysts were found in all animals of group A and no cyst was found in group B. Eighty blood samples of humans i.e. 40 positive and 40 negative for hydatidosis were coilected, serum was separated and ELISA and IHA test were applied to all the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 95 percent and 97.5 percent respectively whereas the sensitivity and specificity of IHA was 82.5 percent and 97.5 percent respectively. The present study will be helpful in disseminating the informations regarding the prevalence, zoonotic importance, effect of mebendazole in animals and the use of immunodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of hydatidosis in small ruminants and human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1405,T] (1).

259. In Process Quality Control Factors Affecting Sensitivity Of Rapid Serum Agglutination Antigen Of Mycoplasma

by Rana Khurram Khalid | Prof. Dro. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr, Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is one of the smallest self replicating infectious agent, it lacks cell wall so cell membrane is the outer most boundary. Its cell membrane is made up of sterols which not only gave it rigidity but also make it fastidious to grow. MG is the causative agent for chronic respiratory disease (CRD). Isolation identification and serodiagnosis are routinely used in laboratories. However among the serodiagnosis rapid serum agglutination (RSA) test is mainly used for early detection for its sensitivity, rapidity and cost effectiveness. Keeping in VIew the importance of RSA antigen test a study was conducted to prepare standardize RSA antigen from local isolate and compare its sensitivity with a commercial RSA antigen. Molecular characterized local isolate of MG procured from University Diagnostic Lab University of Veterinary And Animal Sciences, Lahore, was grown in 11 different media formulations to identify a media with better antigenic yield. Affects of different in process quality control parameters; bacterial concentration (0.75%, 1 %, 1.25% PCV), diluents (normal saline, PBS, HBSS) inactivants (heat, formalin) and preservatives (thiomersal sodium, sodium azide, phenol) were studied in terms of their influence on the sensitivity of prepared RSA antigens. These prepared antigens from local isolate were further compared with a commercial RSA antigen. The results of antigenic yield were statistically analyzed through One Way A OVA test. All the media formulations support the growth of MG isolate except Frey's media with 7.5% fetal bovine serum and 7.5% chicken serum that revealed no growth or packed cell volume. The maximum bacterial growth in terms of packed cell volume was obtained from frey's media with 12% horse serum. So this media was further use in the production of antigens. Sensitivity of RSA antigens with different bacterial concentrations in terms of packed cell volume, preservatives, inactivants was more using HBSS followed by PBS and normal saline. However difference in increasing the sensitivity of RSA antigen in terms of agglutination with known serum was statistically found significant. Formalin inactivated RSA antigens were somewhat more sensitive as compared to the heat inactivated using different diluents and bacterial concentrations. Sensitivity of RSA antigens in different diluents, inactivants and preservatives was a little bit more with 1.25% pev followed by 1.00% pev however it was least with 0.75% Thiomersal sodium added RSA antigens were more sensitive followed by phenol and sodium azide. PBS and HBSS based, formalin inactivated and preservative (thiomersal sodium, phenol, sodium azide) added antigens having bacterial concentration of 1.25% and 1 % (peV) given agglutination at 1 :30 dilution of known positive MG serum. The sensitivity of all these antigens was equal to the commercial RSA antigen. All the prepared RSA antigens and commercial anitigen showed no agglutination with known negative serum. Sensitivity of most of the prepared and a commercial antigen was comparable. The findings of this study will be helpful for further recommendations of local RSA MG antigen used in the diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1406,T] (1).

260. Comparison Of Diagnostic Approaches For The Detection Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistency In Dairy Herds

by Arfan Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Bovine viral diarrhea is one of the most important diseases of cattle which are causing continuous economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to decreased reproductive I performance. Without doubt, direct contact between BVDV persistently infected, and susceptible animals is the most important transmission route of virus. All control programs which are in use in many countries of the world, mainly depend upon the detection of PI animals, eliminating them and preventing their return into the herds. Therefore, in this study diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsies and serum samples were compared for the detection of PI animals, as well as proficiency of various diagnostic approaches like VI, AC-ELISA, IHC and real time RT-PCR were evaluated using ear notch biopsies. A total of 468 samples were collected from 12 participating dairy cattle farms located at Prince Edward Island, Canada. The samples were divided into two groups on the basis of age, A " 6 months), and B (> 6 months). PI calves remain immunotolerant to the infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low level of antibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV A significant discrepancy was observed between ear notch biopsies (51198 positive) and serum samples (71198 positive) during first round of testing by real time RT-PCR. However, on follow up testing, 30 days post first round of testing, a complete agreement between ear notch biopsies and serum samples was observed. On second round of testing, a total of 4 animals out of 197 (one positive animals died before re-sampling) were confirmed with PI, using both ear notch biopsies and serum samples. The decrease in the positivity using RT-PCR on serum samples in the second round of testing reflected the presence of 2 transiently infected animals. Ear notch biopsy (EN) testing did not detect any transiently infected animal indicating the lack of delectability of the virus in EN during transient infection under conditions of this study. After follow up testing, 2 animals in each of group A and B were identified as PI. These findings have led us to conclude, that either serum or ear notch biopsy can be used for the detection of persistent infection. Of 468 collected and 197 tested samples, an overall 0.85% and 2.03% prevalence of PI animals with BVDV was observed respectively. A complete agreement (P value=l) was observed when three diagnostic approaches (Real time RT- PCR, AC-ELISA, and IHC) were compared with standard of VI. A total of 197 ear notch biopsies (145 of group A and 52 of group B) were tested by the four diagnostic tests, four animals (2 from group A and 2 from group B) were found positive by all the tests applied. A complete agreement was observed between the first and the second round of testing. All four assays were found specific but real time RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive. Both, VI and IHC were found labour intensive, as diagnosis may take more than one week to be made. Further PI calves remain immunotolerant tothe infecting strain but if exposed to a heterogonous strain postnatally, they may develop low leved ofantibody. Accordingly, serum neutralization was applied for initial screening of samples for further testing. The samples of animals of group B, having SNT (:S 1 :64) were selected, while all samples of younger aged group A were processed without considering the serum neutralizing titres, because unlike older animals, P.1. animals below 6 months of age can have passive colostral antibodies in the course of persistency. Diagnostic suitability of ear notch biopsy and serum sample for confirmation of BVDV persistent animals were evaluated by real time RT-PCR. TaqMan probes and primers specific for BVDVI and BVDV2 were used. They were found specific and able to detect 10·s and 10-4 TCID50 units ofBVDVI and BVDV2, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1407,T] (1).

261. Epidemiology Of Major Transbuondary Diseases Of Livestock In Nomads Herds Of District Buner

by Farman Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The research project was carried out in the livestock of nomads in District Bunere to study the epidemiology of major trans-boundary livestock diseases including foot and mouth diseases 9FMD) in buffaloes and cattle and Peste des Petite Ruminants (PPR) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in sheep and goats. A questionnaire was designed for collecting data regarding morbidity, mortality & case fatality rate in different seasons in the animals of nomads migrate from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Serosurveillance was also conducted by collecting 600 blood samples from the apparently healthy sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes in the summer season. A total number of 100 nomads were interviewed by systematic random sampling method and sera were collected to test the antibodies against FMDV and PPRV. The serum samples in labeled eppendorph tubes were stored in deep freezer till the sent to lab in ice container. These samples were transported to National Veterinary Laboratory Islamabad, where cattle and buffalo's sera were examined by using 3ABC-ELISA & sheep and goat's sera were analyzed by C-ELISA to detect antibody ofPPRV, respectively. Similarly 60 nasal swabs of sheep and goats collected and examined in Veterinary Research Institute Lahore, by culturing method. The data were collected and analyzed statistically by using SPSS (16.00). Means, Chi square values, P-Vlues and percentages were calculated. The overall prevalence of CCPP was 18.3% while individually 3.3% in sheep and 15 % in goats. The prevalence in goat (15%) was higher than that of sheep (3.3%) with insignificant difference and no significant association between CCPP disease and species of sheep/goat of nomads. Similarly age wise prevalence of CCPP in young (sheep and goats) was 10% which was higher than that of adult (8.3%) with significant association between CCPP disease and age of sheep and goat. Similarly gender wise prevalence was 6.66% in male and 11.6% in female (sheep and goats) with no significant association between CCPP disease results and gender of sheep and goats. The peculiar signs of CCPP were recorded retrospectively, including pneumonic coughing, mucopurulent nasal discharges, fever and abortion in sheep and goats in autumn season in Pakistan and in winter season in Afghanistan respectively. The 10.5% mortality rate, 82% morbidity rate and 12.8% case fatality rate of CCPP in autumn season were recorded in sheep respectively. While 92% morbidity, 12.5% mortality and 13.5% case fatality rate were recorded in goats in autumn, respectively. The mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate were 6.5%, 66%, and 9.8% in sheep in winter season. Similarly mortality, morbidity and case fatality rate in goats due to CCPP in winter season were8%, 89.5% and 8.97%, respectively. The prevalence in both the species were higher in autumn season than that of winter season and zero prevalence were recorded in rest of the seasonsretrospectively. The night stay with crowding of livestock near streams and springs, night fog, morning dew, cold seasons and common travelling and grazing premises were recorded as risk factors for CCPP. The serosurveillance for FMD was conducted and overall seroprevalence of FMD was 32% and individually 12% in buffaloes and 20% in cattle respectively with no significant association and both the species were equally susceptible to FMDV. Gender wise seroprevalence in male and female cattle and buffaloes were 12% and 34 % respectively with no significant association between FMDV antibodies and gender of the animals. Age wise seroprevalence of FMD in adult cattle and buffaloes was higher (24%) than that of young (8%) cattle and buffaloes with a significant association between the age of cattle, and buffaloes and FMDV antibodies. The survey results indicated that all the cattle and buffaloes were in mixed herds and the peculiar signs including stomatitis, lameness, abortion, fever and dysphonia were recorded retrospectively. The mortality rate was 0% in cattle herds of all ages and in both the genders while the morbidity rate was 52.5%. The death rate of l.1%, 75.5% attack rate and 1.41% case fatality rate in buffaloes were recorded retrospectively in the humid rainy season of late summer in Shangla, Besham & Chitral districts. The serosurveillance for PPR in sheep and goats was conducted by using competitive ELISA, dand 42% overall seroprevalence while individually 27% in goats and 14.8% in sheep were recorded with a significant association. Gender wise seroprevalence of 38.8% in females and .3.2% in males of sheep and goats with significant difference and with a significant association to PPRVantibodies were recorded. The age wise seroprevalence of37.8% and 4.2% in adult and in young of both the species with a significant association to PPRV antibodies were recorded. No clinieal signs of PPR were observed by nomads because the infection was subclinical and survived previously because they had not practiced vaccines for last many years. Zero % morbidity and mortality rates were therefore recorded retrospectively in sheep and goat flocks. The four routes at the border areas of Khyber Pakhton Khwa were recorded for the seasonal and cyclieal entrance of livestock of nomads, which act as abridge for diseases transmission between Afghanistan & Pakistan. The outbreaks of CCPP occurred in winter season in Afghanistan and in autumn season in Pakistan (Gilgith, Chitral, Kohistan, Besham, Shanglapar and Buner). Also the FMD outbreaks occurred in Buner and Shangla in late summer while the PPR was subclinical and animals survived. Cross borders as well as district wise trade and movement restrictions are of utmost importance for control the diseases. Similarly serosurveillance of the disease in the local and as well as in nomad's livestock's population necessean appropriate scheduled vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1408,T] (1).

262. Effect Of Acidifiers On The Production Performance And Carcass Traits In Japanese Quail

by Sohail Akbar | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: There are certain growth promoters like antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids etc. which can improve feed efficiency in chickens. The use of antibiotics as growth promoter creates a huge problem for environmental conditions and health of consumers around the world. The use of organic acids as acidifiers is recommended as an alternative to antibiotics to control certain types of acid intolerance bacteria and growth-promoting agents in poultry production. Many studies have been done to study the effects of organic acids on performance of broilers and layers; however, little research has been conducted to study the impact of these growth promoters on quail growth performance. This study was planned to test the effect of organic acid acidifiers i.e. Salkil®® and Sal Curb Dry® on the quail production performance and their effect on blood calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol and quail carcass traits at Avian Research and Training Centre, Lahore. The analysis of feed, blood and meat was performed in laboratory of Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. One standard (control) quail feed will be prepared (NRC 1994). Two different levels each of Salkil® acidifier i.e. 1 g/kg and 2g/kg of feed and of Sal Curb Dry® acidifier i.e. 1 g/kg and 2g/kg was incorporated in the standard feed to prepare five experimental feeds. A total number of 400 un sexed day old quail chicks were equally divided into five groups having 80 chicks in each group with four replicates having twenty chicks each. The group offered standard feed has served as control. The rest four experimental feeds with two different levels of SaIki!'!!) and with two different levels of Sal Curb Dry® were allotted to four different groups. At the end of experimental trial which was of 28 days body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, giblet weight, serum calcium and phosphorus, carcass traits ( analyzed for meat moisture %, crude protein % and crude fat %) and blood cholesterol level was analyzed. To test the blood cholesterol level, two birds from each replicate were taken at random and blood samples were collected in heparinzed vacutainers from jugular vein after slaughtering. Dressing percentage was also recorded along with economics value of quail meat. The values of weight gain in group A, B, C, D, E and F was found 140.783 ±6.24, 147.5Sbc ±3.45, 151.56c ±4.84, 143.92ab± 4.98 and 147.88bc ±5.17 respectively .. The group C which was fed Salkil® 2g/kg of feed showed maximum weight gain followed by group E, B, D and A respectively. When the data was statistically analyzed on weekly basis there was non- significant (p>0.05) difference among different treatments groups except at second week. The values of feed conversion ratio in all the five groups were 2.859b ±O.l3. 2.769ab ±O.l90, 2.734a ±O.12, 2.S17ab ±0.093 and 2.772ab ±0.14 respectively. The treatment groups which received the acidifiers significantly (p<0.05) improved the FCR. The values for giblet weight in the above mentioned groups were 9.l7a±0.58, 9.25a ±0.33, 9.44a ±0.26, 9.23a ±0.41 and 9.45a ±0.51 gm respectively. The values for calcium were found to be 10.98a±1.01, 11.33a±0.62, 10.33a±0.S7, lO.95a±1.13 and 11.22a±1.39 mg/dl respectively while for Phosphorous 5.01 a ±0.37, 4.99a ±0.71. 5.2Sa ±0.49, 5.0Sa± O.SI and 5.21 a ±0.21 mg/dl respectively. The values for serum cholesterol level in the five groups 130c ±5.00, 125bc ±6.00, 113a ±6.00, 127bc ±7.00 and 121 b ±7.27 rng/dl respectively. Serum cholesterol level in group A is significantly higher. The average meat moisture. crude protein did not differ significantly but use acidifiers significantly decreased the fat deposition in meat. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1410,T] (1).

263. Monitoring Of Mixed Vegetable Salads For Microbial Quality

by Sana Hameed | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present research was planned to investigate the microbial load and identification of bacteria in mixed vegetable salads from three different locations such as road side vendors, fast food outlet and family restaurants. Total 90 samples were collected 30 from each location. Samples collected carefully in sterilized plastic bags and processed in microbiological lab of UV AS Lahore. The results were compared with different food standards given by developed countries like UK. In present study results showed that for aerobic plate count 30 samples from road side vendors was in range of 105_ 1014, fast food outlets range of 105_ 1012 and family restaurants range of 105_ 1013. Coliform count from road side venders was in range of 105_ 1013, fast food outlets range of 105_1012 and family restaurants range of 105 - 1013. Fungal count from road side vendors was in range of 103_106, in fast food out lets range of 103 - 106 and in family restaurants range of 103 - 106. In our study from road side vendors 12 Salmonella, 24 Aeromonas, 11 Bacillus, 29 Entarobacter spp, 29 E.coli, 30 Staphylococcus aurues 29 Klebsealla spp 5 Aspergillus fumigates, 10 Aspergillus niger and 3 Aspergillus flavus have been identified. In fast food outlets 26 Salmonella, 21 Aeromonas, 9 Bacillus, 30 Entarobacter spp, 30 E.coli, 30 Staphylococcus aurues 30 Klebsealla spp and 9 Aspergillus fumigates and 2 Aspergillus flavus have been identified. In family restaurants 21 Salmonella, 15 Aeromonas, 9 Bacillus, 30 Entarobacter spp, 30 E. coli, 30 Staphylococcus aurues 30 Klebsealla spp 4 Aspergillus fumigates, 3 Aspergillus niger and 4 Aspergillus flavus have been identified. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1413,T] (1).

264. Preparation Of Prebiotic Based Functional Beverage And Evaluation Of Its Glycemic Response In Healthy Human Subjects

by Amna Ashraf Bajwa | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Masood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Prebiotics are class of functional foods which resist digestion in small bowel and stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Galacto-oligosacchraides (GOS) are class of prebiotics that are naturally present in human milk and impart many health benefits. Prebiotics are class of functional foods which resist digestion in small bowel and stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Galacto-oligosacchraides (GOS) are class of prebiotics that are naturally present in human milk and impart many health benefits. The research was conducted in three phases. During 1st phase characterization of liquid oligomate (galacto-oligosaccharides preparation) was performed. During second phase prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharides) based functional beverage was developed by adding different concentrations of GOS. Functional beverages was prepared with the addition of GOS @ 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% of final beverage volume. On the basis of sensory evaluation and other analysis, one sample was selected for further use in third phase that is efficacy study by determining its glycemic index. Accordingly the significant outcomes of the present research are summarized hereafter. Proximate analysis of Galacto-oligosaccharide sample showed that the results for dry matter are (0.832 ±0.009) for crude protein the values are (0.729±0.126) and for crude fat the result shows (1.366±0.321). For NFE is -0.0957±0.0001 and for moisture is 1.1667±0.011547. The lower values for protein, fat and fiber shows that composition of oligomate is solely based on the presence of galacto-oligosaccharides and has no other impurities present in them. The results for GOS for acidity shows the value of (0.14±0.02) for specific gravity the values are (1.36±0.0001) and for pH the values are (3.51± 0.01) The results for acidity of beverages indicated that the inclusion of galactooligosaccharides has significantly affected the acidity of the beverage (P?0.001). All the treatments for different beverages and storage and the interaction between the storage treatments showed that statistically they are highly significant (P ?.0.05). The results indicated that the inclusion of Galacto-oligosaccharides has significantly affected the specific gravity of the beverage (P?0.00). It is evident from the results that the storage of these beverages is also statistically significant but the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed non-significant effect on specific gravity of different beverages The statistical analysis regarding pH of beverages prepared from different levels of galacto-oligosaccharide shows that all the treatments for different beverages and storage and the interaction between the storage treatments are highly significant (p ? 0.01). The statistical results for total soluble solids indicated that TSS of different beverages were significantly affected by treatments; however, storage intervals showed slightly significant result and interaction between storage and treatments showed highly significant effect on TSS of different beverages(P?0.01) The results indicated that the addition of Galacto-oligosaccharides has significant effect on color "a", "b", " L" , "chroma" , "hue angle" parameter (P?0.001). The sensory scores for color, flavor, taste and consistency were non significant while scores for overall acceptability showed that they varied significantly with treatments. After storage of beverages for 60 days prepared with the addition of GOS at various levels the interaction between treatment and storage level showed non-significant effect for the flavour, color, consistency, taste and overall acceptability. The statistical results regarding blood glucose concentration after consumption of control and functional beverage with time intervals are statistically significant. The interactive effect of intervals and different food types shows that the blood glucose concentration at fasting for glucose and control beverage is non-significant and functional beverage comparatively to glucose is significant. It shows that the response of control is similar to the reference taken as glucose. The statistical results regarding glycemic index shows that the GI with respect to beverage type and person code is non-significant. The glycemic index for control beverage shows the results (58.63±8.15) and for functional beverage (63.74±4.50). The statistical analysis regarding glycemic load with respect to person code shows that they are non-significant but with beverage type they are slightly significant. The glycemic load of control beverage is 17.08±2.37 and for functional beverage values are 19.38±1.36. Functional beverage showed slightly increased glycemic load as compared with control beverage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1415,T] (1).

265. Immunoprophylaxis Of Tick Infestation In Bovine

by Zakir Ali | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof.Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study to investigate prevalence of different genera of hard ticks was carried out in three districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan (Faisalabad, Jhang and Khanewal). Overall prevalence of Hyalomma species is the highest at 61 % as compared to other genera of hard ticks. In sex-wise distribution, it was found that female Hyalomma species were the highest at 85% followed by A mblyomma species at 81 %, whi Ie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species and Haemaphysalis species were at 77%. Infestation rate in cattle at 70% was higher as compared to buffaloes at 34%. In tick infestation level study, high infestation level in cattle at 59% was higher as compared to that of buffalo population at 18%. In cattle population, peR results showed the prevalence of T annulata in H anatolicum and Hidromedari ticks as 50% and 40% respectively. No theilerial organism was detected in Himarginatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Three different types of vaccines were prepared from different organs of ticks i.e., salivary gland, intestine or whole ticks of the same species of Hyalomma and they were injected to rabbits. It was found that vaccine prepared by grinding whole tick produced the higher level of antibody as compared to two other vaccines. Each of the whole tick homogenate vaccine prepared from either of the species of Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus or Amblyomma and injected to rabbits. These vaccines produced antibody as well and cross reacted with each other showing each of the hard ticks were antigenically similar. Efforts were made to prepare oil based whole Hyalomma tick vaccine with three different antigen concentration 5.0 mg, 7.5mg and 10.0 mg and evaluated its potency in buffalo calves. It was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as invaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as in vaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of contamination for the tick cell culture which are extrinsic as well extrinsic. The growth rate of these cells in our study was not optimal so the media was not splitted to get more cells. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1416,T] (1).

266. Microbiological Quality Of Commercial Fruit Juices Sold In Lahore City

by Muhammad Naeem Iqbal | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fruit juices are used for their nutritional value, thirst quenching properties and stimulating effect or for their medicinal values. Due to poor hygienic conditions during processing and packaging, fruit juices are becoming a health hazard. Many outbreaks are caused by consuming poor quality juices. Food borne infections are caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria and parasites. Most of the food borne infections remains undiagnosed and unreported due to poor documentation system and failure in the implementation of law regarding food borne diseases in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to compare the quality of commercial fruit juices so as to provide data for local authorities to deal food security issue. A total of ninety packed fruit juice samples were obtained from retail shops in Lahore city. The fruit juice samples included, apple, mango and orange juices of five various brands. The pH value of the fruit juices measured using pH meter was found between 2.0 to 4.0. Bacterial load of fruit juices was assessed using Total viable count, Staphylococcal count and Coliform count to compare the quality of fruit juices.All the samples were positive for total viable count, 60 samples were positive for staphylococcus count and 30 samples ere positive for coliform count.The mean total viable count in fruit juice samples was3.70xIQ5CFU/ml (log 5.56±1.47CFU/ml)with the range from log 2.69 to log 7.67CFU/ml.Mean staphylococcal count in fruit juice samples was 1.34x 102CFU/ml (log 2.11±1.97CFU/ml) with the range from log 0.00 to log 5.62CFU/ml. Sixty out of 90 fruit juice samples showed staphylococcal counts.Mean coliform counts of 1.80xlOI CFU/ml (log 1.25±1.57CFU/ml) with the range from log 0.00 to log 5.50 CFU/ml. Thirty out of 90 fruit juice samples were positive for coliforms. Identification of bacteria was done on the basis of culture characters, microscopic characters and biochemical tests as per standard protocols described in Manual of Food Microbiology. Among the 226 bacterial isolates, Bacillus spp. were (150),Staphylococcusaureus (49)and E. coli (27), and no Salmonella were detected from the collected samples. Although fruit juices have low pH, still higher viable counts and prevalence of bacterial isolates suggest poor hygienic conditions during manufacturing procedures. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the isolates was studied by standard Disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer method) for commonly used antibiotics. Among various antibiotics used, highest97.78% resistance toAzlocillinand lowest 25.22% resistance against Sulphafurazole. These findings suggest that the antibiotic resistance is transferred through fruit juices. After microbiological examination, it was cleared that fruit juices were as contaminated as compare to our country standards and hygienic conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1417,T] (1).

267. Prasitic Contamination Of Vegetables Eaten Raw In Lahore

by Shafa-ul-Haq | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fresh vegetables are important part of human diet. Eating raw vegetable is customary in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these raw vegetables can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on vegetables collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of vegetables: beet (Beta vulgaris), cabbage (Brassica denceal), carrot (Davcus carota) chili (Capsicum frutecense), coriander (Corriandum sativum) cucumber (Cucumis sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Mint (Mentha viridis), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun) were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each vegetable were taken, comprising a total of 500 samples for the study. Hundred gram of each vegetable was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of vegetables revealed twelve genera of parasites. All vegetables were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 31.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris eggs found to be the highest (37.1%), followed by Hook worm(10.8%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(8.9%), while the least common parasite was Toxoplasma gondii (1.9%). Lettuce showed the highest contamination (48%), followed by Cabbage (44%) and Mint (podina) (42%) while chili showed the least contamination (16%). The results would seem to indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of raw and unwashed vegetables. So, enlightenment programs for the public on necessity of food sanitation and personal hygiene should be intensified. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1419,T] (1).

268. Production, Purification And Evaluation Of Anti Tetanus Serum

by Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr | Mr. Muhammad Zubair Shabbir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: To produce anti-tetanus serum, ten female sheep of about 3 years of age are immunized with commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine (Imatet™, Amson vaccines and Pharma) for eighteen weeks to these experimental animals with two weeks interval. Serum samples of all the sheep were also collected fortnightly and stored at -20 ºC. ELISA was performed to determine the antibody (IgG) titer of all the test samples. Out of 90 samples, 20 samples showed tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 100.8 I.U. or more, while 8 samples presented tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 160.9 IU or more. Out of these 8 samples, 3 samples had tetanus antibody (IgG) titer of 190.9 I.U. or more. Maximum tetanus antibody (IgG) titer was 195.4 I.U. at day 120. Three samples exhibiting maximum antibody titer (190.9 I.U., 195 I.U. and 195.4 I.U.) were mixed in equal quantities for purification of Immunoglobulins (IgG). A volume of 15 mL of aggregated serum samples was mixed with 15 ml of saturated ammonium sulfate having final concentration of 45 % in the mixture which is continuously stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. Mixture was centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 30 minutes in refrigerated centrifuge machine and dialyzed against 10 changes of PBS at 4 ºC. Desalting is checked with BaCl2 solution. The purified tetanus immunoglobulins (IgG) were treated with papain to produce Fab Fragments. Then the protein content of the purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments was estimated with Bradford protein Assay. BSA standard curve was used to produce a regression equation [Y (OD Value) = 0.218 + 0.033 X (Protein Concentration)] which was used for calculation of the protein contents of the samples. The purified tetanus immunoglobulins and Fab fragments were tested for purity with SDS-PAGE analysis. Then in vivo toxin neutralization test was performed in mice to check the tetanus toxin neutralization ability of the sera produced. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1420,T] (1).

269. Identification Of Molecular Markers In Bmp15 Gene Of Different Pakistan Sheep And Goat Breeds

by Ahmad Nawaz | Prof.Dr.Masroor Elahi Babar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Genetics of prolificacy in sheep and goat emphasize the importance of main genes which have been made known to affect litter size and rate of ovulation through various mechanisms. Natural mutations in prolific sheep and goat breeds have shown that the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) super family ligands such as bone morphogenetic protein 15 is crucial for ovulation and as well as for increasing litter size. Keeping in view the importance of prolificacy in sheep and goat, a research project was planed to identify the polymorphism, its association with fecundity and uncovering the nucleotide picture of BMP15 fecundity gene in sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan. In the research finding, various polymorphism, insertion and deletion of nucleotides in goat and sheep breeds of Pakistan were identified and associated with fecundity and secondly, some novel polymorphism in Pakistani goat and sheep breeds were identified which are different from the goat and sheep breeds of the world. This is the first report of the whole nucleotide of BMP15 gene in the sheep. A lot of work has been reported on these genes but total nucleotide picture in the sheep is not reported. Sequences of Bmp15 gene from sheep and goat breeds of Pakistan has been submitted to the NCBI GenBank database libraries,USA under accession numbers JN655669, JN655670, JN655671 and JN655672. It will result in fast vertical expansion of small ruminants to increase the mutton production and uplift the socio economic condition of small ruminant's farmers in the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1421,T] (1).

270. Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice Of Food Handlers About Food Safety In University Hostel Kitchen Employees

by Qurra-Tul- Ain | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cigarette butts are found at crime scenes as potential evidence. Saliva is present on the cigarette butts that can be detected and DNA can be isolated from nucleated cells present in saliva for quantification and typing. In past, research has declared that cigarette butts are useful source for saliva detection, DNA extraction and profile generation. Difference of saliva accumulation on cigarette butt paper and filter was compared in the present study. On smoked cigarette butts, gender based comparison of saliva detection and DNA quantification was performed. Agarose gel assay was used for amylase enzyme detection. All samples showed positive results for saliva detection. Cigarette butt filter and filter paper were processed separately and analyzed. Results showed more saliva detected at cigarette butt paper. Then gender based comparison on cigarette butt samples smoked by males and females was done for salivary amylase. By using student t-test, no significant difference was found on basis of gender. For extraction of DNA, phenol chloroform extraction method was used. Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit was used through RT-PCR for quantification of DNA isolated from cigarette butt papers. SDS software analyzed the data and gave results of quantified DNA in ng/µL. Gender based comparison in DNA quantity was done by using statistical method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation value was calculated between detected saliva and quantified DNA of samples. Weak positive results of correlation were obtained between saliva and DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1424,T] (1).

271. Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae

by Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1425,T] (1).

272. Pharmacokinetics Of Ketoprofen In Domestic Animals

by Zaka-ur-Rehman | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1427,T] (1).

273. Clinico-Epidemiological Study Of Toxocariasis In Pet Cats In Lahore

by Shakera Sadiq Gill | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted at the pet clinic UVAS to check the prevalence of Toxocara Cati in pet cats and awareness of the pet owners about the zoonosis. Prevalence of Toxocara was checked by conventional laboratory techniques. A survey was conducted to check the awareness of zoonotic diseases among the pet owners using a questionnaire. A total of 40% were found to be infected with Toxocara cati. Overall high prevalence was recorded in cats less than one year of age which was significant. There was also significant difference of prevalence among cats in which deworming was not done as compared to the dewormed cats. Prevalence was also high in cats in which the fecal consistency was not normal. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Toxocara between male and female cats. There was also no significant difference of prevalence among the different breeds of cats. The results of the survey revealed that out of the total of 100 pet owners only 39% had idea of pet zoonosis, while the majority of the owners had awareness about rabies. Only 18 % of the owners were informed by the veterinarians. The total of 98% suggested that the vet should inform the owners about pet zoonosis. Among the total 56% replied that they will leave their pet if a zoonotic problem was diagnosed the remaining were not willing to leave their pets even if a zoonotic problem diagnosed. Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic hookworm infections are preventable by simple measure such as careful personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets through regular deworming and not allowing the children to play in potentially contaminated environments. Despite the fact that some of the pet owners dispose of their pet feaces however,, owners should be educated on proper disposal methods of pet feaces. Disposal methods like using pet feaces as garden manure, can predispose children playing in the lawn to infective eggs and larvae. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1428,T] (1).

274. Epidemiological, Haematological And Biochemical Risk Factors Of Parturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Altaf Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Parturient haemoglobinuria is disease of economic importance which affects a considerable number of buffaloes every year in India, Pakistan and Egypt. It is a non infectious hemolytic syndrome characterized by intravascular haemolysis, hypophosphataemia, haemoglobinaemia, haemoglobinuria and anaemia. The exact pathogenesis is not known and diversified etiological factors have been associated with this disease in different parts of the continent. Information on multidimensional etiological aspects of this buffalo syndrome is quite scanty. The present study was therefore carried out in district Chakwal for assessment of disease burden (parturient haemoglobinuria), its distribution and quantification of associated epidemiological, haematological and biochemical risk factors in order to suggest control measures and future research priorities. Active surveillance was conducted in eight randomly selected villages of district Chakwal from April 2010 . March 2011. All breeding age buffaloes (1938) of these selected villages were taken as sampling frame whereas one breeding age buffalo was taken as sampling unit. Parturient haemoglobinuria appeared as number one disease among all problems of breeding age buffaloes with respect to mortality rate (1.03%) and proportional mortality rate (20%) whereas it appeared as 8th and 7th disease respectively with respect to incidence (3.97%) and case fatality (25.97%) rates. Case-Control study was conducted for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with disease by analyzing the data of 180 case-control pairs for various 162 hypothesized risk factors. . 7 months pregnancy, . 3 lactation number, . 60 days postpartum period, . 7 years age, previous history of haemoglobinuria and ingestion of cruciferous plants were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) risk factors with odds ratios of 15.80, 6.39, 6.23, 5.56, 3.41 and 2.51 respectively. Clinical trial was conducted on 30 haemoglobinuric buffaloes randomly divided into three groups with 10 animals in each group to compare and assess the recovery rates of three different treatment packages against parturient haemoglobinuria. The highest recovery rate (100%) was recorded for combined therapy of sodium acid phosphate and blood transfusion followed by sodium acid phosphate with antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (70%) and tranexamic acid with Novacoc injection (50%). Cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on haemoglobinuric (n = 30) and healthy (n = 60) buffaloes for quantification of haematological and biochemical risk factors associated with parturient haemoglobinuria. Red cell count (. 5 ~ 106 /ƒÊl), haemoglobin (. 8g / dl), haematocrit . 25%, mean corpuscular volume (. 50fL), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (. 20pg) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate( . 80mm / 1st hour) were recorded as significant (P . 0.05) haematological risk factors with odds ratios of 26, 17.81, 28.95, 21, 12.25 and 26 respectively whereas billirubin unconjugated (. 0.2mg /dl), billirubin total ( . 0.3mg /dl), phosphorous (. 2.5mg /dl), molybdenum (. 70ƒÊg /dl) and selenium (. 15 ƒÊg /dl) were recorded as significant (P.0.05) biochemical risk factors with odds ratios of 26.55, 26.55, , 7.50, 11 respectively. Experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of orally administered gossypol on haematological and biochemical parameters of eight female rabbits of six 163 months age purchased from local market and maintained at university of veterinary and animal sciences from February 2011 . April 2011 under optimum conditions. The cotton seed cake containing free gossypol contents of 0.25% was fed to rabbits @ 4 grams per kg per day in addition to their routine diet including good quality fresh vegetables (cucumbers, spinach, cabbage & carrots) and clean water ad-libitum. Blood samples of each rabbit were collected after every 15 days interval and analyzed for haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Significant (P.0.05) decrease was recorded in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and serum inorganic phosphorous whereas significant increase was recorded in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and monocytes from 0 . 60th day with the passage of time whereas non significant (P.0.05) difference was recorded with respect to granulocytes and serum calcium concentration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1429,T] (1).

275. Dynamics Of Membrane Changes And Generation Of Reactive Oxygen Species During Bovine Sperm Death

by Mushtaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1430,T] (1).

276. Identification Of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions In Prescriptions Dispensed By Community Pharmacies In The Urban

by Muhammad Mubasher | Ms. Huma Rasheed | Muhammad Irfan Masood | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is a developing country of South Asia and health care status of the people is considerably low compared to the developed countries of World. The concept of rational prescribing is still not fully understood by health care professionals of this region of the world. This study was designed to identify the most frequently encountered potential DDIs in prescriptions dispensed in community pharmacies in Lahore. A total of 1554 DIs were identified in 655 prescriptions out of 1000 analyzed prescriptions. The identified drug interactions were classified on the basis of their type, mechanism and outcome, severity, onset, and documentation status. It was observed that alcohol-drug interactions 582 (37.45%) and DDIs 524 (33.72%) are the most frequently occurring drug interactions in our society. Although most of the identified DDIs were moderate 233 (44.38%) in severity having delayed onset 230 (43.89%) and possible documentation 214 (40.84%), incidence of rapid onset 171 (32.63%), major DDIs 88 (16.76%) was also alarming in prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies of urban Lahore. Aspirin was the most frequently interacting drug 138 times (26.34%) and acetaminophen-orphenadrine combination with 53 (10.91%) encounters was the top interacting combination followed by aspirin-clopidogrel combination. The incidence of DDIs increased significantly with increase in the number of medicines (r value = 0.87) in a prescription. On the basis of findings, recommendations that how potential DDIs can be avoided were made. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1431,T] (1).

277. Evaluation Of Good Pharmacy Practice In Community Drug Sale Outlets With "A" Category License In The Urban Lahore,

by Muhammad Shahwar | Ms. Huma Rasheed | Muhammad Usman | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pakistan is a developing country, facing many challenges regarding provision of quality health to its people. Community drug sale outlet is the premises where people buy their prescription and Over the Counter (OTC) medicines. Internationally, the concept of community pharmacy is now far beyond the supply of medicines. It also includes drug information services and provision of pharmaceutical care. The international guidelines established for Good Pharmacy Practices (GPP) by WHO and International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) provide stepwise GPP implementation plans for developing countries. This project was designed for the evaluation of the current pharmacy practices at community pharmacies of Lahore on basis of WHO/FIP guidelines. This assessment was based on 50 indicators in form of survey which fulfills almost all areas of community pharmacy practice. Questionnaire was filled through the verbal communication with drug sale outlet personnel. Total of 200 drug sale outlets were selected on simple random sampling basis from the different areas of urban Lahore. The collected data was used to categorize the drug sale outlets on basis of score in four grades. The drug sale outlets were graded in four categories (A, B, C, and D) according to results obtained. Drug sale outlet having percentage up to 25 were graded D category; drug sale outlet having percentage 26-50 will lie in B category, drug sale outlet having percentage 51-75 and above 75 were graded in A category. 88% of drug sale outlets secured below 50% of the total score .The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. This was a base line study regarding GPP in Pakistan. GPP guidelines for pharmacy practices need to be established in Pakistan. Ministry of health and current legislation should play a major role in developing these guidelines. Qualified pharmacist should personally supervise the drug sale outlet all the time, to enhance the rational use of drugs, and to take part in provision of health care at community level. The compounding and dispensing section in current community drug sale outlets has a lots of improvement to be done regarding formulation personally by pharmacist and supervision also the compounding and dispensing section premises have to be separate from major area as per law other major areas identified by this study that require improvement include training, premises, storage system, and service. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1432,T] (1).

278. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Schistosomiasis In Cattle

by Mudassar Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1433,T] (1).

279. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats

by Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The fasciolosis in sheep and goat is an important and infectious disease of ruminants characterized by dullness, weakness, lack of appetite, pallor and edema of mucosa and death of animal. The accurate diagnosis of Fasciolosis remained a difficult task for the field practitioners and the right choice of medicine. For this purpose 600 sheep and goats was examined for fasciolosis. The fecal samples were collected directly from rectum while bile samples were collected from various private and public slaughter houses of districts Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore. Fasciola egg was identified by standard text while molecular conformation of Fasciola spp. was done by using PCR. For therapeutic trials, sixty animals (n=30 sheep; n=30 goats) positive for Fasciolosis was equally divided into A, B and C groups and each group comprising of 20 animals (n=10 sheep; n=10 goats). The animals of group A was given Zanil (Oxyclozanide) orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight; the animals of group B was given Albendazole orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight and the animals of group C was given the grounded powder of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) @ 5-6 teaspoon (25-30gm) orally. Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of Fasciola eggs at 3, 7 and 14 day of post-medication. Data on the prevalence of fasciolosis was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test while therapeutic trials data was analyzed with one way ANOVA using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); P < 0.05 was considered significant. To study fasciolosis in sheep and goats, samples were collected from Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal. The collected samples were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore and LPRI laboratories of Bahadurnagar, Okara. In this study first of all the fecal and bile samples were examined through microscope then these samples were processed by PCR test. No study was conducted previously on the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan, this is the first report for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis. In all F. hepatica positive samples approximate 300-bp fragment was generated on gel tested with DSJF/DSJ3 primers for sheep and goats. All positive samples by microscope were also positive by PCR, but out of the 92 samples positive (43 in sheep; 49 in goats) by PCR test, out of these 14 (7 in sheep; 7 in goats) were negative by microscopy. This study provides the base line data for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep in both fecal and bile samples in various districts of Punjab was calculated. Out of 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of sheep, F. hepatica prevalence rate was 12% (36 samples) by microscopic examination while 14.33% (43 samples) by PCR test. On the basis of microscopic examinations districts wise prevalence rate was 11, 12 and 13% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively and by PCR test prevalence rate was 13, 14 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Sahiwal than Okara and Lahore in sheep in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis was also calculated in goats on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR in both fecal and bile samples. Among 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of goats F. hepatica prevalence was 14% (42 samples) by microscopic examination while 16.33% (49 samples) by PCR. On the basis of microscopic examinations the prevalence was 13, 15 and 14% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively while on basis of PCR test prevalence was 15, 18 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Okara than Sahiwal and Lahore in goats in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. The eggs per gram (EPG) values and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves against fasciolosis in 30 positives sheep was recorded at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment. As group A was treated with oxyclozanide (Zanil), its efficacy was 50, 75 and 90% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively after treatment. The efficacy of albendazole was 46, 65 and 81% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively while the efficacy of Neem leaves was lowest that was 15, 30 and 42% at day 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole was significantly higher (p= 0.000) than Neem leaves. In sheep against the fasciolosis Oxyclozanide significant effect on EPG followed by albendazole and Neem leaves. The EPG and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves were determined in 30 goats against fasciolosis at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was 57, 76 and 90% at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was higher than Albendazole against the fasciolosis. The efficacy of albendazole was 55, 68 and 79% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. Efficacy of Neem leaves against fasciolosis was lower as compared to other two drugs, it was 15, 23 and 40% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. When the efficacy was compared at different days, Oxyclozanide reduced the EPG significantly, followed by Albendazole and Neem leaves. From this study it was concluded that PCR is more reliable technique than microscopic examination for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Microscopic technique provides the base line data for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats but PCR provides help to conduct further molecular diagnosis on fasciolosis as well as others parasitic diseases. Secondly fasciolosis which is an important parasitic problem of ruminants is significantly prevalent in sheep and goats in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts of Punjab. Oxyclozanide is the most effective drug while albendazole and neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) are relatively less effective against fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1434,T] (1).

280. Clinico-Chemotherapeutic Study On The Occurrence Of Navel Ill In Cow Calves

by Safdar Abbas | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Navel ill occurs commonly in young calves. Calves less than 1 week of age are most commonly affected by infections of navel because the umbilical stump usually takes 7-10 days to dry up. Infection of navel develops when pathogenic bacteria contaminated the wet umbilicus under the unhygienic environmental conditions. It may also cause the death of newborns calves due to bacterimia and septicemic shock. The unhygienic environmental conditions like parturition of cow in dirty pen, poor navel hygiene practices, inadequate colostrum feedings within 6 hours after parturition or when umbilical cord is cut too close to abdominal wall of calf, may predispose a calf to navel ill. The present study was conducted in and around Kahna region of Lahore to find out the disease percentage of navel ill in newborn calves, and chemotherapeutical trials were conducted to see the comparative effect of topical, parenteral and topical with parenteral therapy. For this purpose, 400 newborn calves of 15 days or less than 15 days age were randomly selected from small dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area. Among 400 calves, 197 calves were randomly selected from different small holder farmers of study area and 203 were selected from small dairy farms. Among 197 calves from different local areas of Kahna, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.19% and among 203 calves from small dairy farms of study area, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.80%. The overall occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill from dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area was 29.25 %. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study areas was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves respectively. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study area was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves respectively. For chemotherapeutical trials, calves were divided into five groups. Calves of group A (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder, applied to navel cord topically twice a day for five days. The average percentage recovery of group A among males was 41% and among females was 46.5 %, but the overall recovery in group A was 43.75%. Similarly, when calves of group B (n=10) were treated with parenteral therapy of Moxin and Meloxicam for five days, then the average percentage recovery of group B among males was 41.47 % and among females was 48.08 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group B was 43.60 %. Calves of group C (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder plus parenteral therapy of Moxin and Melacam for five days. The average percentage recovery of group C among males was 76 % and among females was 90 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group C was 83 %. Calves of group D (n=10) were kept as positive control to observe complications. They were of diseased conditions. Among these calves, three calves got maggot wounds; one died due to septicemia, two calves got small hernia and remaining calves showed no further complications except existing signs. Calves of group E (n=10, healthy calves) were kept as negative control. Among these healthy calves, three calves became thin and emaciated but all others remained healthy and showed no clinical signs of any disease. Finally, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Chi Square method (software stata). In conclusion, the statistical analysis showed that occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was more in male as compared to female calves. Similarly, the occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill was high in local areas i.e. small holder farmers as compared to dairy farms of study area. The chemotherapeutic trials conducted among different groups of calves showed variable results. Topical treatment showed some better results than parenteral treatment, but when topical treatment was given with parenteral therapy, the calves showed maximum recovery. On the behalf of this study, it was concluded that the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill is high in calves reared under unhygienic conditions. At dairy farms, hygienic conditions were better due to some good calf rearing practices as compared to local small holder farmers, that's why the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was high at local small holder farmers than that of dairy farms. Similarly, the results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that simple topical or parenteral therapy alone was not effective much as compared to when both topical and parenteral therapy was given at the same time. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1436,T] (1).

281. Serum Biochemical Metabolites, Electrolytes And Minerals Profiling In Heat Stressed Donkeys (Equus Asinus)

by Naz Fatima | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background In developing countries, equines are used as a companion animal, for transportation, carrying goods, pulling carts and to ride. Heat stress (HS) is the major problem of tropical and subtropical region that adversely affects the performance of livestock by altering the physiological indices. Objective The current study is designed to report the dynamics of different physiological indices including serum electrolytes, minerals, biochemical metabolites, hepatic enzymes and thyroid hormones in heat stressed (HSd) donkeys (Equus asinus). Materials and Methods A total of 20 donkeys were involved (10 healthy and 10 clinically diagnosed as HSd), irrespective of their gender and age, in the current study. The health of the donkeys was evaluated by observing vital signs including body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate and hematocrit. Blood was collected from each animal during summer season in August and serum was harvested by centrifugation, of clotted blood, at 4,000 rpm for 20 minutes. Serum samples were stored at -20°C for analysis. Serum electrolytes and minerals were determined using flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively, after wet digestion of serum. Serum biochemical metabolites and hepatic enzymes were evaluated using commercial kits, spectrophotometrically. Serum thyroid hormones concentrations were determined using commercial ELISA kits. Normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Data was analyzed using Independent Student's t-test by employing Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Data was presented as means ± SE. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results Results revealed significantly higher heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature and hematocrit in heat stressed donkeys. Results revealed that serum sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly lower and serum calcium, magnesium and iron concentrations were significantly higher in heat stressed donkeys. However, there was no significant difference in Na/K ratio and serum chloride in HSd donkeys. Results revealed significantly higher serum total proteins, albumin, globulins concentrations, A/G ratio, LDL-cholesterol levels, T3, T4, AST, ALT, and ALP activity and homocysteine concentrations in heat stressed donkeys. However, serum HDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly lower. No significant difference in concentrations of serum glucose and cholesterol was observed. Conclusion Heat stress decreases electrolytes concentration and increases homocysteine and LDL-cholesterol levels that may account for increased risk of cardiovascular manifestations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1437,T] (1).

282. Prevalence Of Trichomonas Foetus In Large Ruminants Of District Hafiizabad

by Amjad Atta Bhatti | Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Trichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a protozoan parasite of reproductive tract of large ruminants and causes abortion. This organism is found in males and females associated with varied pathology and clinical symptom. Disease has venereal transmission and male remain infected throughout the life. Pakistan is a developing country and artificial insemination facility is not available to all farmers and some are reluctant to avail it. This study was designed to check the prevalence of T. foetus in large animals in district Hafizabad. One hundred and fifty preputial and vaginal samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes 75 each. These samples were from 100 females and 50 males. Vaginal mucus from females was thoroughly examined for T. foetus in direct smear and in smear stained by Giemsa stain. Male samples were subjected to examination by direct smear, centrifugation and stained smear performed from sediments for detection of T. foetus. Overall prevalence of T. foetus was 12.0% (18/150) in sampled animals and species wise T. foetus infection was 8% (6/75) for cattle and 16% (12/75) for buffalos. Sex related prevalence of T. foetus in cows is 6% (3/50) and in buffaloes was 14% (7/50). Infection was more common in buffalo bulls 20% (5/25) as compared with cow bulls 12% (3/25). There was no difference in diagnosis of T. foetus in females by direct smear or by examination of stained smears. Whereas stained smears prepared from sediments of preputial washings were more sensitive in diagnosing of T. foetus infection as compared with direct smear method. Study also indicated that infection was exclusively seen in animals that were involved in natural breeding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1438,T] (1).

283. Clincal Cytogenetic Investications In Cattle & Buffalo Population Of Punjab For Chromosomal Abnormalities

by Muhammad Bilal Bin Majeed | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr. Ahmad Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1439,T] (1).

284. Effect Of Multienzyme Supplementation And Acidification Of Diets On Nutrients Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Broiler

by Abdur Rahman | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Major portion of the poultry feed is composed of cereals and vegetable proteins, which cannot be fully digested and utilized by poultry due to lack of endogenous enzymes. However, it can be increased by use of exogenous enzymes. The major cost in the raising of poultry is feed. Utilization of most grains is influenced by the presence of indigestible complex carbohydrates, such as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP's) in poultry. It is possible to partially degrade these NSP's with selective exogenous enzymes acting on specific raw materials, e.g., in spite of having more gross energy in soybean meal than corn, its metabolizeable energy is less than that of corn because of -galactosides (raffinose and stachyose) that can not be digested in small intestine of broilers but these can be hydrolyzed by exogenous enzymes. Addition of organic acids in the feed has shown positive response in growth performance as they are bactericidal and reduce the incidence of Salmonellae in crop and carcass. Furthermore, organic acids are used in feed to get the favorable level of pH for the action of exogenous enzyme -galactosidase .Keeping in view the importance of supplementation of exogenous NSPs enzymes and organic acids, a 35 days trial was conducted in broiler chicks (n=240) by dividing them into eight groups and each group was having three replicates with 10 birds in each. Control group was fed NRC (1994) recommended diet (Diet A). Diet B was formulated with low metabolizeable energy (2630 Kcal/Kg). Diets C, D was formulated by adding two different levels( 0.25 gm/Kg feed and 0.5 gm/Kg feed) of NSP digesting multiezyme "Zympex" in diet B and diets E, F with different levels (0.5% and 1.5%) of citric acid in Diet B. While diets G, H was formulated by adding above mentioned different level of enzyme and citric acid in Diet B. The weekly weight gain results showed that broilers of basal diet attained maximum weight gain which was followed by low energy diet having 500g/ton zympex, low energy diet having 500g/ton zympex plus 1.5% citric acid, low energy diet having 250g/ton zympex plus 0.5% citric acid, low energy diet with 250gm/ton zympex, low energy diet, low energy diet having 250gm/ton zympex plus 0.5% citric acid and low energy diet having 500gm/ton zympex plus 1.5% citric acid respectively. The differences of average weights of various groups when compared statistically with group A, revealed that the weights of group B, C, E, F, G and H were significantly different (p<0.05) whereas, the differences of group A and D were found non significant. While comparison of various groups with B revealed that the weight of group A, D, G and H are significantly different with B, but groups C, E and F are non significant with B. Groups B and C, C and G, B E and F, A and D, G and H are non significant among each other . On comparison of various groups with group D it was found that weights of group B, C, E, F, G and H were significantly different (p<0.05). It is evident from the above results that there is increase in weight of broilers of group D, showing non significant difference from control group A, supplemented with enzyme complex. The results showed that maximum feed consumption was by group B followed by group C, A, D, G, E, H and F. The data of feed consumption when put to analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.05) of group A, B, C, D, E and G with F and H while the feed consumption of group F and H was found insignificantly different from each other. When comparison of various groups was made with feed consumption of group A, the feed consumptions of group B, C, D, E, F, G and H were found significantly different(p<0.05). While Comparison of various groups with B showed significant difference in feed consumption with all other groups. The overall FCR of group A was found to be the best among all groups, which was followed by group D, H, G, F, C, E, and B. The analysis of variance among different experimental groups showed a significant difference (p<0.05) when groups B, C, E, F, G and H was compared with A, while D was insignificant with A. While comparing B with all groups showed significant difference with all groups. Group D and H are non significant with each other which indicate that FCR is better in D followed by H among treatment groups which is very near to control group A, showing activity of enzyme complex and acid. The results show the values of glucose level at different time intervals, before feeding the glucose level in groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H showed significant results. When the data of glucose was subjected to ANOVA it revealed that group C, D, E, F, G and H were significantly different with A. Group C, D, G and H showed significant difference with B. Group B, E and F were non significant among each other. Group A showed significant different with all groups. The data obtained 1 hour after feeding when subjected to analysis of variance when compared with group A showed that groups B, D, E, F, G and H were significantly different with A. Group A, C, D, F, G and H showed significant difference with B. Group H was significantly higher among all. Data recorded after 2 hour when subjected to ANOVA revealed significant difference of group C, D, G and H with group A and B. Groups A, B, E and F are insignificant among each other. While group is significantly different with all groups. Values of data collected after 3 hours of feeding when subjected to analysis of variance showed significant difference of groups B, C, D, E, G and H with A. Groups A, C, D, G and H were significantly different with B. Group B and F were non significant among each other. Glucose level was higher in H followed by D, G, C, A, F, C and E. The data calculated for ME when subjected to ANOVA it reveals that groups E and F are significantly different with other groups and shows non significant difference among each other. Other groups A, B, C, D, G and H are showing no significant among each other. ME in groups D and G is equal to control group A which shows the action of enzyme or acid which results in more release of energy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1440,T] (1).

285. Clinico-Epidemiology Of Shigellosis In Children Suffering From Diarrhea In District Lahore

by Muhammad Nisar | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Dn Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1441,T] (1).

286. Geographical Distribution Of Dengue Fever Infected Patients And Its Related Risk Factors In And Aroun Lahore.

by Muhammad Usman Zaheer | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans worldwide and is a major public health concern, especially in tropical and subtropical regions (Mackenzie et al., 2004). This life threatening disease is caused by a specific virus (ARBO-Flavivirus) transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito (Aedes aegyptii and Aedes albopictus) which is identified by the white bands and scale patterns on its legs and thorax. Trans-ovarial transmission of dengue virus has also been reported in different studies. The mosquito may bite at any time but the probability of bites increase at dusk and dawn (WHO 2009). Dengue fever has emerged as a significant public health problem in Pakistan. In Pakistan, the first epidemic of dengue fever was reported in 1994 in Karachi (Anaari et al., 2001). Several years later, in 2006 another epidemic was reported in the southern part of Pakistan, predominantly caused by DENV-2 that led to 58 deaths (khan et al., 2008). In 2007, 22 people died of disease and in 2008 only five people were reported to die from it. Between October 2006 and January 2008, there were 3,242 laboratory confirmed cases of dengue fever in Pakistan. Since January 2009, 224 suspected cases were reported in Sindh province, of which 135 were the confirmed cases. During the epidemic of dengue fever in 2010 more than seven thousand cases were reported in Pakistan, of which 5 thousand cases were from Punjab and resulted in 63 deaths. The mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic diseases are prevalent throughout the world. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the most important diseases widely distributed in the tropics of South East Asia. It is an infectious malady of human beings characterized by fever and non-specific constitutional symptoms. The virus is transmissible to human beings by the bite of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The disease is spreading like a geometric rise of cases in a wide range of geographical regions. The geographical factors and locality of patients may be a contributing factor to the outbreak of Dengue Fever. Climate change is likely to increase the area of land with a climate suitable for dengue fever transmission, and that if no other contributing factors were to change, a large proportion of the human population would then be put at risk. The data on address of patients were collected from all the patients admitted in tertiary care hospital from August 01, 2011 to November 30, 2011. The geographical risk factors studied in this project were presence or absence of parks, trees, ponds, swimming pool, service station, tyre shop, source of stagnant water, pond and municipality garbage tank in vicinity of house of the cases and controls. For the study of risk factors we made 2 groups i.e. cases and controls; each comprising of 300 subjects and then data on presence or absence of various hypothesized risk factors in the vicinity of house (400 meters) and area (800 meters) were collected through a well structured and pre-tested questionnaire (Harrington et al., 2005; Honório et al., 2003; Schatzmayr 2000; Muir and Kay 1998; Reiter et al., 1995; McDonald 1977; Hausemann 1971 and Bond et al., 1970). The statistical analysis of data was done by using SPSS 16.0. Qualitative data were presented in form of tables, bar charts, column and pie- charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association between dengue fever and various hypothesized risk factors. P-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Odds ratio was calculated at 95% level of confidence (CI) for various hypothesized risk factors of dengue fever. The results of present study revealed that the season of dengue fever in Pakistan is from August to November and the period prevalence of dengue fever to be 0.11%. Males (59%) were mainly the victim of dengue fever. The main affected age groups were 16-30 year (37.33%) and 31-45 years (29.67%). As far as the geographical distribution of dengue fever infected patients is concerned, it was concluded that dengue fever cases were reported from all the ten towns of Lahore metropolitan, however, most of the cases were reported from Ravi town followed by Data Ganj Baksh town and Cantt. The results regarding various hypothesized risk factors are as follows: parks/trees/plants in vicinity of house OR=8.81, p-value <0.05; swimming pool in vicinity of house OR=5.O3, p-value <0.05; source of stagnant water in vicinity of house OR=8.25, p-value <0.05; fogging in your area OR=0.50, p-value <0.05; service station in the area OR=5.98, p-value <0.05; tyre shop in the area OR=6.11, p-value <0.05; municipality garbage tank in the area OR=5.88, p-value <0.05; any pond in the area OR=5.69, p-value <0.05. From the results of this project we concluded that dengue fever is most prevalent from August to November and it is a disease of mainly male gender and mostly affects people of age group 16-45 years. Besides this, dengue fever is almost equally distributed in all the towns of Lahore metropolitan. Also we concluded that presence or absence of parks, trees, plants, swimming pool, stagnant water, pond, service station, tyre shop and municipality garbage tanks in vicinity of house are the risk factors of dengue fever. Fogging proved to be a deterrent to dengue fever. On the basis of results of this project there is need to implement a control program in which vector control and minimizing the exposure of people to risk factors should be the key points that need to be addressed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1444,T] (1).

287. Comparative Study Of Different Suturing Techniques For Cystotomy Closure In Canines

by Imdadullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Hassan | Pror. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The cystotomy is an incision in to the wall of urinary bladder which is commonly indicated for the removal of urinary stones and for the excision of invading tumors. Cystotomy wound is closed by varieties of suturing patterns which commonly include simple appositional and inversion types of suturing patterns. Appositional patterns are used in single-layer while double-layer appositional pattern is also used. Inversion types of suturing patterns are commonly used in double layers. Single-layer appositional patterns are commonly used in small and young animals while double-layer inverting pattern is preferred to apply in large animals. Double-layer inversion pattern has been found to decrease the size of bladder lumen when the bladder wall is thick. Bladder mucosa in all cases is not penetrated because of the danger of the formation of bladder stones. In three-layer closure mucosa is sutured as a separate layer and is indicated commonly when there is bleeding. The present project is aimed to conduct a comparative study of appositional versus inversion type of suturing patterns and two-layer versus three-layer of bladder wall repair. The study was conducted on 24 dogs divided into four groups comprising 6 dogs each. In 18 dogs experimental cystotomies were performed which were closed in following manners. Group-A: the cystotomy wound was closed in two-layer simple interrupted suturing pattern, group-B: cystotomy wound was closed in two layers by simple continuous and continuous lembert suturing pattern, group-C: the cystotomy wound was closed in three layers and group-D was the control group. These suturing techniques were evaluated for leakage with the help of contrast radiography, ultrasonography, renal function tests and physical signs. These techniques were also evaluated for their effect on residual urine volume with the help of ultrasound machine. All the suturing techniques provided water tight closure when evaluated through radiography, ultrasonography, kidney function tests and physical examination. The two-layer inversion patterns and three-layer closure techniques were found to effect residual bladder volume but the effect of three-layer closure technique was more pronounced. No crystals/stones were observed on postmortem examination of the urinary bladder in each operated dog. A well demarcated stricture was noted in dogs whose bladders were sutured in three layers. It was thus concluded form the research that appositional patterns do not affect the residual bladder volume, the catgut can be penetrated through the mucosa without endangering for cystolithiasis and the two-layer appositional suturing pattern is as effective as three-layer closure of cystotomy wound for the control of hemorrhage from the bladder mucosa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1445,T] (1).

288. Physico-Chemical Factors Affection Survival Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum

by Javed Muhammad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Poultry industry is second largest industry in Pakistan. Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry and has a great impact on economy of country. The present study was conducted to check the effect of physical factors including pH, temperature, ultra violet light (UV), atmospheric condition and sodium chloride, chemical factors including formalin and sodium hypochlorite and extracts of herbal plants including Garlic, glycyrhiza and Neem on survival of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Referenced isolate of MG received from University Diagnostic Lab (UDL), University of Veterinary of animal Sciences, Lahore was used in Bacterial count 0.1 at optical density 450 equal to approximate 108 cfu/ml was used in the entire experiment. Survival of MG at pH level 4.8 and 10.8 is significantly lower (p?0.05) as compared to pH level 7.8. Optimum pH was found 7.8 showing best growth while pH 10.8 indicated more lethal effect on survival of MG as compared to 10.8. Temperature study showed that MG exposed to 43°C more lethal effect on survival as compared to 31°C while showed growth occurred at 37°C. Ultra violet light (254nm) showed significant effect (P?0.05) on viability at a distance of 2, 4 and 6 centimeter which indicated that MG at 2 cm from UV light leading to death with increase in exposure time. Survival of MG was best in presence of 5 to 10% CO2 or candle jar as compared to incubate in closed container or without closed container and candle jar (open air). Sodium chloride 3 and 5 percent occupied a drastic effect on MG viability but resistance was existed up to some extant to 1 percent. Culture of MG exposed to formalin 0.1 and 0.2 percent for 15 minutes resulted in high lethal effect significantly (p?0.05) as compared to 0.05 percent. Non significance difference (P?0.05) was present between 4 and 6 percent sodium hypochlorite in terms of effect on survival of MG and has lethal effect when exposed for 5 minute which differ significantly from 2 percent which resulted in death after exposing for 10 minutes. Glycyrhiza and Neem indicated minimum inhibitory effect against MG with similar concentration of 6.25 mg/mL while garlic stop growth at concentration of 3.125 mg/mL. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1446,T] (1).

289. Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques. The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1447,T] (1).

290. A Study On Different Placements (Onlay, Inlay & Sublay) Of Prolene Mesh For The Repair Of Incisional Hernia

by Aftab Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1448,T] (1).

291. A Comparative Study Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Acacia Nilotica Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants

by Rizwana Raheel | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1449,T] (1).

292. Clinico-Biochemical Study After Partial And Complete Blockage Of Ureters In Dogs.

by Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwae Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Ureteral obstruction is one of the most common problems associated with urinary system. It imparts serious consequences on the system, if not treated sharply. The present study was performed in twenty dogs after producing experimental obstruction through ureteral ligations of variable nature. The aim of the experiment was to identify the effects of variable ligations on obstructed and contralateral kidney with the help of blood parameters including hematology and serum analysis along with diagnostic imaging i.e. radiography and ultrasonography. It was noted that hematology was of least significance as diagnostic aid while serum analysis i.e. BUN and S/Cr were of some worth in early stages. As far as diagnostic imaging was concerned IV urography is considered as first line diagnosis in advanced cases revealing kidney size, parenchyma and hydronephrosis, while Ultrasonography is more sophisticated and advanced which is helpful in initial diagnosis and can study deep structures of the kidney. Results revealed that in partial obstructions, in obstructed kidneys severity of hydronephrosis and kidney damage was less than complete obstructions. In complete ureteral obstruction, deterioration of total internal structures including medulla , cortex and renal pelvis was observed. Role of contralateral kidney was also evident during the experiment, which compensated the physiological changes due to obstruction and helped the patient in returning to normal life but structural damage of variable nature was also noted depending upon the severity of obstruction in the ureter. It was observed during experiment that the revival of renal function is time dependent which is inversely related to duration of obstruction. If obstruction, mild or severe, is released earlier, recovery is quick and complete renal function restoration is possible in 24 to 48 hours of obstruction, depending upon its severity. But if delay occurs, it results in irreversible damage to the obstructed kidney and after three to six weeks no functional parenchyma is detectable in severe and mild obstructions respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1450,T] (1).

293. Effect Of Different Dietary Levels Of Lysine During Phase Feeding On The Performance Of Male And Female Broilers

by Rabia Anjum | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom A. Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1452,T] (1).

294. Evaluation Of Antiviral Activity Of Allium Sativum, Allium Cepa And Zingiber Officinale Against New Castle

by Azeem Ahmed Iqbal | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1453,T] (1).

295. In Vitro Evaluation Of Antiviral And Cytotoxic Activity Of Ginseng Root, Leaves Of Tulsi And Aloe Vera Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Misbah Afzal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1457,T] (1).

296. Comparative Evaluation Of Mutagenicity And Cyhalothrin, Of Endosulfan, Lambda-Cyhalothrin,

by Umber Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1460,T] (1).

297. Post-Prandial Glucose Response In Healthy And Type-2 Diabetic Individuals Fed On Various Types Of Leavened

by Khudiaja Tahir Awan | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1461,T] (1).

298. Quality Evaluation Of Different Brands Of Ceftriaxone

by Sana Tariq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Miss Huma.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: This study was designed to determine the physicochemical equivalence of selected brands of ceftriaxone sodium registered with the ministry of health government of Islamic republic of Pakistan. Out of 9 selected brands 3 were of lowest price distribution class, 3 from the intermediate price distribution class and remaining three from the highest price distribution class. For quality evaluation 3 parameters were selected which were physical, chemical and microbial. Physical characters analyzed were general appearance, pH, solubility and moisture content. Characters which determine the chemical equivalence were assay of active ingredient and percentage of impurities present in powdered drug. Both these parameters were quantified chromatographically using high pressure liquid chromatography. Clinical efficacy of selected brands of this valuable antibiotic was accessed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. Statistically all brands were significantly different from one another but all the parameters taken as quality indicators showed results within the range specified by united state pharmacopoeia. None of selected brands of ceftriaxone sodium were found to be counterfeit or even substandard. Irrespective of difference in price, no visible variation was found among different quality assessment parameters, all samples showed compliance with the international pharmacopoeial standards. Through this study it can be concluded that the quality of ceftriaxone in Pakistan is well regulated, all the registered brands are up to the mark and irrespective of variation in price there is no variation in the quality of brands. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1462,T] (1).

299. Determination Of Bacterial Etiological Agents ,Sensitivity Pattern And Clinical Outcomes Paediatrics Patients In pyogenic meningitis at children hospital Lahore,Pakistan

by Fauzia Tajdin | Dr. Muhammad Adil Resheed | Prof Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background: Meningitis is inflammation of membranes of brain and spinal cord which are known as meninges collectively and these membranes provide protection. This study was designed to check the bacteriology and sensitivity pattern of pyogenic meningitis for their antibiotic susceptibility testing and pattern of resistance by meningitis isolates in patients suspected from meningitis is determined. It was conducted on different children suspected from meningitis in Children hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Hypothesis: By using CSF culturing and different biochemical tests bacterial etiological agents of pyogenic meningitis in children of less than 15 years was determined and their sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome was also evaluated. Material & Methods: Clinical manifestations of all patients admitted to Children hospital were examined at the time of admission and patients showing classic triads (fever, neck rigidity and seizure) their CSF samples were collected by using all necessary aseptic precautions with the assistance of trained professionals. These CSF samples were examined for their physiological, biochemical and cytological and microbiological analysis. The pathogens was isolated, identified and purified by selective culturing methods, which was subjected to active growth, during which sensitivity to different antibiotics were checked in vitro by Kirby Bauer Disk diffusion method. The sensitivity was measured by area marked by the zone of inhibition, and Clinical Laboratory Standards interpretations (CLSI). Standard limit was a key indicator towards resistance bacteria. Statistical Analysis: The collected data was analyzed by using ANOVA and Chie Square tests on SPSS software (16). Outcome: Different bacteria responsible for bacterial meningitis were isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of different antibiotics against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were also evaluated. The effects of different regimens of treatment of acute pyogenic meningitis were also evaluated by evaluating the improvement in clinical condition, rate of complications of disease and incidence of death due to this fatal disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1463,T] (1).

300. Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Mothers Towards Infant Care And Feeding

by Sadia Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ur-Din Ahmad | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1464,T] (1).



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