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301. Docking-Based Virtual Screening And Pharmacophore Studies To Explore Highly Selective Nuclear Factor Kappa

by Sher Muhammad Zaman | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1465,T] (1).

302. Study On Hepatoprotective Effect Of Camel Milk Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced

by Muhammad Aamer Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Athar | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1466,T] (1).

303. Prevalence And Therapeutic Studies On Diabetes Mellitus In Pet Dogs At Lahore.

by Salman Khalid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important maladies of endocrine glands in dog and cats. It is due to the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. The multi-factors such as obesity, feeding, exposure to toxic drugs etc. are involved for the onset of this chronic disease. The basic energy fuel of the body is glucose. In the absence of insulin the glucose level in the blood is increases which can be noticed as hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level). There are the three types of diabetes mellitus which includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I or IDDM), noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II or NIDDM) and secondary diabetes mellitus. The dogs play a vital role in our society. The present study was conducted on diabetes mellitus to study its prevalence, its effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of insulin therapy in pet dogs in Lahore, Pakistan. The 500 blood samples were collected from the dogs of age ?5 years, presented at Pet centre of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore and various private clinics in Lahore, and was processed in Medicine Laboratory of UVAS, Lahore. The blood glucose level was measured with the aid of glucometer. Out of 500, 16 (n=5 male & n=11 females) were positive for diabetes mellitus. The 3.2% prevalence of diabetes mellitus was recorded in pet dogs in Lahore. The study concluded that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in female dogs (68.75%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of male dogs (31.25%). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in old age dogs (>9 years) as compared with other age groups. Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent in winter season same as in human beings. The clinical signs like Polyuria (81.25%), Polydipsia (68.75%), Hyperglycemia (100%), Dehydration (43.75%), Anemia (56.25%) and cataract (18.75%) were commonly observed in diabetic dogs. In the present study the pet dog breed like Yorkshire terrier, Samoyed, Pomuranian and Cross bred were prone to have diabetes mellitus whereas German shepherd, Bull dogs, Pugs and Labrador retriever were at low risk for this malady. In the present project, the haematological study was conducted on 28 dogs (n=14 diabetic and n=14 healthy dogs). The five ml blood sample were collected from each dog directly from the cephalic vein and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml and were further analyzed through haemtological analyzer. The results showed the decreased number of RBCs (4.63±0.42) and an increased in PCV values (62.91±4.18). The results also showed dehydration and anemia in diabetic dogs. In the present study the 21 dogs (n= 14 diabetic dogs, n= 7 healthy dogs) were selected for therapeutic trials. The dogs were divided into further three groups; A, B and C. Each study group was comprised of 7 animals. Group A (comprised of diabetic dogs) was treated with Humulin-N (Insulin) @ 0.5 U/Kg, q12h, SC for 7 days. The group B (comprised of diabetic dogs) was kept as positive control while the healthy dogs were kept in group C for negative control. After the seven days treatment of group A, the blood samples were collected every 2 hr interval for 12 hrs for measuring the glucose value. The process was repeated once in a week for one month. The four blood glucose curves were made. Each blood glucose curve has its own nadir value. The time of glucose nadir value was indicated the peak action of insulin. The blood glucose curves were made to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that the Humulin-N (insulin) was much effective for management of diabetic dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1467,T] (1).

304. Chemical Equivalence Of Different Brands Of Oxytertacycline Hydrochloride And Its Minimum

by Sadaf Hina | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the chemical equivalence of various brands of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (long acting, short acting & PVP) approved by the ministry of health and available in the local market for veterinary use. Oxytetracycline was measured by HPLC method developed and standardized in the laboratory. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the Oxytetracycline by HPLC assay method were determined. From stock solution of working standard (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) different concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10, 25, 50 and 100µg per ml were prepared for the determination of LOD. The LOD calculated was 0.100(µg/ml) and LOQ was 0.5 (µg/ml). Correlation coefficient was 0.99994050. Concentration of the active ingredient (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride) in all preparations was same as mentioned on the label except Oxytetracycline (74%), Terrasym PVP-100 (81%), and Onyx-LA (72%). MIC of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride against following bacterial isolates determined by micro-broth dilution test was Bacillus subtilis (50µg), Staphylococcus aureus (100µg), Eschericiha coli (50µg), Salmonella enterica (1000µg) and Pasturella multocida (50µg).It showed that all these bacterial cultures have developed resistance against Oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1468,T] (1).

305. Determination Of The Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Prevailing In The Hepatitis Suspected Patients In District Mardan,

by Suliman Qadir Afridi | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Fariha Akhtar | Dr. Yasin Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1469,T] (1).

306. Effect Of Protein Supplements Of Varying Ruminal Degradability On Milk Production, Composition And Nutrients

by Illahi Bakhsh Marghazani | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study on "Effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes" was carried out in three phases at three different experimental locations. The in situ study of animal and vegetable protein sources was conducted at the Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animals Sciences, Lahore while the feeding trials with early lactating Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes were carried out Government Livestock Farm, Kalurkot, Bukkar and Livestock Experimental Station, Khushab, respectively. Different animal (n = 6) and vegetable origin (n = 15) protein sources were subjected to ruminal protein degradability analyses using the in situ technique. All these test feeds collected from ten different locations were subjected to ruminal incubation (in triplicate) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h to determine the quickly soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction (b), degradation rate (c) and effective degradability at different (2, 5, 8 %) ruminal passage rates. The degradability characteristics in animal protein sources (part 1, phase 1) showed significant differences in degradation kinetics and effective degradability (ED). In crude protein (CP) degradability, the quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in fish meal, PBM and meat meal and lower (P<0.05) in blood meal, feather meal and bone and meat meal. Potentially degradable fraction (b) among test feeds was maximum (P<0.05) in bone and meat meal and PBM and minimum (P<0.05) in blood meal and feather meal. The degradation rate (c) did not differ among the test feeds. Of all the animal protein sources investigated, meat meal showed maximum CP degradability at 0.05 rumen passage rate whilst, minimum (P<0.05) ED of CP was exhibited by blood meal. Ruminal degradability characteristics in vegetable protein sources (part-2 of phase-1) showed variation in degradation kinetics and ED of CP. The quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, coconut meal and PKC. Potentially degradable fraction (b) was maximum (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, PKC, SBM and guar meal while minimum (P<0.05) in sesame cake and CGM 30%. Protein degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in CSC while lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal, coconut cake and CGM 60%. Effective degradability of CP at 0.05 rumen passage rate was highest in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in coconut meal. All vegetable protein sources were treated (part-3 of phase-1) with formaldehyde (1 g/100 g CP) and heat treatment (1 h at 15 lb/100 g CP) to determine their effectiveness in reducing ruminal protein degradability. Both of these treatments decreased (P<0.05) rumen degradability of the vegetable protein sources investigated. Of the formaldehyde treated test feeds, quickly soluble fraction (a) was higher (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lower (P<0.05) in CGM 60%, SBM, CGM 30%, guar meal, canola meal and coconut meal. The highest value of potentially degradable fraction (b) was recorded (P<0.05) in CSC and RSC while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Degradation rate (c) was highest (P<0.05) in RSM, RSC, CSC, CSM coconut cake, PKC, sesame cake, SFM and CGM 60% and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 30%, guar meal and canola meal. Effective degradability of CP was maximum in sesame cake at all the rumen passage rates. In contrast, CGM 60% had the lowest (P<0.05) ED at all of the rumen passage rates. Among the heat treated vegetable protein sources, quickly soluble fraction (a) was highest (P<0.05) in sesame cake and lowest (P<0.05) in CGM 60% and SBM. Potentially degradable fraction (b) had the highest (P<0.05) value in almond cake, RSM, RSC, CSC and SFM while CGM 60% had the lowest value (P<0.05). Effective CP degradability of the heat treated test feeds showed that almond cake and sesame cake had the highest (P<0.05) ED whilst CGM 60% had the lowest values (P<0.05). In comparing both treatments, similar influence (P>0.05) of increasing RUP level was recorded in CGM 30%, SFM, RSM, CSM, PKC and coconut meal. Formaldehyde treatment was found more effective (P<0.05) in increasing RUP level in guar meal, canola meal, RSC, CSC, coconut cake, almond cake and sesame cake whilst heat treatment increased (P<0.05) RUP level in SBM and CGM 60% at applied rates in this study. In phase-2, a feeding trial with early lactating Sahiwal cows was conducted to investigate the effect of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradability on milk production, composition and nutrients utilization. Twenty four early lactating Sahiwal cows were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Four iso- caloric and iso- nitrogenous diets i.e., ration A (30% RUP), ration B (40% RUP), ration C (50% RUP) and ration D (60% RUP) were fed in a completely randomized design. Dry matter and CP intakes were significantly affected by ration composition (P<0.01), whereas NDF and ADF intakes did not vary among the four treatment groups (P>0.05). DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in cows receiving rations B and A than the cows fed rations C and D. There were significant differences in DM (P<0.05), CP (P<0.001) and NDF (P<0.05) digestibility due to the ration; however, ADF digestibility did not differ (P>0.05) between the rations. DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) on ration B than rations C and D, but similar to that for ration A. Crude protein was higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on rations C and D. Daily yields of uncorrected milk and protein were highest in early lactating Sahiwal cows fed ration B and lowest when fed ration D. Daily yields of 4% FCM and milk fat were higher (P<0.05) on rations B and A and lower (P<0.05) on ration D. In milk composition, fat, protein and total solids contents were the same across all diets. Nitrogen intake was highest (P<0.01) for rations B and A and lowest for ration D and C. Nitrogen balance (g/d) and as a percentage of N intake varied; with the cows consuming ration B retaining maximum (P<0.001) N. However, N balance did not vary between rations A, C and D. Nitrogen utilization was highest (P<0.001) in cows fed ration B, but there was no difference among cows fed rations A, C and D. Live weight and body condition score in cows were unaffected by the rations. Cost of milk production was least on ration B and highest on ration D. In phase-3 a feeding trial using early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was conducted. Twenty four buffaloes were selected and randomly divided into four groups. These groups were fed four experimental diets i.e., rations A, B, C and D having 30, 40, 50 and 60% RUP proportions, respectively in a completely randomized design. Results showed no differences (P>0.05) in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and ADF intake between the rations. Likewise, DM, CP and ADF digestibility were the same (P>0.05) in buffaloes fed rations A, B, C and D; however, NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.01) on ration C and B while lowest on rations A and D. Milk yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C while lowest (P<0.001) on rations D and A. Buffaloes given ration C produced more (P<0.05) FCM than those receiving rations A, B and D. Daily yield of milk fat was greater (P<0.001) on ration C compared to the other three rations. Milk protein yield was highest (P<0.001) on ration C and lowest (P<0.001) on rations A and C. Diet had no effect (P>0.05) on milk fat, SNF, lactose, salts and total solids percentages; whilst milk protein percentage varied among all four diets, viz ration C>ration B>ration D>ration A. Nitrogen, intake, nitrogen balance and nitrogen utilization were similar across all the diets. Live weight and body condition score in buffaloes were unaffected by the diet fed. The cost of milk production was highest (P<0.05) with rations D and B whilst lowest (P<0.05) on ration C. It is concluded that among animal protein sources rumen CP degradability was least in blood meal and maximum in meat meal. In vegetable protein sources, coconut meal showed least ruminal CP degradability while sesame cake recorded with highest ruminal CP degradability. Both formaldehyde and heat treatments protected protein from ruminal degradability with varied levels of effectiveness in different feeds. Production performance improved with the use of RUP sources in early lactating cows and buffaloes. Sahiwal cows showed better yield performance in diets having 40% un-degradable protein in the diet, while Nili-Ravi buffaloes showed high yield performance in diets with 50% un-degradable protein sources. The use of latest technology and methods needs to be applied for minimizing variations involved in evaluating CP degradability of feeds through in situ procedure. Influence of RDP and RUP based rations in mid and late lactation of Sahiwal cows and Nili-Ravi buffaloes are also fertile areas of research. The studies on degradability of amino acids for compiling 'internal standards' of feed resources and production performance of lactating cows/buffaloes based on ruminal degradability of amino acids rather than protein degradability would be better approach for future studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1470,T] (1).

307. Pharmaceutical Equivalence Of Different Brands Of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride And Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

by Sarmat Tamjeed Afzal | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1471,T] (1).

308. In-Vivo Efficacy Study Of Camel Milk In Alloxan Induced Type-1 Diabetic Rabbits

by Hina Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Ahmad Ali | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1473,T] (1).

309. Evaluation Of Adulticidal And Larvicidal Efficacy Of Zadirachta Indica (Neem) And Lantana Camara (Punch Phul) Extracts

by Asemah Anwar | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Pakistan is one of sub-tropical countries and its climatic conditions favor parasitic diseases along with disease vectors including mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of genus Aedes are causing Dengue fever. It has become one of infectious vector born disease of world. Annually it is striking around 100 million people with dengue fever and about 5 Lac people with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), resulting in 5 % deaths per year. Current study was conducted to evaluate efficacies of plant extracts against dengue fever mosquitoes of Aedes genus. Study target was to search some safer alternates than that of chemical pesticides. Also exhibiting characteristics like less toxic to environment, do not induce resistance in mosquitoes, do not harm non-targeted organisms, would not be toxic to human beings and will have biodegradation ability. Study has evaluated indigenous plants extracts as potent larvicidal and adulticidal materials. Mosquitoes were collected from different areas of Lahore and they were identified upto genus level only Aedes genus was identified upto species level, then Aedes aegypti was reared in laboratory to have F 1 generation, to have mosquitoes and larvae for testing the activity of plant extracts. Plant materials were collected from different areas of Lahore. Methanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica and lantana camara respectively, were extracted accordingly. Stock solutions were prepared from these extracts and then out of this serial dilutions were made. Experiment was performed in four groups A, B, C & D for both adults and larvae. Each group was representing total of 25 larvae/adult out of which one was kept untreated as negative control, one with deltamethrin as positive control while two were provided with test concentrations. LC50 and LC90 was determined by Probit analysis, using SPSS version 13.0 SPSS inc. 2004. lethal concentrations of A. indica mosquitocidal assay were LC50=30.44 mg/l and LC90=62.36 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=-9.87mg/l and LC90=59.102 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was significant for 24 h while for 48 h it was not significant. Maximum mortality observed after 24 and 48 hrs is 99% at 70 ppm. DMR test shows after 24 hrs., all treatment means are significantlt different from each other, from control and from mean of insecticide's mortality, control is significantly lower while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. after 48 hrs. treatments were significantly different from each other while treatment mortality at 70 PPM is significantly higher than insecticide treated group and rest. Lethal concentrations for L. camara adulticidal assay were LC50=60.40 mg/l and LC90=113.61 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=48.20 mg/l and LC90=79.31 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was not significant at 24 h and is significant at 48 h. DMR test after 24 hrs. treatment, control and insecticide treated were significantly different from each while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. After 48 hrs 4 and 5 treatment groups were found significantly higher than rest Larvicidal assay of A. indica has shown LC50 =52.36 mg/ l and LC90=105.42 mg/ l after 24 h and LC50 =80.70 mg/l and LC90=145.73 mg/ l after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 values for both 24h and 48h were not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. insecticide treated was significantly lower than all above treatment groups. Treatment group 7 has significantly higher mortality than all other. After 48 hrs. there was not any significant difference. Lethal concentrations for L. camara LC50 =100.76 mg/100 ml and LC90=198.22 mg/100 ml at24 h and LC50 =61.27 mg/100 ml and LC90= 122.45mg/100 ml after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 value for both 24h and 48h was not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. shows insecticide treated group i.e. 8 is significantly lower than all treatment groups except 1 which is at lowest treatment. After 48 4, 5 and 6 had came to same activity level no significant difference was found and were higher than all others. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that crude plant extracts can act as potential Adulticide / Mosquitocide and Larvicides, though these are required in higher concentrations than that of synthetic insecticides and purified botanical products, but they have advantage of posssessing less resistance presentation and safe for aquatic life. It is also concluded that chemical insecticide used i.e. Deltamethrin has higher efficacy as adulticidal with drastic effects on environment and other beneficial insects. But it was found least effective as larvicidal compared to crude plants extracts. It is suggested that plant extracts can prove a better, safer and cheaper alternate these should consider as a better alternate to control most lethal disease of present time i.e. Dengue fever by eradicating its vector i.e. Aedes aegypti mosquito. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1475,T] (1).

310. Effects Of Lycopersicon Esculentum And Citrus Limon Juice On Angiogenesis

by Nausheen Saba Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Lycopersiconesculentumand Citrus limonumare largely known for their anti cancer activity. Various investigations using various assays have been done regarding anti cancer activity of Lycopersiconesculentumand Citrus limonum. This study wasplanned to estimate the effects of LycopersiconesculentumandCitrus limonumjuice on angiogenesis using the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. LycopersiconesculentumandCitrus limonum wascollected, sliced to squeeze juice, centrifuged and then supernatant was collected. Different dilutions were prepared using distilled water. PH was adjusted in range of 6-7 and filtered using disposable syringe filter. Fertilized eggs wereobtained from local hatchery and sprayed with 70% alcohol then divided in to six groups containing five eggs in each group one group act as control. The eggs were incubated at 37C° and at60_65% humidity. On 4th day postincubationwindows were made in all eggs under strict aseptic conditions, albumin was aspirated (approximately 4 -5 ml) with a disposable syringe, sealed with sterilized adhesive tapes and kept in incubator for 24 hours.After 24 hours windows were opened, 200 ?l of each dilution waspoured on CAM with disposable syringe, sealed again with sterilized adhesive tapes and again kept in incubator till 6th day. After 24 hours pattern of development of new blood vessels were assessed in CAM by taking images with the help of digital camera.Decrease in length and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels were seen in a concentration dependent way. All images were quantified by using scan probing image processing software (IBM- Denmark). 3D surface roughness parameters were calculated that evidently showed antiangiogenic nature of tomato and lemon juice. All the calculated data was subjected to statistical analysis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1476,T] (1).

311. Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Recovered From Retail Chicken In Lahore

by Fayyaz Yasin | Dr. Ali AHmad Sheikh | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Escherichia coli is normal inhabitant of lower intestinal tract of all warm blooded animals. The background of drug resistant studies on E. coli represent that extensive and irrational use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary sector for treatment, prophylaxis and feed additive made this organism resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. It is assumed that E. coli have the ability to transfer resistant genes via bacterial conjugation, transduction and transformation. As a result pathogenic organisms are also becoming resistant to commonly used antibiotics. And there is a need to check the extent of resistance to ensure the efficacy of antimicrobials used in public health. The purpose of current study was to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli in retailed chicken meat samples of Lahore city. In current study hundred chicken meat samples were collected from local market in various areas of Lahore.These samples were processed for isolation of generic E. coli. Initial confirmation of generic E. coliwas made using standard culturing and biochemical reactions. The prevalence rate of E. coli was found 85%. The antimicrobial resistance against in the E. coli isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. All the E. coli isolates were found resistant to at least seven antimicrobials and 34 different antimicrobial patterns were found. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1477,T] (1).

312. In Vitro Antiviral Activity Of Leaves Extracts Of Azadirachta Indica, Moringa Oleifera And Morus Alba Against Foot

by Ishrat Younus | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The project was designed to assess in vitro antiviral and cytotoxic activity of leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (AI), Moringa oleifera (MO) and Morus alba (MA) against Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV). Ethanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of each plant were obtained by soxhlet apparatus. Chloroformic extracts were dissolved in cell culture media with the help of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Eight concentrations 1 µg/ml, 6 µg/ml, 12 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml of each plant were used for both assays. Confluent BHK - 21 cells were grown in 96 well cell culture plates. Cells were treated by each concentration of extracts and extracts containing FMDV for cytotoxic and antiviral assay respectively in triplicate manner. Positive control (BHK-21 cells & cell culture media) and negative control (BHK-21 cells, FMDV & cell culture media) were kept for antiviral assay. For cytotoxic assay, positive and negative controls were kept as BHK-21 cells plus media and BHK-21 cells, media plus DMSO (20%) respectively. Cells viability and cytotoxic activity were determined by MTT assay for antiviral and cytotoxic assay respectively. Each extract was analyzed as cell survival percentage and expressed as means ± S.D. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA. Seven plants extracts out of nine, exhibited antiviral activity against FMDV at a concentration non toxic to BHK-21 cell line. Ethanolic AI extract showed strongest anti-FMDV activity. Chloroformic MO leaves extracts showed significant antiviral activity. Chloroformic and aqueous MA leaves extract had no remarkable antiviral activity. At higher concentrations most of the plant extracts were cytotoxic Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1478,T] (1).

313. Cytocenetic Effects Of Anti-Breast Cancer Drugs, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin And

by Zainab Batool | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In this study mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents used in breast cancer were evaluated. The drugs included in this study were Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin and 5-Flourouracil. They were tested alone as well as in combination for their cytogenetic effects. The mutagenicity of these drugs was tested by Ames test using two strains of Salmonella i.e. TA100 and TA98 with and without S-9 at different concentrations. While for cytotoxicity evaluation MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric assay was selected. 96 well plate and BHK-21 cell lines were used to perform this assay. This study indicated that cyclophosphamide was mutagenic ( 62.5 µg/plate) to TA 100 with S-9 but non mutagenic to TA 98 with and without S-9, while the concentration of 250µg/ml and above was found cytotoxic. Doxorubicin was mutagenic to TA 100 and TA 98 with and without S-9 at 1 µg/plate and above, while cytotoxic dose was 10µg/ml and above. 5-FU was found non mutagenic in this assay to both test strains with and without S-9 at all test concentrations, however it was found cytotoxic above 5µg/ml in MTT assay. Cisplatin showed mutagenicity to both test strains at 2µg/plate and above , while at 5µg/ml and above it was found cytotoxic. When the combinations of these drugs were tested for cytogentic effects , it was found that the concentrations which were non mutagenic individually became mutagenic and cytotoxic when combined together. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1481,T] (1).

314. Efficacy Of Commercial Disinfectants Against The Water Contaminating Bacteria At Commercial Broiler Farms

by Mian Muhammad Salman | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Pfor. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Water is an important constituent for poultry. Poor hygienic conditions of water are health hazard for poultry. Many outbreaks are caused by consuming poor quality water.. Fifty water samples from different broiler farms in and around Lahore were collected from drinkers in sterile containers. Bacterial load was assessed using total viable count and coliform count. The counts were above the threshold level (50cfu/ml for coliform and 100cfu/ml for total viable count) showing that water used at poultry farms was of low microbiological quality. Five Disinfectants PHMB20% (.75ml/lit, 1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit), PHMB11% (1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (0.1ml/lit , 0.2ml/lit, 0.4ml/lit) Glutral 9.8%(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit), organic acid(1.5ml/lit, 3.0ml/lit, 6ml/lit) were used and they resulted in log reduction of TVC by PHMB20% (5.83±4.36, 6.14±3.98, 9.35± 0.68), PHMB11% (9.42±0.21), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (2.45±0.97, 3.19±0.73, 6.33±0.80 ) Glutral 9.8%(6.87±1.00, 9.73±1.00,9.73±1.00), organic acid(4.75±1.21, 6.62±1.26, 6.90±1.15).PHMB20%,PHMB11%, Glutral 9.8% and organic acid were effective at normal dose, while 0.25 chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose against at normal dose. Log reduction in Coliform count at half, normal and double dose by PHMB20% (6.52±3.33, 6.96±2.46, 7.96±0.98), PHMB11% (7.89±1.01), 0.2% chlorine dioxide (3.65±0.73, 5.08±0.98, 6.27±0.97) Glutral 9.8%(8.48±0.99), organic acid(5.18±1.21, 5.93±1.26,6.46±1.15±) . PHMB20%, PHMB11%, 9.8% Glutral, organic acid were effective against coliform bacteria at half dose while 0.2% chlorine dioxide was effective at normal dose. Glutraldehyde was effective at normal dose amongst all disinfectants against Total viable bacteria and coli form bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1482,T] (1).

315. Detection Of Soulfonamide Residues With Associated Histopathological Findings In The Tissues Of Cattle An Buffalo

by Mujahid Iqbal | r. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1483,T] (1).

316. Effect Of Different Treatments On Tannin Contents Of Two Local Cultivars Of Sorghum Grain

by Muhammad Asad Iqbal | Dr. Saima | Dr. Athar | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Over the last few years, use of cereals in the poultry and livestock feed increased greatly. To meet the requirement of the feed industry, the production and proper utilization of the grains is much more important. Some grains due to presence of some anti nutritional factors limit their use in desired quantity. Similarly, their low amino acid profile and fewer digestibilities also hindered the utilization of these nutrient sources. Sorghum cereal is one of them which provide a considerable amount of protein and energy to the animal. Some other grains, sorghum contain a phenolic compound "Tannin" which is an anti nutritional component for both poultry and livestock. Tannin make a complex with protein, starch and some minerals thus reduce there availability for living beings. The present project has been planned with their objective to reduce tannin contents and increase digestibility of nutrients. The purpose of the study is the nutritional evaluation and up gradation of indigenous feed stuffs for Livestock and Poultry, so we can increase the use of sorghum grain in these industries. For this purpose two varieties of sorghum, red and white were used. Red and white sorghum varieties were treated with sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% solution and were kept at ambient temperature for 8, and 16 hrs. At the end of treatment, samples of each variety were tested for tannin contents and proximate analysis. In the last phase of experiment, all the treated samples of NaOH, formaldehyde and distilled water were monitored for in situ digestibility for 12, 18, 24, and 30 hrs. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed by using completely randomized design through ANOVA Technique. The difference among treatment means were tested through Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results of the present experiments showed that the treatment of high tannin sorghum grain with alkali or simple distilled water is the most effective method for reducing the total tannil contents in sorghum grain. It is further noticed that the alkali treatments also affect the overall nutritive value of grain and enhance the dry matter digestibility of the grain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1485,T] (1).

317. Effect Of Different Energy Levels On The Growth Performance Of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica).

by Mubarik Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Use of poultry meat in the world is increasing substantially. To meet the requirements of the consumer, increase in meat production is too much imperative. Japanese quail can be used as an alternative to broiler to increase per capita protein availability. Due to short life span, it is also gaining popularity among poultry farmers. But for optimum production, availability of energy and protein sources is cost effective. Moreover, data on energy: protein is scanty. The present project had been planned with the objectives to examine the growth and production of the highly nutritious quail meat under local environmental conditions. To attain this goal, different energy levels were used in quail feed to examine its carcass quality, production and growth performance. For this purpose, different energy levels of 2700 k cals /kg., 2900 k cals /kg (which was control) and 3100 k cals /kg of feed, were offered to 600 day old quail chicks for 28 days. There were four replicates under each of the three groups; each replicate having 50 chicks. The birds were kept in cages throughout their life and had been offered ad libitum feed in crumbs form. During the trial, weekly feed consumption, weight gain and FCR were determined. After the trial 5 birds from each replicate were slaughtered to examine the dressing percentage, liver weight and breast meat percentage. The data thus obtained was statistically analysed by using completely randomized design through ANOVA Technique. The difference among treatments means was tested through Least Significant Difference test. The results of the experiment revealed that the feed consumption and body weight gain were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group containing 3100 k cals of energy per kg following the control group having 2900 k cals energy per kg while group possessing 2700 k cals was at the last in these respects. Feed conversion ratio was best seen again in high energy group following the lowest energy diet while the control group was intermediate in this respect. The higher energy group showed maximum value for dressing percentage and liver weights followed by lower energy diet and lowest energy diet. The characteristic breast meat percentage was, however, showing lowest value for highest energy diet. Data pertaining to economics of the experiment revealed a considerably high cost of feed per kg of the group C having 3100 k cal energy per kg followed by the group A which possessed 2900 k cals per kg and group B was prepared in less amount as compared to others. Conclusion Use of high energy in feed increased the body weight gain. Higher energy in feed gradually resulted in more feed intake but not up to the pace of body weight gain. Calories, CP, calcium, methionine and lysine intakes increased with increasing energy levels while phosphorus showed a negative relationship with energy. Feed conversion ratio was best exhibited by highest energy feed. Dressing percentage was higher for higher energy feed while breast meat percentage was higher for lower energy feed. More liver weight was there with increasing energy level was attributed to more burdens on liver in sense of digestion of energy rich compounds. From the results of above experiment it is concluded that inclusion of high energy ingredients in diet has many benefits which consequently results in improved performance and ultimately higher profitability of the farm. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1486,T] (1).

318. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Theileriosis In Equines In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Azhar | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Theileriosis is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by intermittent fever, loss of appetite, anemia, loss of weight, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes, jaundice and recumbency. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present study was designed to study prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore. For this purpose 300 equines (Horses=100; mules=100; donkeys=100) were examined for theileria infection.The blood was collected by ear tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. Theileriaequiwere identified by their morphological characteristics as described by Rashid et al. (2009) and Guimaraeset al. (1997).Over all prevalence of Theileriaequiin equines was estimated as 58%. There was also a mixed infection of Theileriaequi and Babesiacaballiin some cases. Individually there was 54%, 64% and 56% prevalence of Theileriaequi found in horses, mules and donkeys respectively. The effect of theileriosis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC and PCV) was determined in 30 equines (Horses= 10; mules= 10; donkeys= 10). The remarkable decrease in hemoglobin, TEC, PCV and lymphocytes was observed. The value of ESR increased while there were no remarkable changes in TLC, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils and eosinophil. For chemotherapy, 36 equines (Horses=12; mules=12; donkeys=12) positive for theileriosiswere divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups comprising of 4 animals in each subgroup. The animals of group A (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) were treated with Imidocarbdipropionate (Imizol®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M, and the efficacy of drug was found 91.7% in equines against theileriosis.The group B (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Buparvaquone (Butalex®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M alone and was observed 66.7% effective. While the group C (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Auk(Calotropisprocera)@ 0.3mg/kg BW, 8 doses at alternate days (local treatment), which was found 58.3% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and blood smear examination at day 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post-medication. The efficacy of each drug was measured through recovery rate of the animals. Finally, the data on prevalence of theileriosis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance whereas data on hematology was analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station T×77845, USA), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of equine in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present project was designed to check prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1487,T] (1).

319. Study On Prevalence Of Osteoprosis And Its Relationship With Dietary And Lifestyle Habits

by Tahir Rasool Qamar | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1488,T] (1).

320. Mosquitocidal Efficacy Of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae And Its Combined Therapy

by Aalia Riaz | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1489,T] (1).

321. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichuriasis (Whi Worm) In Dogs.

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. DR. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In developing countries like Pakistan the trend of establishment of kennel clubs are increasing day by day. While the population of dogs increase the strong practice of vaccination and deworming increase as well. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. It causes great economic losses. The genus Trichiuris is one of the important nematode which affect the dogs. Therefore a study of genus Trichiuris was conducted in month of March to May, 2012. For this purpose 300 hundreds dogs of different breeds of dogs were selected for investigation of Trichiuris vulpis. Samples were collected and brought to the Clinical laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In laboratory positive samples for Trichiuris vulpis were recorded. The overall prevalence of Trichiuris vulpis was found to be 20% .The dogs positive for Trichiuris vulpis were divided into three groups A, B and C having 10 dogs in each group. Group A and B were treated with pyrantal pamoate and fenbendazole respectively. While the group C was positive control. The efficacy of both the drugs were measured by the decrease in egg per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made at day zero, 7th and 14th. The efficacy of pyrantal pamoat recorded on day 7th and 14th was 95.30 and 98.61% respectively while the efficacy of fenbendazole recorded on day 7th and 14th was 90.76 and 93.84% respectively. The obtained data was tabulated and analyzed by ANOVA. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the efficacy of payrental pamoate and fenbendazole after treatment of infected dogs at day 7th and 14th. This analysis showed that payrantal pamoate is significantly superior in its efficacy than fenbedazole. The purpose of the study for prevalence and estimation of comparative efficacy of two drugs against Trichiuriasis in dogs was accomplished. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1490,T] (1).

322. Therapeutic Studies Of Cryprosporiduim In Sheep In And Around Lahore, City

by Bushra Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Keeping in view the importance of sheep in global agricultural economy valued by humans for its multiple uses. The present study was conducted on cryptosporidiosis, and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of paromomycin and Kalvanji therapy in lambs in and around Lahore Pakistan. In this plan of research work 400 lambs, less than 1 month of age suspected for cryptosporidium infection on the basis of clinical signs were included. The fecal sample were collected from sheep presented at medicine outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and animal sciences, various veterinary hospitals in and around Lahore and was processed in medicine laboratory UVAS ,Lahore for observing the oocyst of cryptosporidium by using Ziehl-neelsen technique. The prevalence was found to be 24.25%., The 40 sheep were divided into four groups=designated as A, B, C & D. Each group was comprised of 10 sheep. In group A the infected sheep was treated with paromomycin@ 100 mg/kg orally for 5 days, Group B infected sheep was treated with Kalvanji@1/2 tea spoon for 5 days. Group C infected sheep kept for positive control, whereas healthy sheep group D were kept in negative control. After the 5 days treatment The effect of drugs were checked, by reduction of oocyst, at 0, 7 and 14 day. Oocysts of cryptosporidium were counted by using Mc Master Technique. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that paromomycin was much effective for cryptosporidiosis. we also done hematological studies on 40 sheep(n=30 sheep with cryptosporidiosis and n=10 healthy sheep) was included to see the effect of drugs on various blood parameters i.e PCV,TLC, The 5 ml blood were collected from each lamb directly from jugular vein, and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml were further analyzed through hematological analyzer . In disease condition the TLC and PCV was increased. The results showed the decrease number of TLC and PCV. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The outcome of this study would helped to control cryptosporidiosis in lambs and reduce their substantial losses rendered by cryptosporidium. It was concluded that paromomycin is much effective drug against cryptosporidiosis, as compared to Kalvanji oil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1491,T] (1).

323. Cytotoxic And Antiviral Evaluation Of Different Opuntia Species Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus In Vitro Cell

by Faryal Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY The antiviral activities of Opuntia delinii, Opuntia manocantha, and Opuntia stricta were evaluated against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in this study, as these plants are associated with a lot of antiviral activity as shown by literature review. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of all the three species of Opuntia were obtained by using soxhlet apparatus (Davey et al. 2010) but first crushed them into small pieces with a sharp knife to have better extraction results. The resultant extracts were dried in rotary evaporator using standard operating procedures until semisolid extract was obtained. Different dilutions were made by dissolving in double distilled water. Vero cells were made mildly affected by mild strains of Peste des petits ruminants virus. Dilutions of these extracts were applied on Vero cell line in triplicate manner that was first made confluent up to 90% in 96 well cell culture plates. For performing anti viral assay, Positive control and negative controls used were media plus cells and virus plus media respectively. These plates were incubated for a period of four days. After this incubation period, viability of cells was determined by MTT colorimetric assay i.e. number of living and dead cells. The cytotoxic activity of above mentioned three plant species was performed by treating the Vero cells with different dilutions as used in antiviral assay and incubating the 96 well plates for 4 days. Viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. The positive and negative control for cytotoxic evaluation was cells plus media and cells plus media plus DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) 5% respectively. Results were calculated in terms of cell survival percentage (CSP) for anti viral and death rate (%) for cytotoxic assay. At highest concentrations, i.e.500 to 1000 µg/ml, all the ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from all the plant species showed cytotoxicity but at the lower concentrations ranging from 7.81µg/ml to 125µg/ml, there was no cytotoxicity. Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by applying Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and comparison between two extracts was performed by applying T-Test for statistical analysis. Statistically when these results were interpreted, they were insignificant because P value is more than 0.05. This research project has a lot of positive outcomes and future prospects. The extract of plants having good antiviral activity and with no cytotoxic activity will be good baseline for further evaluation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1493,T] (1).

324. Preparation Of Iron Fortified Pasteurized Milk And Its Efficacy Against Iron Defficiency Anaemia In Rats.

by Syed Naveed Akhtar | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Anemia is abnormal condition in which there is drop in the number of red blood cells or the heamoglobin in them to lower than the normal blood cells and consequently there is less supply of oxygen to body and it gets less energy as compared to it needs for performing normal function (Bunnet al., 1995).The concentration of haemoglobin fluctuates with various factors that involves age, physiological condition, sex and person altitude from sea level below its normal value that is 14g/dL When iron that is absorbed from diet is unable to meet physiological related requirements of the body it leads to nutritional iron deficiency. Locally prepared iron fortified pasteurized milk may be helpful in increasing the haemoglobin status of anaemic patients in the same way as iron supplements. Therefore present project was designed for preparation and characterization of iron fortified milk and its utilization against iron deficiency anemia. In first part of the study Iron fortified milk was prepared by adding different concentrations of iron sulphate (FeSO4) @ 0.00 (as a control), 0.04, 0.06 & 0.08%. In second part sensory evaluation and physicochemical analysis of iron fortified milk samples were performed. During the third part of the study, efficacy of iron fortified pasteurized milk was evaluated in Sprague Dawley Rats.Accordingly the significant outcomes of the present research are summarized hereafter. Proximate analysis showed that the milk prepared from different level of iron are non-significant for fat content as well as for storage intervals (P?0.05) and also the interaction between treatment and storage level also showed non-significant effect. The result for protein of milk fortified by iron at different levels is showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05). The storage of these treatments and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed non-significant effect on protein of different treatments. Analysis of variance for SNF for different treatments of milk shows that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).Data regarding mean values for storage study of SNF of different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 8.21 and there is no increase significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which showed 8.73, 8.66 and 8.82 respectively. As the storage progressed the SNF content not differ significantly from 8.50 to 8.81 at 0 and 4day respectively. The statistical analysis regarding pH for milk fortified by iron at different levels showed that analysis of variance for pH of different treatments of milk, storage shows that they are statistically highly significant (P? 0.01) and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed slightly significant effect on pH of different treatments The statistical analysis pertaining to Total Solids for milk fortified by iron at different levels, storage and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05). The results for Vitamin C content showed that the values for different treatments for fortification of iron are highly significant (p?0.01).Mean values for storage study of vitamin C different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 4.50 and increases significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which is 25.68, 26.01 and 25.26 respectively. As the storage progressed the Vitamin C content decreases significantly from 22.7 to18.5 at 0 and 4day respectively. The interaction between treatment and storage level showed non-significant effect on Vitamin C of iron fortified milk (P?0.05) Using statistical design for mineral Iron of different treatments of milk showed that the fortification of Iron at different levels in milk has significant effect (p?0.001).The results of Mean comparison of Fe showed that control has lowest score (0.06±0.00) and 0.06% and 0.08% had highest scores that is (0.11±0.001) and (0.155±0.001) respectively The statistical analysis pertaining to flavor for milk fortified by iron at different levels , their storage for four days at 4°C and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P ?0.05). The statistical analysis pertaining to sensory attributes of iron fortified milk prepared at different levels of FeSO4 and control for taste , colour , flavor, consistency and overall acceptability, their storage for four days at 4°C refrigeration temperature and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).The statistical analysis pertaining to haemoglobin level w.r.t to groups of rats and study intervals is highly significant (P?0.01) The interaction between different groups and study intervals also showed highly significant (P?0.01) results. For haemotological measurements statistical analysis showed that mean data regarding Group A showed haemoglobin level at 0 day (9.68±0.435)g/dL which increase slightly at 14 and 28 day and then again decrease at 56 day (9.34±0.171) g/dL. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1494,T] (1).

325. In Process Quality Control Factors Affecting The Potency Of Indigenous Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (Mg)

by Muhammad Asim Raza | Dr. Arfan Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is cause of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) and is responsible for significant economic losses to poultry industry. In Pakistan, imported MG bacterin fails to induce immunoprophylaxis that could be due to subtle antigenic variation in the immunogen of the vaccine. Therefore present study was conducted to optimize inactivations( phenol, formalin and binary ethylenimine) concentration and exposure time to inactivate MG and their effect on potency of MG bacterin ( prepared from local isolates) along with different bacterial biomasses (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% PCV) and adjuvants (montanide oil ,gel and water ). It was observed that the MG bacterin containing 1.5% level of immunogen/biomass induced significantly higher anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer (p < 0.05) as compared to other bacterins containing lower concentrations of the immunogen.The formaldehyde inactivated the pathogen within shortest possible time and showed undetectable effect on its potency. The antibody response was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to that of bacterins prepared from the pathogens inactivated by either phenol or BEI. . Montanide ISA70 containing MG bacterin induced significantly higher anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05) in broilers than the other bacterins containing either water or aluminum hydroxide gel. It is concluded that formaldehyde inactivated oil based vaccine containing one percent immunogen (0ne percent PCV) induce antibody response in broilers that is comparable with the imported vaccine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1495,T] (1).

326. Molecular Basis Of Antibiotic Resistanc In E. Coli Isolates From Poultry Drinking Water

by Hira Naseer | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Back Ground: E. coli is a single-celled organism belonging to the large bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, the enteric bacteria. Most of the E. coli strains are harmless but there are some serotypes of it that are pathogenic and cause serious food poisoning in human and major economic losses in both chicken and turkeys. Poultry, the second largest industry in Pakistan is supplied by lots of antibiotics like streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin etc, either through feed or water. Use of antibiotics at large scale is resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance in poultry and human. Hypothesis: To check the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in E.coli and to find out the genotypic and phenotypic correlation between resistant E.coli from poultry drinking water. Methodology/Parameters: In this study, drinking water samples from poultry water were collected and cultured on MacConkey agar. Standard disk diffusion method will be used to check antibiotic susceptibility. Plasmid DNA was extracted from colonies showing antibiotic resistance by mini-prep protocol. Using universal set of primers, antibiotic resistant genes was amplified and then sequenced. The sequence thus obtained was compared in the database with previously reported sequences of antibiotic resistant gene in E. coli strains. Statistical Design: Prevalence of tetA and tetB genes was shown by a Column chart. Outcomes: This study helped to find out prevalence of these antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli isolated from poultry drinking water, which are potential threats to human being. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1497,T] (1).

327. Prevalance Of Endoparasites In Common Carnivorous Fish In Lahore.

by Imtiaz Aziz | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Due to intensification of fish culture practices, there is more likely the occurrence of various diseases in general and parasitic in specific in fish. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence of various parasites in local fish especially fishes of fresh water. Therefore, the present study has been planned to investigate the prevalence of various parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and liver of Wallago attu(Malee) ,Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari). Therefore, it was hypothesized that there is a variation in the occurrence of various endoparasites in various species of fish. A total fifty gut samples from each of breed of fish (Wallago attu (Malee),Rita rita (Khaga), Channa marulius(Saul) and Mystus seenghala(Seenghari) were collected from various fish markets located in Lahore City like Bhatti Gate, Samnabad, Tollinton Market, and were analyzed to determine the prevalence of various endoparasites in the intestine. The gut samples were collected in 0.9% physiological saline and were preserved in 4% formalin. The recovered parasites were fixed and identified on the basis of morphology to calculate the prevalence rate. The data thus collected was analyzed using a Pearson's chi-square. Results showed that out of 65 fish samples collected from Tollinton market that included Rita rita (n = 20), Wallago attu (n = 15), Channa marulius (n = 15) and Mystus seenghala (n = 15), 7 (10.76%) samples of gut harbored various parasites. Similarly, the prevalence rate of parasites in two other localities were 17.39% in Bhatti-gate fish market and 18.18% in Samanabad Fish market. The overall prevalence rate was found to be 15.5%. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence rate when data was assorted on the basis of localities. Both single and mixed infections were noted in fishes collected from all three localities and all four species of fresh water fish. The various parasites revocered from the intestines of the gut from all species included P. heteropneustus Cucullanus sp., Cucullanus sp., Phyllodistomum sp. and R. magna. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1499,T] (1).

328. Effect Of Vitis Vinifera (Grapes) Fruit Juice On Angiogenesis.

by Shahzad Asghar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Angiogenesis, the novel blood vessels formation, is a mark of nearly every neoplastic and non-neoplastic degenerative disease. Thetreatment of angiogenesis with plant derived anti-angiogenic substances may be proved as more efficacious,harmless, and lowbudget therapies. Grapes contain many vital natural compounds which can significantly prevent diseases and maintain human health. In this work, we have studied the effect of grapes juice (Vitis vinifera) on angiogenesis by use of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. We took Fresh fertilized eggs and sprayed them with 70% ethanol for decontamination and incubated at 37?C and (humidity 65%-70%). At 5th day of incubation small windows were made on all eggs, 4-5 ml of albumin was extracted, windows were sealed with sterile Para-film tape and eggs were reincubated. Grapes juice was obtained from fully ripened grapes and various dilutions were formulated by using distilled water. Dilutions of the juice were filtered by special syringe filters used for experimental analysis and applied to the CAMs on 6th day of incubation. Changes in vessels were clearly observed macroscopically among all treated CAMs on 7th day of incubation. The total diameter & area of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels was observed to be reduced after treatment with grapes juice in a concentrationand dose related manner. Scanning probe image processor(SPIP)software was used for 3D surface roughness measurements which clearly demonstrated the antiangiogenic effect of grapes juice on CAM. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) juice inhibits angiogenesis, which is a common denominator of various major diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1501,T] (1).

329. Effect Of (Estradiol Benzoate) On Estrus Response And Fertility In Cidr Treated Crossbred Heifers.

by Muhammad Usman Mehmood | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Commercial dairy farming in Pakistan is rapidly growing. Crossbred dairy animals hold promise because of two reasons, first that they are significantly high producer than buffalo, Sahiwal, Cholistani and Desi cows and secondly that they are much more adaptable as compared to exotic (Friesian or Jerseys) cows. Generally, replacement heifers remain ignored by the owners in term of feeding and early achievement of puberty as they are not producing. Estradiol promotes tighter synchrony and ovulation and provides opportunity for fixed time A.I as reported earlier in Holstein dairy cows. Use of CIDR has been reported to be effective for synchronization in variety of dairy animals including buffaloes, dairy and beef cows. However no such report has been published on crossbred heifers. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) on estrus intensity, response and fertility in CIDR treated cross bred heifers.Crossbred heifers with average body condition of 3 ± 0.5, located at four farms were assigned throughout one year to receive one of the two treatments. Crossbred heifers with EB (n = 50) or without EB (n = 50). All the heifers were treated with Controlled Internal Drug Releasing Device (CIDR; 1.38 mg Progesterone; Pfizer, USA) on day 0 and were administered injection of PGF2?, (0.150 mg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 2 ml; i.m.) on day 6 followed by removal of CIDR on day 7. Estradiol benzoate (400µg/4ml, i.m. Sigma Aldrich Germany) was administered 24 h after the CIDR removal. Estrus detection was carried out by visual observation; twice daily for at least 30 min, beginning after CIDR removal till insemination. All heifers were fixed time inseminated with frozen-thawed semen after 48 and 60 h after CIDR removal, respectively. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography (HS 1500V; Honda; Japan, with 7.5 MHz probe) between days 30 and 40 post AI. Estrus response and pregnancy rate were analyzed using Chi-square test. Pregnancy rate was determined by number pregnant/number treated x 100. The estrus response was 100% in both the groups. The estrus intensity was higher 2.9 ± 0.1in the EB heifers compared to the controls 2.0 ± 0.7. The results showed that pregnancy rate was 54% (27/50) in EB and 36% (18/50) in without EB heifers. The overall pregnancy rate was 45% (45/100). It is concluded that estradiol benzoate in CIDR protocol intensified the signs of estrus without affecting the response, with higher fertility in crossbred heifers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1502,T] (1).

330. Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems

by Nasrullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullan | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1503,T] (1).

331. Studies On Genetic Diversity Of Labeo Rohita And Cirrhinus Mrigala By Using Molecular Markers In Punjab-Pakistan

by Fayyaz Rasool | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers in Punjab-Pakistan were carried out to investigate the genetic structure of said Indian major carps by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The results obtained from the present study after statistical analyses are presented in section-4 of this dissertation. The samples were collected from the following sites; for farmed fish was collected from UVAS-Fish Hatchery, C-block Ravi campus Pattoki district Kasur and for wild fish; from Trimu Barrage at the junction of River Chenab and Jhelum near district Jhang, Taunsa Barrage at River Indus near tehsil Kot Adu district Muzaffar Garh, Qadirabad Barrage at River Chenab near district Mandi Bahuddin and Baloki Barrage at River Ravi near tehsil Bhai Phero district Kasur. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters of study and Pearson's correlation among the physico-chemical parameters of water quality was done by Minitab statistical computer software. The XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02 of the computer software was used for the Pearson correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters of study. The same computer program was used for Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) of the different genotype occurrence on the basis of differences in morphometric parameters was done by Agglomeration method by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the basis of differentiation in morphometric parameters by Eigenvalues and differentiation into factors of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by correlation bi-plot/coefficient of the correlation (n) method in the same program. This software was also used to analyze the RAPAD data for Jaccard's coefficient by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated is presented in the next section. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primersin the same program. Following results were obtained: Morphometric Parameters 1. Morphometric parameters of L. rohitashowed following trends: body weight, total length and average length of paired pectoral fins were nonsignificantly different (p > 0.05), fork length, dorsal fin length, caudal fin length and average length of paired pectoral fins were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) while anal fin length was significant different (p < 0.05) among the experimental sites. In case of C. mrigala, the body weight was non-significantly different (p > 0.05) while all other parameters were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) except the dorsal fin length which was significantly different (p < 0.05) among the study sites. 2. The results of the Pearson correlation of morphometric parameters showed that body weight of L. rohita developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters, the fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the parameters except with the caudal fin length where the correlation was also positive but non-significant (p = 161). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study.The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of L. rohita showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 161). The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends. The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters. 3. The body weight of C. mrigala developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters. The fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with body weight, total length and dorsal fin length while this correlation was positive but non significant with the caudal fin length (p = 0.228), anal fin length (p = 0.168), average length of paired pectoral fins (p = 0.031) and average length of the paired pelvic fins (p = 0.106). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study. The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of C. mrigala showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.228).The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends with all the parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.168). The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.031). InC. mrigala, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.106). 4. Dendrogram generated on the basis of morphometric parameters of study dividedL. rohita genotype in to five major clusters or classes with 19.24% for within class variation while 80.76% for the between class differences. While the dendrogram developed for C. mrigala divided the genotypes in to four major clusters or classes with 27.28% for within class variation while 72.72% for the between class differences. 5. The results obtained from the PCA for morphometric parameters of L. rohitaand C. mrigalaindicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The values showed that its trend reached its maximum at level of second factor. In the same way according to the Kaiser (1958) criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 80.273% of cumulative variability for L. rohita and 82.558% for C.mrigala. The PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the L. rohita,the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 64.245% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 16.028% of the cumulative variability. The PCA grouped C. mrigala,also into two groups, the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 59.323% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 23.235% of the cumulative variability. 6. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples of all study sites were analyzed for correlation among them. The results were as follows; the correlation of the pH with water temperature (r= 0.107) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.905) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.798), salinity (r= -0.888), total dissolved solids (r = -0.857), total alkalinity (r = -0.736) and total hardness (r = -0.499) was negatively non-significant. The correlation of the dissolved oxygen with water temperature (r= 0.313) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.669), salinity (r= -0.828), total dissolved solids (r = -0.809), total alkalinity (r = -0.930) and total hardness (r = -0.300) was negative but also non-significant as like with the water temperature. The electrical conductivity was positively correlated with all the physic-chemical parameters as with water temperature (r= 0.482), salinity (r= 0.925), total dissolved solids (r = 0.889), total alkalinity (r = 0.452) and total hardness (r = 0.906) and this correlation was non significant.The salinity amongst the water parameters was correlated positively with water temperature (r = 193), total alkalinity (r = 0.717) and total hardness (r = 0.734) and it was non-significant but with total dissolved solids (r = 0.994) the correlation was also positive but highly significant (P < 0.001). The total dissolved solids values observed from the study sites were positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.172), total alkalinity (r = 0.734) and total harness (r = 0.657) and this correlation was non-significant. The correlation between the total alkalinity and total hardness was also positive and non-significant (r = 0.048). RAPAD Data 1. In case of L. rohita, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 40.00%, OPB-4, polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 20.00%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 25.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 14.29% and OPD-4 showed 50.00% polymorphism in amplification. In case of C. mrigala, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-4 polymorphism remained as 25.00%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 14.29%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 14.29%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 28.57% and OPD-4 polymorphism remained as 33.33% in amplification. 2. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of L. rohita by the randomly selected individuals with high scorable bands of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster while a single sample designated as Indus2 from the population from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage represents the second class/cluster and in same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of C. mrigala by the randomly selected individuals of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster and two samples designated as Indus2 and Qad2 from the populations from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage and River Chenab from Qadirabad Barrage represents the second class/cluster while one individual from the Trimu Barrage at the junction of Jhelum and Chenab Rivers designated as Trimu2 represents the third class and in the same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. 3. The PCA resultsfor L. rohitait can be assumedthat PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 58.177% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 33.327% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 24.850% of the cumulative variability. These results were also confirmed after the varimax rotation. By the PCA resultsfor C. mrigalawe can assume after observing the results that the PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 70.866% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 51.115% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 19.751% of the cumulative variability. This study in this way has provided the genetic information of the present fish species and how evolutionary processes are affecting the fish fauna. So this study along with the strengthening of the academic research area has also proven an applied research which will help the breeders to the chose most fit candidates for the breeding program in the Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1504,T] (1).

332. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Haematiology And Therapy Of Toxocariasi In Dogs And Humans.

by Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1505,T] (1).

333. Serum Biochemical Metabolites, Electrolytes And Minerals Profile Durings Different Lactations In one-Humped Lactating Camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

by Anum Khushal | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background Lactation is characterized by change in metabolic demands of body that induces stress in lactating animals. During lactation the body reserves of nutrients, electrolytes and minerals are lost in milk leading to depletion of reserves. Therefore, lactating animals may suffer from deficiency of nutrients, electrolytes and minerals. Objective The objective of the study was to report whether lactations alter the serum biochemical metabolites, electrolytes and minerals profile of one-humped lactating camels or not. Materials and Methods The study involved 25 healthy, one-humped lactating camels (Camelus dromidarious) selected randomly from the desert area of Bhakkar (Punjab, Pakistan). Camels were divided into five groups (each having five camels) on the basis of lactations. The study involved camels in first, second, third, fourth and fifth lactations. Ten milliliter blood was drawn from jugular vein using sterilized needles and plane syringes. Blood samples were allowed to clot at room temperature and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 15 minutes. Serum was collected and stored at -20ºC till analysis. Serum biochemical metabolites and hepatic enzymes were evaluated spectrophotometrically using commercial kits and serum thyroid hormones were determined using commercial ELISA kits. Serum electrolytes and minerals were determined using flame photometery and atomic absorption spectrophotometery, respectively, after wet digestion of serum. Data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance by SPSS and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Serum concentration of glucose, total proteins, albumin and globulins, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, uric acid, and thyroid enzymes did not differ among all the five lactation stages. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher during second lactation compared with the first, third, forth and fifth lactations. Serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration was significantly higher during first lactation compared with the fourth lactation. Serum alanine aminotransferase concentration was significantly higher during fifth lactation compared with the first lactation. Serum concentration of minerals like calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and selenium did not differ during any lactation. Similarly, serum electrolytes including sodium and potassium also did not differ between subsequent lactations. Conclusion Lactations have not much pronounced effects on the serum biochemical metabolites, electrolytes and minerals profile of one-humped lactating camels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1508,T] (1).

334. Nutritional Characterization Of Spinach, Fenugreek And Mustard Leaves And Evaluation Of Their Glycemic Index

by Tahira Naz | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Ali Raza | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1512,T] (1).

335. Effect Of Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Fruit Extract On Angiogenesis

by Ghulam Jilany Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Angiogenesis is a physiological process which involves the formation of new blood vessels from vessels which are already present. It is a common and most important process in formation and development of vessels, so used in healing of wound and granulation of tissues. To maintain natural balance between formulation and inhibitory factors, body controls angiogenesis. When this balance is disturbed, the body results in either too much growth or extensive inhibition of expansion of blood vessels. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extract on angiogenesis using chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). The phytochemicals in pomegranate include polyphenoliccatechins, gallocatechins and anthocyanins like prodelphinidins, delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin. CAM assay model is very helpful to proceed in research due to its easy and accurate observation of embryonic development and the process of angiogenesis. The proposed hypothesis was, is there any Effect of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) fruit extract on angiogenesis? To check the authenticity of this hypothesis pomegranate (Punica granatum) was collected from the locality of Lahore. Aqueous extract was obtained by maceration of dried powder. Forty fresh fertilized eggs were collected from local hatchery and divided into four groups, having 10 eggs in each group. These eggs were incubated and were windowed at day 5 of incubation. On the same day a specified portion of albumin was removed with the help of syringe. On day 6 various dilutions of fruit extract was prepared and applied on developing CAM on day 6 after incubation while the controlled group was treated with distilled CHAPTER-6 65 water only. After 24 hours, the pattern of angiogenesis in the developing CAM was evaluated by taking images with the help of digital camera and SPIP software program. 3D surface roughness parameters showed the clear decline in values as compared to control. The parameters are; Sa (surface area), Sq (root mean square), Ssk (surface deviation), , Sy (lowest valley), Sz ( average absolute height), Smin (minimum height), Smax (maximum Height), Smean (mean height), Sdr (developed surface area ratio), Svk (Reduce valley depth), Sci (ratio of void volume of the unit sampling at core zone over root mean square deviation), Sk (core roughness depth), Stdi (texture index). All of these parameters were assessed thoroughly for the quantification of angiogenesis. The length and diameter of primary, secondary and tertiary blood vessels as well as the area of CAM were measured with the help of calibration and measurement command. Changes in angiogenesis were observed with different percentage dilutions of fruit extracts and were statistically analyzed by using the analysis of variance where “p-value” of control and treated groups were calculated. With this application, significant differences in the results were observed at p<0.05 which collectively pointed toward antiangiogeic effect of the pomegranate fruit extract. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1514,T] (1).

336. Genetic Analysis Of Variable Region Of Hexone Gene For Phylogeny And Peptide Mapping Of Adenovirus Isolates From Hydropericardium Syndrome in Chicken

by Sobia Noureen | Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Baber.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1517,T] (1).

337. Linkage And Mutational Analysis Of Gene Lebercilin (Lca5) In Families With Leber Congenital Amaurosis

by Adeel Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Abu Saeed | Mrs. Saeeda Kalsoom.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, MIM #204000) accounts for at least 5% of all retinal dystrophies and approximately 20% of children attending schools for the blind. LCA is the most severe retinal dystrophy causing blindness or severe visual impairment before the age of 1 year. Inheritance is autosomal recessive in most cases. Clinically, LCA is characterized by the presence of four key features, namely severe and early visual loss (usually around the age of 6 weeks), sensory nystagmus, amaurotic pupils, and minimal or absent responses on the electroretinogram (ERG). A total of five families (LA01-LA05) were enrolled, blood samples were collected and processed for DNA extraction. During linkage and genome scan, single family showed linkage to LCA5 locus. The diagnosis was established in all affected individuals by medical history, funduscopy, and standard ERG. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis for mapping the disease locus in this family. Congenitally severely reduced visual acuity and nystagmus were reported for all patients. LCA in the family cosegregated with homozygosity for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype on chromosome 6p14.1. The respective candidate region contained Leber congenital amaurosis 5 (LCA5), a gene previously reported to underlie LCA; subsequently identified a novel truncating mutation in exon 4 of LCA5, c.642delC, in homozygous state in all affected persons of the family LA01. Here, a novel LCA5 mutation causing LCA in a Pakistani family is reported. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1518,T] (1).

338. Identification Of Polymorphism Of Cyp2D6 Gene In Pakistani Patients Of Epilepsy

by Sana Kulsoom | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Mr. Zahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes seizures by sudden burst of hyperactivity in the brain. It is a global health problem and 50 million people have epilepsy all over the world. The majority of epilepsy patients can pass a good life if they receive proper treatment. Various types of epilepsy are present in Pakistan but Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the most frequent type of epilepsy present in Pakistani patients. GTCS is a type of seizers involving the entire brain. It is also called a grand mal seizure. CYP2D6 is a gene associated with GTCS. CYP2D6 is a 4.6 kb gene which encodes the protein cytochrome P450, a metabolizing enzyme. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene with 09 exons. Patient data and blood samples of different epilepsy patient were collected. DNA was isolated by Organic method. PCR amplification was performed for CYP2D6 gene (exon 6-9) and sequencing was performed on ABI 3130 XL Genetic analyzer and the results were analyzed. In this way the mutations, 2850 C>T in exon 6 of CYP2D6 gene have been caricaturized in Pakistani patients of GTCS encoding Cyctine in place of Argine at 296 in CYP2D6 enzyme. This change may be associated with GTCS in Pakistani Patients. Above study will help medical scientists in Molecular diagnosis, Genetic counseling and Gene therapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1519,T] (1).

339. Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Milk, Milk By- Products And Food Handler At Retail

by Kanwal Hafeez | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to check the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk, milk products and food handlers at various dairy retail shops in Lahore. A total of 100 samples, 30 samples of raw milk, 30 samples of pasteurized milk, 20 samples of yogurt, 10 samples of butter and 10 hand swabs samples of dairy handlers were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 54% (54 out of 100) samples. Overall high prevalence was recorded in raw milk, followed by hand swabbing samples of dairy handler, butter, pasteurized milk and yogurt. The results indicated unhygienic practices during milking and handling of milk at different critical control points such as transportation, storage, and post-pasteurization contamination. Overall high prevalence of ampicillin and amoxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were recorded in all the samples of milk and milk products and the hand swabbing of dairy handlers, followed by resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin respectively. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by resistance against amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, streptomycin and vancomycin which were 92.6%, 37%, 33.3%, 24.1% and 22.2% respectively. The antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products indicated the widespread use of these antibiotics in treating different types of infections associated in either livestock or humans which results in selection pressure of these antimicrobials and results in the emergence of these antibiotic resistant bacteria in different environmental conditions. The risk associated with human health as a result of ingestion of these antibiotic resistant bacteria can be prevented by adopting hygienic measures during milking, transport, storage and hygienic handling by the handlers so the human health can be assured. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1520,T] (1).

340. Sero And Viro Surveillance Of Influenza Virus Sero Types Circulating In Equine Species

by Muhammad Sajid | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1526,T] (1).

341. Effect Of Yeast On Growth, Milk Yield And Its Composition In Beetal Goats

by Muhammad Jawad Khan | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: During last few years, rate of the use of yeast in dairy animals feed had greatly been increased. The use of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in feed of ruminants and especially of goat is being used throughout the world. The effect of the live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in vitro and in vivo conditions may vary widely. Yea-Sacc1026 is a live yeast culture which consists of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1026, a yeast strain specially selected for its influence on animal performance. Yea-Sacc1026 is ideal for beef, dairy, calf and equine feeds. In the present study, eighteen lactating Beetal goats each having approximately same body weight and age, were selected from the flock. These goats were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C of six animals in each group. All the animals were offered similar concentrate ration @ 500gm/day to meet their daily requirements. Alltech's product "Yea Sacc" was added in the concentrate ration of lactating Beetal goats. In group Aeach goat was fed @500 gm concentrate ration (without treated with Yea Sacc) per day. In group B each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @ 1.5 gm/goat) per day. In group C each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @3gm/goat) per day. The effects of Yea Sacc on milk production, milk quality, weight gain and dry matter intake were evaluated.The mean milk production of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.6417 ± 0.067, 0.8600 ± 0.066and 1.0267± 0.146litters, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental groups was significant between groups. The mean milk fat percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 4.3133± 0.004, 4.4417± 0.010 and 4.5900± 0.042 % respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between groups. The mean milk protein percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 3.1167± 0.014, 3.2783± 0.012 and 3.2867± 0.003%, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group are non significant between treated groups. The mean milk lactose percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were3.6083± 0.014, 3.6400± 0.006and 3.6583± 0.006%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between treated group and group A. The mean milk ash of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were0.5100± 0.004, 0.5300± 0.004and 0.5483± 0.014 %, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between the treated groups and group A. The mean milk total solid of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 11.5483± 0.018, 11.8983± 0.013and 12.0750± 0.005%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between group A and group C. The mean weight gain of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.218 ± 0.010, 0.285 ± 0.031 and 0.442 ± 0.019 kg, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group were significant between the treated groups and group A while non significant between group A and group B. The mean dry matter intake of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were1.2133± 0.008, 1.2183± 0.012and 1.2383± 0.014%, respectively. In above experiment group C animals were fed 3 gm yeast had shown high milk production, fat %, protein %, lactose %, ash %, total solid %, weight (kg) and dry matter intake (kg) than other groups. Data on milk yield, composition, growth rate and dry matter intake of Beetal goats were evaluated. The data obtained was analysed through one way analysis of variances of (ANOVA) (Steel et al. 1997). The difference among treatment means were tested through least significance difference (L.S.D) (Steel et al, 1997). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1527,T] (1).

342. Designing Of Oligo Pool All For The Selection Of Superior Dairy Animals In Pakistan

by Kamran Abbas | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Aftab | Mr. Muhammad Asif.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Livestock has an important role in an agriculture based country like Pakistan with a large number of dairy animals. However the average daily milk yield of dairy animals is very low. There is need to improve milk yield by the selection of superior dairy animals using latest genomic selection procedures. Selection of superior animals on the basis of genetic markers has a tremendous potential for breed improvement across the globe. Substantial advances have been made over the past decades through the application of molecular genetics used in industry programs for several decades and is growing, the extent of use has not lived up to initial expectations. Most applications to date have been integrated in existing programs on temporary basis. Among various molecular markers the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is one of the major genetic marker used worldwide. Through SNP genotyping selection of phenotypic superior animals can be done. There are many techniques used for SNP genotyping but the most advanced technique is Veracode GoldenGate Assay by Illumina. Illumina's VeraCode technology with the BeadXpress (BX) Reader is ideal for high-throughput small to mid-scale genotyping studies and SNP validation. BX leverages the power of digital holographic codes and the robust GoldenGate Genotyping Assay to provide a detection method for multiplex assays requiring high precision, accuracy, and speed. A custom assay of 48, 96, 144,192 and up to 384-SNPs OPA (Oligos Pool All) is designed using Illumina's Assay Design Tool and manufactured by Illumina. As a first step for designing of Veracode GoldenGate Assay the development of Oligo Pool All (OPA) is necessary. The OPA was designed by using the genes for milk production, growth, fertility, health and other performance traits. The SNP's in these genes was searched from different gene banks and after proper arrangement the files were sent to Illumina for scoring. After scoring the OPA was finalized for the Veracode GoldenGate Assay for the selection of superior dairy animals in the country using the highly robust BeadXpress technology. The development of OPA for the selection of superior dairy animals was done for the very first of its kind based on modern technology, Veracode GoldenGate Assay in Pakistan. This will greatly help the livestock and dairy development departments, livestock owners, breeders, forensic agencies and researchers to use this unique panel of molecular markers for the selection of superior animals on the basis of marker assisted selection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1528,T] (1).

343. Epidemiological And Molecular Profile Of Hepatitis-C Viral Infection Among Different Groups Of Population In And Around Lahore, Pakistan

by Dr. Abdul Majeed Akhter | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices. The present project was carried out to study the prevalence of laboratory based confirmed patients of Hepatitis-C in various public, private hospitals and in high risk groups among the population of Lahore metropolitan and its distribution and pattern with respect to person, time and place. Second part of the project was designed to study the risk factors of Hepatitis-C patients from out patient departments of various public and private hospitals of Lahore. Individuals at high risk from different organizations and occupations across the city population of Lahore metropolitan were also included in the study. The third part of the project was designed to investigate the distribution of genotypes of Hepatitis-C virus among patients through RT-PCR and theireffect on viral load, various haematological and biochemical parameters. Project-I Study-1: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in various public and private hospitals of Lahore Metropolitan among different groups a total of 1399 individuals were tested to estimate the hospital based prevalence of HCV. Out of these 233 individuals produced positive result for Hepatitis-C virus infection. The overall hospital based prevalence was estimated to be 16.66% during the year 2009. The current study revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in Dialysis patients and Organ recipients (41.17%) followed by General Patients of age > 12 years (14.60%) and pregnant women (10.84%). It was further observed that the least affected group was the Children of age ? 12 years (3.85%). Study-2: The results of estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in high risk groups from the population in and around Lahore revealed that the highest prevalence was estimated in patients with HIV/AIDS (36.36%) followed by injecting drug users (36.09%), blood donors (17.78%), long rout truck drivers (14.70%), house hold and direct contact personal (14.6%) and prisoners (14.28%). It was also find out that the less affected groups were police department (10.66%), staff nurses and other health care workers (9.87%) and barbers and beauticians (6.97%) while doctors and dental surgeons were least affected (1.32%) among the high risk groups. Study-3: To find out the pattern and distribution of HCV patients with respect to person place and time a total of 924 patients were selected from the registry of Provincial Hepatitis Control Cell Lahore through systematic random sampling. Out of these, 154 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 90 were male and 64 were females. Average age of male and female patients was 35.88±10.49 and 37.78±9.12 years, respectively. The age difference between male and female patients was statistically non-significant (P-value>0.05). It was further observed that 147 patients were Punjabi and 7 were from other provinces. Moreover, It was found that the highest number of patients was observed during the month of December (n=18) followed by November, 2008 (n=15), March (n=15) and July, 2009 (n=14) while the least number of patients were observed during the months of September, 2008 and May, 2009 (n=10). Project-II To study the risk factors associated with HCV infection an analytical cross sectional study was conducted. Study-1: Lower socio economic class, place of birth (hospital), delivery assisted by whom and breast feeding were significantly associated with HCV infection in children of age ? 12 years. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive general patients was significantly associated (P=0.012) with anti-HCV status. Marital status (OR=2.042), socioeconomic status, blood donation (OR=2.15), prescription by doctor or non-doctor (OR=2.664), route of drug administration, relative having hepatitis and towel sharing (OR=1.987) were also significantly associated (P<0.05) risk factors for HCV infection. The mean age of reactive and non-reactive pregnant women was 27.55±3.43 and 25.37±4.24 years, respectively. Educational level (OR=3.093) and occupational status (OR=2.228) were the important risk factors associated with HCV infection. Tattoo on the body (OR=11.833), comb sharing (OR=20.86) and razor sharing (OR=4.786) were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Pregnant women who gave the history of dental procedures and tooth brush sharing were 3.15 and 4.12 times more prone to get HCV infection, respectively. In 205 patients having dialysis and organ recipients 41.17% patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Blood transfusion, glass sharing and qualification of the patients were significant factors in this group. Study-2: In case of doctors/dental surgeons a significant association was observed with history of blood transfusion and duties in medical and surgical wards. The nurses who worked in surgical wards, visited beauty salons were significantly associated (P<0.05) with HCV infection. Among health care workers age, gender and other factors did not have any significant influence on the reaction of HCV. Among blood donors female to male ratio was 1:16.5. It was found that the occupational status (p=0.002), place of surgical treatment (p=0.035), history of blood transfusion (p=0.000), ever pricked by sharps (p=0.045), habit of injecting drugs (p=0.04) and glass sharing (p=0.017) were significantly associated with occurrence of hepatitis C in blood donors. In long route truck drivers geographical status, surgical procedure, dental treatment and family history were significantly associated (P<0.05). Among the injecting drug users, demographic factors like marital (P=0.007) and educational status (P=0.000) were found to be significantly associated with HCV infection. Furthermore, the behavioral factors; use of injectable drugs with reused syringes (P=0.003), sharing of syringes in groups (P=0.004), place of shaving (P=0.000), use of disinfected ustra (razor) (P=0.003) and razor sharing (P=0.000) were significantly associated with anti-HCV status for IDUs. Among HIV/Aids patients a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was present among the ages of reactive and non reactive patients. Comb sharing has also a positive effect of HCV but all other factors were not contributing in this group. In Police personals odds ratio for married persons was higher (9.57) but statistically insignificant. The mean age for reactive persons was 39.75±8.24 years. A non-sexual contact with HCV patient and spoon sharing were significantly associated. In prison inmates skin infection and sexual involvement were significantly associated (P<0.000) with HCV infection. In the group of 43 barbers/beauticians age, working shift, tattoo on body (OR=19.5), injecting drugs (OR=19.5) and pre-testing for HCV (OR=19.5) were significantly associated with HCV infection. In house hold and direct contact group previous history of accidents and family history of HCV (OR=18.36) were significantly associated with HCV infection. Project-III A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in which the HCV reactive patients as tested by ELISA test were subjected to viral load and genotyping through RT-PCR. The positive cases of Project-I were included in this project. In the present study 558 patients were reactive for Anti-HCV. Out of these, 34 (6.09%) patients had Type-1 genotype, 67 (12%) patients were accounted for Type-2 and 410 (73.47%) patients were positive for Type-3. Multiple genotypes were seen in 19 (3.4%) patients, 9 (1.61%) patients had un-type able genotype whereas in 19 (3.4%) patients genotype could not be detected. According to the distribution of genotype-1, 1a was present in 30 (88.23%) while 1b was seen in 4 (11.76%) patients. In patients of Type-2 genotype, 2a and 2b were present in 54 (80.59%) and 13 (19.40%) patients, respectively. In patients having Type-3, 3a and 3b were identified in 353 (86.09%) and 57 (13.90%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, Bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALPT, viral load, Hb, TLC, DLC, Platelet and ESR were statistically same in all genotype. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1529,T] (1).

344. Chemical, Microbiological And Toxicological Screening Of Tannery Effluent Wastewater

by Lubna Shakir | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Over the last decade or so the chromium based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However the rule and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for the processing of effluent discharged by the tanneries. Consequently tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding area. This project was designed to evaluate the hazardous effects of tannery effluent wastewater (TEW) through various bioassays. During the first phase of the project, composition of the TEW samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Besides this, we have also investigated the impact of TEW on trace element content of ground water in Kasur tannery area. The ground water from shallow tubewells (100 to 300 ft) in the area has shown very high content of chromium while the ground water from the deeper tubewells (upto 600 ft) generally does not contain the toxic elements except for one outlet of the water supplied by the Muncipal Corporation. This could be due to corroded pipes in the tannery area. Microbial load was determined during second phase of this research project by viable count method. The detected viable count was 7.5 X 104 to 3.0 X 107CFU/ml. Various strains of chromium tolerant bacilli were isolated and they were found tolerant up to 2600 µg/ml supplemented chromium sulphate. During the third phase of this research plan, dilutions of TEW were evaluated for their effects on angiogenesis using CAM assay. TEWD1 and potassium dichromate were found highly anti-angiogenic. Moreover, dilutions of TEW and potassium dichromate have demonstrated significant toxicity when assessed through marine shrimps mortality assay and phytotoxiciy assasy. Chronic toxicity study on Wistar rats was conducted in the last phase. Chronic exposure of TEW for three months to rats leads to the development of various lesions in lung, liver, kidney and heart of rats. In short, TEW and contaminated ground water of Kasur is imposing a great threat not only to local inhabitants of the city but also to the population of far distance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1531,T] (1).

345. Determination of in Vitro Antimicrobial Effecacy of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Isolated from Postoperative Wounds of Hospitalized Patients.

by Muhmmad Qamar Zeshan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Background Nosocomial infection is a worldwide problem causing high number of deaths. The major causative agent of infection is methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA). Surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery (SSIS) are mainly (48%) caused by Staph. aureus, out of which 68% are MRSA and causes a number of deaths annually. Hypothesis As medicinal plants like (Opuntia delinii, Acacia nilotica and Alo vera) have the anti bacterial activity, So these plants may be effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA) And antibiotic like (Moxifloxacillin, Cefipime and Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin+Cloxacillin) selected in this study have antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria so may these have effectiveness against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus (MRSA). Material and method In this study MRSA isolated from the post operative wounds of one hundred hospitalized patients from three hospitals (Mayo Hospital, Services Institute of Medical Sciences and Jinnah Hospital) of Lahore. The isolates obtained from the wound identified as MRSA by cultural and biochemical characteristics. Methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus strains are resistant to many antibiotics even vancomycin. In the present study the efficacy of three medicinal plants (Opuntia delinii, Acacia nilotica and Alo vera) studied against MRSA using extracts of the plants. The extracts also further used to determine MICs against methicillin resistant Staphylococs aureus isolated strains. MICs of four antibiotics and their combinations commonly used for treatment of post operative wounds like Moxifloxacin, Cefipime, Imipenem/Cilastatin and Ampicillin+Cloxacillin determined using Linezolid and Vancomycin as standards by micro dilution method in vitro. Statistical Design The data collected analyzed using SPSS version13.0X soft ware. Outcome The prevalence of MRSA found in different hospitals as under 72.5% in case of Mayo, 63.33% in case of Services Hospital and 66.66% in case of Jinnah hospital Lahore. The highest percentage found in Mayo hospital and lowest was observed in case of services hospital. MIC results found in this study indicate that Acacia nilotica and Alo vera contain antibacterial agents which showed the good results against MRSA while Opuntia dileinii showed not promising results against MRSA and high MICs found put a question mark on its efficacy. Average MICs found in case of acacia leaves and bark are as 84 (µg)/ml and 62.5 (µg)/ml respectively. Average MIC observed in case of Aloe vera is 32.25 (µg)/ml. The highest MIC value calculated in case of Opuntia dillenii is 1228 (µg)/ml. Antibiotics like Moxifloxacin and Imipenem/Cilastatin showed the good results and the average MICs value found 2.681 And 2.85 respectively closely resembles to the MICs of stander drugs e.i vancomycin and linezolid caluculated as 1.61 and 2.43. Cefipime showed the less activity against MRSA with the average MIC 57.81.The synergistic effects of Ampicillin+Cloxacillin was not so good as compared to the stander drugs and combination of ampicillin and cloxacillin exhibit the average MIC as 11.87. The lowest MIC in of plants extracts observed in case of Aloe vera and highest found in case of Opuntia dillenii. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1532,T] (1).

346. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs

by Hafiz Kashif Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1533,T] (1).

347. Detection Of Carrier And Subclinical Infection Of Babesia Ovis Trough Pcr At Government Farms Of Punjab

by Haider Noor | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Haemoprotozoan infections in ruminants are of significant importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Diseases are transmitted through ticks thus a number of epidemiological factors/risk factors are involved. Ovine Babesiosis is one such disease posing problems in Pakistan which is an agricultural country and livestock plays an important source of income for farmers. The economic losses in small ruminant production are significant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Carrier sheep infected with Babesiosis are challenge to current diagnostic methods and are difficult to detect because of the low number of parasites in circulation. However diagnosis of carrier animals in herd is important for preventing outbreaks by transmission through vector ticks to healthy animals and for obtaining epidemiological data of disease. The work done on Babesia ovis is negligible. For this purpose a study was conducted at two farms to measure the prevalence and optimization of PCR for Babesia ovis. Blood was collected into an anticoagulant containing vacutainer. First thin smears were formed and stained with Giemsa stain for microscopic examination of Babesia ovis. For DNA extraction Puregene DNA purification system, Gentra, was used. Extracted DNA was amplified in a thermolyser using B. ovis primers and then analyzed using electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel. Microscopic examination demonstrated a prevalence of 16 % while PCR results revealed prevalence of 29% for B. ovis. Results displayed that the efficacy of PCR is more sensitive than Light Microscopy. Data on infection rate between male and female and between different age groups was statistically non-significant. Herd wise prevalence was 36% and 22% in Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadarnagar, Okara and Small Ruminant Training and Research Center,Ravi Campus, Pattoki respectively. Common sites of attachment for the ticks were under the tail, perineal region and underneath ears.The data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1534,T] (1).

348. Epidemiology Of Brucelosis In Sheep And Goat In District Quetta, Balochistan

by Abdul Wahab Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prf. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Brucellosis is one of the chronic infectious bacterial diseases of farm animals and man caused by Brucella specie and has a wide host range including bovine, ovine, caprine, canine, equine and man. It causes heavy economical losses in livestock holdings by resulting abortion and infertility while from public health point it is a bacterial zoonotic diseases causing undulant fever in man. In the modern world it is still a challenging health ailment to livestock and public health. In Pakistan it is prevalent in livestock holdings and human population. Keeping in view the importance of Brucellosis the present study was designed to investigate its status in District Quetta of Balochistan province. In this study sheep, goat and their concerned (farmers, veterinary assistant, veterinarian, butchers) were included. Govt. farms, private farms and slaughter houses were used as a source of samples. Information about risk factors in man and animals were gathered by separate structured questionnaires. To investigate Brucellosis, blood and milk samples were collected and serum from blood samples was isolated. Serum and milk samples were screened with Rose Bengal Plate test and Milk Ring Test respectively, and positive cases from RBPT were further tested on Polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in animals was 2.40 %, 3.80 %, and 2.22 % in sheep, goat and livestock owners respectively by RBPT and this result was confirmed by PCR, while prevalence of brucellosis was 1.6% by MRT achieved. The seroprevalence of brucellosis from Lahore was 3.91% by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed through PCR. Among the risk factors in human significant association was found between the occupations of the person. And brucellosis is a serious threat to man. Therefore, routine surveillance of farm flocks is essential, to know about the brucellosis and local infected areas, before implementing a wide scale national programme of brucella control and eradication. There is an increasing need of educating farmers and farm managers about brucellosis and its public health significance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1535,T] (1).

349. Molecular And Serological Characterization Of Avian Influenza Viruses In Domestic And Wild Birds

by Mobeen Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Avian Influenza virus (AIV) has been recognized one of the most important pathogen in poultry industry. AIVs play an important role in the pandemic spread that could cause high morbidity and mortality in human beings. A total of 1500 tracheal and cloacael swabs were collected from the seven live bird poultry markets of Lahore Pakistan for surveillance of AIV. The samples were processed for virus isolation in chicken embryos. The isolates were processed for HA test and AIV Antigen Rapid Test Kit to differentiate Newcastle disease virus and Avian influenza virus. Only four samples were positive for Avian influenza H9N2 subtype and 17 were positive for Newcastle disease virus. Four HA virus suspension of AIV showed high titers of anti AIV H9N2-HI antibody titer in chicken as well as rabbit serum, raised using Ottoman Pharma AIV-H9N2 (Oil based) vaccine. The isolates of AIV H9N2 were confirmed using laboratory optimized RT-PCR, mRT-PCR and LAMP tests. All isolates were sequenced and analyzed to develop phylogenetic relationship. Two isolates A/Chicken/Pakistan/Micro-1/2009 and A/ chicken/ Pakistan/ Micro-2/ 2009 showed 99.1% nucleotide homology with each other and 95- 99% homology with the other Pakistani isolates, 95.1% homology with A/Chicken/Iran/B102/2005. The nucleotide sequence of "A/Duck/Pakistan/Micro-3/2009" showed 98.8% homology with "A/chicken/Pakistan/micro-4/2009", 98-98.7% homology with other Pakistani Isolates and 95.8% homology with "A/Chicken/Iran/B102/2005". The nucleotide sequence of "A/Chicken/Pakistan/Micro-4/2009" showed 99.6% homology with "A/duck/Pakistan/micro-3/2009", 95-96% homology with other Pakistani isolates and 94.3% homology with "A/Chicken/Iran/TH lBM863/2007". Three out of four isolates had PARSSRGL cleavage sites and one isolate A/chicken/Pakistan/micro-1/2009 had PAKSSRGL cleavage site. The four isolates of the study contained a 226-Leu and 228-Gly at receptor binding sites. Substitution of Glutamine (Q) into Leucine (L) at 226 receptor binding site in HA glycoprotein increased the binding specificity for Sialic acid ? 2, 6 Galactose linkage of human receptor. The HA gene of the live poultry market isolates had 7 predicted glycosylation sites at 29-32, 105-108, 141-144, 298-301, 305-308, 492-495 and 551-554, positions. The NA gene of the live poultry market isolates had 8 predicted glycosylation sites at 44-46, 61-63, 69-71, 146-148, 200-203, 234-237 and 402-403, positions. Predicted glycosylation sites affected the structure and stability of NA protein. It is concluded that continuous epidemiological and virological surveillance of live bird poultry markets may help scientists to develop an effective control and preventive measures for AI viruses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1536,T] (1).

350. Epidemmiology Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Buffaloes Of Punjab Province

by Farhat Nazir Awan | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: This study indicates that the ranking order of buffalo diseases, with respect to their incidence in descending order in Punjab province is Foot and Mouth Disease, Mastitis, Diarrhea, Haemorrhagic Septicemia, Sudden Death Syndrome and haemoglobinuria. Similarly the disease ranking order in cattle in descending order is FMD, Mastitis, Diarrhea, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Haemoglobinuria and Sudden Death Syndrome. FMD is top most economic important disease both in buffaloes and in cattle in the province. Morbidity rate in the adult cattle and buffalo was higher as compared to the younger stock. However, the mortality rate was higher in young stock as compared to the adult animals of both the species. Moreover, adult and young males of both the species were more susceptible to the disease as compared to females. Cross-sectional survey revealed the economic loss of Rs. 41.32 million due to loss of milk, cost of dead animals and treatment cost of sick and complicated cases of FMD. The loss due to milk reduction was 57.3% of the total losses followed by mortality loss (26.4%), morbidity effect expenses (15.2%) and treatment charges in FMD complicated cases (1.0%). The findings of present study clearly indicate the association of age, feeding pattern, vaccination status and season as risk factors in the incidence of FMD in Punjab. Data obtained from the EPI-Unit Lahore showed that 719 FMD outbreaks occurred in the district of Punjab during 2007-2008. The highest number of outbreaks (212) was recorded in Rahim-Yar-Khan followed by Bhakkar (118), T.T. Singh (81) and Faisalabad (72). Of the total 309 disease outbreaks in buffalo, 174 (56.3%) were recorded in adults, whereas this number in cattle was 169 (61%). The incidences of the outbreaks increased gradually following the post-monsoon period. The greatest number of outbreaks was observed during the winter season, from December to February. Data from FMD Research Center, Lahore revealed the involvement of only FMDV serotype "O" in all the outbreaks during 2007-2008. Studies of the factors (age, feeding pattern, stage of pregnancy and species) on the immune response of local trivalent FMD vaccine revealed that buffaloes of all age groups responded well to vaccination against disease. It was also observed that 7-9 months pregnant buffaloes elicited significantly lower antibody response to vaccine as compared to the control groups. Similarly, buffaloes on grazing have shown lower anti-FMD-CF GM titer as compared to buffaloes on manger feeding. Sheep and goat were found to be late and poor responder to vaccine as compared to cattle and buffalo. Analysis of 300 serum samples from FMD affected buffaloes of 12 districts of the Punjab indicated the highest incidence of serotype "O" (62.3%) followed by Asia-1 (32.4%) and "A" (3.30%) in the population tested. FMD virus was inactivated at 61 ºC within 15 minutes and at pH 4, 8, and 10 within 24 hours. However, ultraviolet radiation was unable to inactivate the virus even after 45 minutes. The disinfectants/chemicals evaluated in this study including sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, citric acid, acetic acid, formalin, sodium hypochlorite, virkon-s, aldekol and Gas-G were effective in inactivating the FMDV at recommended concentration levels of 2%, 4%, 0.20%, 4%, 0.15%, 3.0%, 1.0%, 0.50% and 0.1% after 60, 30, 60, 60, 30, 30, 30, 60 and 30 minutes, respectively, at 300C. Sodium hypochlorite and Gas-G were equally good in inactivating the virus at half (1.5% and 0.05%) of the recommended concentration. Efficacy trial of local and imported oil based trivalent FMD vaccine in six villages, of the Faisalabad district clearly showed that 81.8% of FMD cases were prevented by the local inactivated vaccine in vaccinated animals whereas; this percentage was 70.6 in case where imported vaccines were employed. Moreover, efficacy of the local vaccine was higher than the imported vaccines. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1537,T] (1).



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