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351. Evaluation Of Different Extenders For The Cryopreservation Of Buffalo Bull (Bubalus Bubalis) Semen

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Buffalo is playing an important role in our country's economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Genetic potential of low producing animals can be improved by using artificial insemination technology. Unfortunately, less number of elite bulls are available and low fertility rate of buffalo by using cryopreserved semen has been obtained. Semen is exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses during processing, cryopreservation and thawing before insemination. Fertilizing ability is lost due to spermatozoa damage and it ultimately results in poor conception rates in buffalo. In order to protect spermatozoa from these stresses and improve fertility in buffalo, five osmotic pressure based concentrations of three extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE) were prepared by varying the quantity of the solutes to obtain an osmotic pressure of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295 mOsm/kg. Osmotic pressure was measured by an osmometer. In the first experiment, equal volume of semen obtained from four Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was pooled and used to study the effects of osmotic pressure on post thawed semen characteristics. For this purpose, three basic media: citrate fructose media, tris citric acid fructose media and lactose media were prepared and divided each media in to five equal parts to maintain osmotic pressures of 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg. These basis media were stored in a biomedical freezer, which were later used in preparing three semen extenders i.e. Citrate egg yolk extender (CEYE), Tris egg yolk extender (TEYE), and Lactose egg yolk extender (LEYE). During each collection, fifteen extenders (each of three extenders having five osmotic pressures i.e. 255, 265, 275, 285 and 295mOsm/kg) were used to extend the semen. After freezing, semen characteristics like sperm motility rate, viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were noted. Post thaw sperm motility rate in (%) CEYE was significant (P<0.05) at 295mOsm/kg compared to 255, 265 and 275mOsm/kg. However, sperm motility rate of different osmotic pressures of TEYE and LEYE was non-significant (P>0.05). Sperm viability rate (%) was non-significant (P>0.05) in all three extenders. Sperm acrosomal integrity rate was non-significant in CEYE and LEYE. However, it was significant (P<0.05) at 265, 275 and 295mOsm/kg in TEYE. Sperm PMI rate, MTT reduction rate, sperm DNA integrity rate and lipid peroxidation were non-significant (P>0.05) in CEYE, TEYE and LEYE. On the basis of the individual and overall comparison of different semen characteristics of three extenders and their osmotic pressures, LEYE with 295mOs.kg was considered to be continued in the next experiment to upgrade the extender by adding taurine (TA) at 0.0, 30, 50 and 70 mM and trehalose (TR) at 0.0, 20, 40, 60 mM concentration. Semen collection, processing, freezing etc were done as per experiment-1 and same post thaw tests were carried out. Post thaw sperm motility rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TA-20mM and all concentration of TR. Sperm viability rate, acrosomal integrity rate, PMI rate, MTT reduction rate and lipid peroxidation at different concentrations of TA and TR were recorded non-significant (P>0.05). However, sperm DNA integrity rate was significant (P<0.05) higher at TA-0.0 and TR-0.0mM. On the basis of comparison of different semen characteristics under various concentrations of taurine or trehalose, supplemented in semen extenders. Concentration of TR-70mM was considered to be continued in the next experiment to test fertility of the optimized extender. Semen straws of LEYE supplemented with TR-70mM were used to inseminate the 50 buffaloes in heat (Supplemented group), while, traditionally used tris based buffalo bull semen extender was used (control group) to compared pregnancy rate (PR) of this experiment. Pregnancy rate in control and supplemented group was 38 and 54% respectively, which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1538,T] (1).

352. Characterization And In-Vivo Protein Quality Evaluation Of Various Commonly Consumed Legumes In Pakistan

by Fakhar Gulzar | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Mr. Tariq | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1540,T] (1).

353. Efficacy Assessment Of Ready-To Use-Supplementary-Food For Treatment Of Moderately Acute Malnutrition

by Jalees ul Hassan | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1542,T] (1).

354. Isolation, Characterization Of Chondroitin Sulphate And Its Efficacy In Osteoarthritis

by Humaira Majeed Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and Glucosamine sulphate (GS) are two main components of articular cartilage. It is believed that these molecules slow down wear and tear of cartilage. Moreover, if administered exogenously as drugs, these may initiate synthesizing capacity of cartilage. Among these, GS promotes the formation and repair of cartilage, whereas CS promotes elasticity and prevent cartilage breakdown by inhibiting degradative enzymes. Concurrent use of both structural units of cartilage as drugs in osteoarthritis (OA) may lessen the progression of disease. The present study was conducted to elucidate the chicken keel cartilage as an alternate and potential source for this endogenous component that may be used exogenously to repair or prevent damage to joints. Chicken keel cartilages were collected from healthy broilers. CS was extracted using MgCl2 solution (3M), dialyzed and digested with papain. The extracted material was purified by ethanol precipitation, centrifugation and then freeze dried. Proximate analysis of semi-purified polysaccharides revealed the presence of carbohydrates (65.49±0.10), crude protein (12.82±0.26), ash (11.12±.56), moisture (9.88±0.32) and fat (0.69±0.14). Fiber contents were found to be nil in the processed samples. Dimethylmethylene blue binding (DMMB) assay was performed for determination of percent contents of CS in extracted semi-purified samples and mean concentration was found to be 70.77±2.35. Semi-purified polysaccharides were further characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) technique and characteristic Peaks of CS molecules were recorded at 854, 854 and 853 cm-1 and then compared with spectrum of standard CS. Protein content being a major impurity in extracted samples was determined by Bradford method quantitatively (4.64±0.29). Two protein impurities having 77.8 and 50.5 kDa molecular weights were revealed by SDS-PAGE. Efficacy of semi-purified CS from chicken keel cartilage, standard CS from shark source and GS, alone and in combination in experimental OA rat model was evaluated. To develop OA similar to spontaneous OA, 10mg papain/0.5mL (Sigma, Cat # P 3125) in buffered solution of 0.05 M sodium acetate pH 4.5 was injected intra-articularly in each right knee joint of fifty five albino rats (pre-anesthetized with anesthetic ether). Ten rats (n= 10) were injected with 0.5mL of normal saline (0.9%) in right knee joint that served as control group. Then from fifty five papain injected rats, twenty five were divided into five groups (n=5) for development and assessment of OA model (OA groups). Progression of disease was monitored by clinical scores, histopathological scores and concentration of CTX-II as biomarker in sera samples of experimental rats by ELISA using a commercial kit (serum preclinical CartiLaps ® ELISA kit) for control and OA groups (n=5) on day 0 (control group) and days 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post papain injection (OA groups). Highest mean clinical score (10.38±1.1) was observed on 1st day and least on 28th day post papain injection i.e. 5.00±.34. Highest mean histopathological score and CTX-II concentration was recorded on 28th day i.e. 12.82±1.64 and 36.82±3.81. Values of clinical scores, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentration reached to maximum on 21st day and then sustained thereon. Second phase of experiment is comprised of evaluating and comparing the efficacy of extracted CS samples (chicken keel cartilages), standard CS (shark source) alone and in combination with GS. For this purpose, remaining five rats out of ten injected with normal saline intra-articularly served as control groups along with treated and non treated groups of experimental rats. Remaining thirty OA induced rats were divided into six groups (five rats /group). Group 1 (n=5) called non treated group received only placebo till 60th day and served as negative control group. Treated Group 2 received GS alone, Group 3 CS (standard) and Group 4 were given extracted CS. Group 5 was treated with combination of GS plus CS (standard) and Group 6 with GS plus CS (sample). Doses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were administered as 1.2g/kg/day CS and 1.5g/kg/day GS alone and in combinations. Drugs were offered early in the morning in bolus form with feed (10g) after overnight fasting while non-treated group received only placebo (without any drug). Anti-arthritis activities of CS standard and extracted alone and in combination with GS were assessed clinically, analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA. Level of significance (P<0.05) was recorded by using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Post hoc Test. Mean scores of clinical, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations observed at 60th day in control rats (without OA) were 0.00, 0.00 and 2.55, respectively. OA induced untreated group showed mean score for clinical signs, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations 4.15, 12.24 and 36.70 and GS treated group 3.19, 3.96 and 6.12 at 60th day of treatment, respectively. For CS (standard), mean scores of clinical signs, histopathological lesions and CTX-II concentrations were recorded as 2.64, 2.44 and 4.48 and for CS (extracted) were 2.26, 2.28 and 4.40 in sera correspondingly at 60th day of treatment. The lowest mean values of clinical signs, histopathology and CTX-II concentrations in sera of treated group with standard CS plus GS were found to be 0.94, 0.94 and 2.62 followed by extracted CS plus GS treated groups 01.05, 1.27 and 2.74, respectively. Clinical, histopathological scores and CTX-II concentrations in group of rats treated with combinations were found to reverse the diseased condition after 60th days of treatment as the values were close to that of normal rats and far away from OA rats. It is concluded that extracted CS from poultry has comparable efficacy with CS standard from shark source alone and in combination with GS. Poultry by-product (keel cartilage) is found to be an alternate and cheap source for CS (chondroprotective agent) as compare to expensive, less available and religiously prohibited source for Islamic countries particularly. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1544,T] (1).

355. Study On The Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Perferingens (Necrotic Enteritis) In Experimentally Infected

by Arif Mehmood | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. M. Younus Rana.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1546,T] (1).

356. Seroepidemiology, Zoonotic Potential And Chemoprophylaxis Of Leishmaniasis In Dogs & Human In Pakistan

by Haroon Duraani | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1547,T] (1).

357. Mutagenic And Cytotoxic Evaluartion Of Piroxicam And Meloxicam

by Snober Khatoon Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Dr.Aftab | Faculty of Bio-Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Piroxicam and Meloxicam are enolic acid derivatives and belong to oxicam class of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They are therapeutically used in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. This study was designed to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of piroxicam and meloxicam by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay and MTT assay. In this study, ten concentrations (100µg/ml, 300µg/ml, 500µg/ml, 700µg/ml, 900µg/ml, 1000µg/ml, 3000µg/ml, 5000µg/ml, 7000µg/ml and 10,000µg/ml) of piroxicam and meloxicam were used in Ames test against Salmonella strain TA100 in plate incorporation method, with and without metabolic activation S-9 mixture in triplicate manner. In MTT assay, confluent monolayer of BHK-21 cell lines was used and grown in 96-well cell culture plates treated with same concentrations of both drugs in triplicate manner. The results indicated that piroxicam had no mutagenic potential at concentrations of 100µg/plate to 3000µg/plate, possible mutagenic potential at 5000µg/plate and significant mutagenic potential at concentration of 7000µg/plate and 10,000µg/plate. Meloxicam had no mutagenic potential at the concentrations 100µg/plate to 7000µg/plate and possible mutagenic potential at highest concentration 10,000µg/plate. The cytotoxic effect of piroxicam and meloxicam at the concentrations of 100µg/ml to 5000µg/ml was none cytotoxic and at the concentration of 7000µg/ml and 10,000µg/ml cytotoxic to BHK-21 cell lines. There was significant increased in mutant frequency with increased in concentration of both drugs with and without metabolic activation S-9 mixture. There was significant difference in non mutagenic, possible mutagenic and significant mutagenic potential doses of piroxicam. There was no significant difference in none cytotoxic doses of both drugs. In comparison of both drugs, there was no significant difference in mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. It concluded that piroxicam and meloxicam were not mutagenic and cytotoxic at therapeutic doses. Piroxicam had mutagenic potential in dose dependent manner. Both drugs were cytotoxic at higher concentrations. They had same cytotoxic effect in dose dependent manner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1548,T] (1).

358. Quality Analysis Of Drinking Water Form Various Sources Of Sahiwal City

by Farrukh Ali Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad Nasir | Prof .Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1552,T] (1).

359. Epidimiological Investigation Of Dengue Virus Maintenance Host In Lahore

by Mesam Abbas | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1553,T] (1).

360. Factors Affecting Biomass Producation Of Baby Hamster Kidney Cell Line In Roller Bottle Culture System For The Production of Foot and Mouth Diseas Virus

by Qaiser Akram | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and killed virus vaccines against prevalent serotypes are used for the control of disease. Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells as monolayer culture are routinely used for the propagation of FMD viruses. Various nutritional factors: amount of growth medium and serum concentration as well as physical conditions: seeding density, rolling speed, growth time, and incubation temperature for the propagation of BHK-21 cells on roller culture bottles were optimized. The roller culture bottles having surface area of 480 cm2 were used for the propagation of cells. Feeding of cells with 100 ml of growth medium per bottle and supplementation of 5% serum supported the growth of the cells in optimum way. Seeding of ten million cells per bottle resulted into the development of complete monolayer with maximum cell density within 48 hours. The cultured cells remained confluent up to 60 hours while a rapid decline in the number of harvested cells was recorded after 72 hours of incubation. Growth rate of the cells was slower at 33° C that increases at 35° C, reaching to its maximum at 37° C while cells could not tolerate the temperature of 39° C. The bottles kept at rolling speed of 3 rpm yielded maximum amount of cells while higher or lower rotation speed negatively affected the cell proliferation. Antibody response of buffalo calves to different levels of FMD virus immunogen in trivalent vaccine was investigated. The vaccine containing 106.2 units of immunogen/TCID50 of each of the three serotypes of FMD virus induced log2(1.3± 0.4) units of anti-FMD "O" Complement Fixing Cumulative Geometric Mean antibody (FMD"O" CFT-CGM) titer, log2(1.4±0.3) units of anti-FMD"A" CFT-CGM titer and log2(2.0±0.7) units of anti-FMD"Asia-1" CFT-CGM titer. The vaccine containing 2x106.2 units of immunogen of each of the three serotypes of FMD virus induced log2(2.2±0.2) units of anti- FMD"O" CFT-CGM titer, log2(2.1±0.25) units of anti- FMD"A" CFT-CGM titer and log2(3.4±0.8) units of anti-FMD"Asia-1" CFT-CGM titer. The vaccine containing 3x106.2 units of TCID50 of each of the three serotypes of FMD virus induced log2 (5.3 ± 2.0) units of anti-FMD"O" CFT-CGM titer, log2 (4.6±1.9) units of anti-FMD"A" CFT-CGM titer and log2 (5.0±2.2) units of anti- FMD"Asia-1" CFT-CGM titer. The vaccine containing 4 x 106.2 units of TCID50 of each of the three serotypes of FMD virus induced log2(5.5±1.5) units of anti-FMD"O" CFT-CGM titer, log2(4.4±1.9) units of anti-FMD"A" CFT-CGM titer and log2(5.2±1.9) units of anti-FMD"Asia-1" CFT-CGM titer. Moreover, buffalo calves (n=3) which were primed and boosted with 60 days interval using vaccine containing 2x106.2units of immunogen of each serotype of FMD virus, showed log25.0 and log26.3 units of anti FMD"O"-CFT-GMT antibody titer, log24.6 and log2 6.0 units of anti FMD"A"-CFT GMT antibody titer, log25.6 and log26.0 units of anti FMD"Asia-1"-CFT GMT antibody titer, on 30 and 120 days post boosting. Each serotype of the virus grew well on BHK-21 cell line. The virus showed poor TCID50 (log 103.2±0.2) in BHK-21 cells having Glasgow Minimal Essential Medium (GMEM) without Fetal Calf Serum (FCS). Addition of FCS in the medium at the rate of one percent increased log 107.1±0.2 units of virus TCID50. Incubation temperature of 350 C and 370 C supported the multiplication and maintenance of BHK-21 cells and yielded log106.6±0.1 and log107.0±0.2units of virus TCID50, respectively. Each serotype of FMD virus showed log106.29±0.07 units of virus TCID50 in the stationary monolayer of BHK-21 cells in Roux flask (75cm2), log107.66± 0.02 units of virus TCID50 in roller bottles (490 cm2) and log108.34 ± 0.07 units of virus TCID50 on 0.2 g of micro-carriers suspending in 200 ml of the growth medium in stirring bottle. The infectivity titer/TCID50 of each of the virus serotypes was significantly higher in roller bottles than that achieved in Roux flasks (p<0.05) and was significantly higher in stirring bottle containing micro-carriers suspending in the growth medium than that of harvested in roller bottle (p<0.05). It is concluded that the infectivity titer of the virus is directly proportional to number of BHK-21 cells in the culture system. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1554,T] (1).

361. Study Of Socio-Demogrphic And Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated With Foot And Mouth

by Abdul Sattar | Dr. Muhammad Hassan mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhamad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted during February 2012 to April 2012, in Chagai district, Balochistan. Information about education and economic status of the farmers, managemental practices, vaccination, outbreak history, veterinary services and transboundry animal movement was collected from 323 (282/323 farmers and 41/323 livestock traders) on a structured questionnaire. The status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not known in Chagai, following research has been planned to see the potential association between farming practices and FMD. Factors which were significantly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in district Chagai were education level of Farmers (illiterate 60%, literate 40%) and livestock traders (illiterate 42%, literate 58%), socioeconomic status of the farmers <20000 rupees (63%) and >20000 rupees (37%) and livestock traders <20000 rupees (12%) and >20000 rupees (88%), type of animals in the herd of farmers (cattle, 2%, sheep 4.2%, goat 19%, cattle-sheep-goat 9% and sheep-goat 67%) and livestock traders (cattle 17%, goat 3%, cattle-sheep-goat 68% and sheep-goat 12%), housing system used by farmers (open 93%, closed 7) and livestock traders (open 12%, closed 78%), feeding methods in case of farmers (grazing 93%, stall feeding 7%) vaccination against FMD farmers (yes 3%, no 97%) and livestock traders (yes 39%, no 61%), veterinary services available to farmers (yes 17%, no 87%) and livestock traders (yes 48%, no 52%) , nomadic movement of farmers (yes 62%, no 38%), export of live animals (yes 73%, no 27%) and import (yes 10%, no 90%). Other managmental practices like quarantine (no, 100%), isolation of sick animals from the herd (no, 100%), feeding of young animals milk of the sick mothers (yes, 100%) and proper disposal of the dead animals (no, 100%) were factors which were not analyzed due to zero cell values. It is concluded that illiteracy, poor economic status of farmers, type of animals (sheep and goat), open housing system, mixed grazing in the range land, low vaccine coverage, poor veterinary services and free movement of animals are strongly associated with the occurrence of foot and mouth disease in Chagai district. Transboudry animal movement of livestock to and from Afghanistan and Iran can aggravate the situation. Regular vaccination of livestock and awareness of farmers can help to improve the animal health status in Chagai. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1555,T] (1).

362. Comparative Study Of Lipid Profile In Obese And Diabetic Patients Of Rural And Urban Areas Of Lahore.

by Hamad Ahmed | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Qamar-un-Nisa | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is dangerous condition predisposing to number of complications and deaths every year. Obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2 are interconnected conditions which share a number of pathophysiological mechanisms which leads to cardiovascular complications. Reliable estimate shows a elevated prevalence of CVD risk in Pakistan. Each fourth middle-aged adult in Pakistan is at risk of CAD. Present study was conducted with hypothesis diabetes and obesity is risk factor for dyslipidosis and coronary artery disease in humans. Patient were included on the basis of body mass index (BMI) Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS) and further confirmation was done on the basis of Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) According to BMI and diabetes status, study subjects were cassified in four groups: (Group A; obese and diabetic, Group B; non-obese and diabetic, Group C; obese and non-diabetic and Group D; non-obese and non-diabetic) and HbA1c, FBS, Lipid profile and ETT were performed. Analysis of results shows obesity and diabetes was the major cause of dyslipidemia, group A was the worst group dyslipidemia, group C with obesity was the second and group B was the least with dyslipidemia. While obesity and diabetes mellitus was the leading cause of cardiovascular risk 27.5%, 15%, 22.5% and 2.5% in all groups respectively as above. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1559,T] (1).

363. A Metagenomic Analysis Of The Respiratory Microbiota Of Birds

by Muhammad Zubair Shabbir | Prof.Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The respiratory systems of birds are susceptible to and are a reservoir for numerous bacterial species, including those of significance to public health. A number of bacteria, either as primary or secondary infectious agents, have been associated with respiratory outbreaks in poultry and subsequent losses worldwide. A key component of a poultry development policy is the proper diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, which requires substantial knowledge of the microbiome in diseased and healthy birds. Because only a small proportion (< 1%) of organisms are culturable, limited as well as highly variable and time-consuming conventional microbiological procedures have typically excluded the normal flora present in the respiratory tract or have restricted the analysis to potential pulmonary pathogens. This limitation provides only a partial representation of the airway microbiota of birds and has little potential for determining or discovering novel organisms/pathogens and their association with clinical outcomes. Using the hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, culture-independent techniques such as 454-pyrosequencing, can provide species-specific sequences of any bacteria in a given clinical sample. This approach has identified a number of novel bacterial species in recent years. Based on the quality and quantity of the double-stranded gDNA, a total of 30 T-BAL samples including houbara bustard and ostrich, were collected from equal numbers of clinically diseased and healthy birds originating from flocks within different management systems, including free range, open house, and controlled house. Using 454 bar-coded pyrosequencing, the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene corresponding to V1 - V5 (~ 1,000 bp) were sequenced. Of the high-quality reads obtained (296,811) using the MOTHUR platform, the sequences were processed for sequence alignment with the 16S RDP database via BLASTn, and subsequent taxonomic analysis through MEGAN programs using a homology-based method to bin sequence reads. Almost all of the read were classified to the bacterial domain and its subsequent descendants. The birds were shown to be susceptible to a diverse microbial community belonging to a variety of phyla, families, genera, and well-characterized bacterial species. The bacterial communities were relatively conserved at the phylum level; however, at lower taxonomic levels, differences were observed in the phylotypes and abundance between the clinically diseased and healthy birds as well as between different management systems. The biodiversity and richness in the taxonomic content was higher in the clinically healthy birds compared with the diseased birds, as indicated by the rarefaction plot and the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson-Reciprocal diversity indices. Regardless of the management type, bird species, and health status, a number of new bacterial species were identified. Although the clinical importance of these bacteria as part of the respiratory microbiome of birds has not been established, a number of these bacterial species have been found to be associated with infectious diseases in humans and other species. The interactions of bacterial species with one another and, potentially, with the birds themselves provide a fascinating avenue for continued research. Further clinico-pathological studies will be needed to establish the links between causes versus effects. This information may help us gain insight into the ecological roles of these bacterial species and their potential co-evolution with birds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1560,T] (1).

364. Association Of Myogenic Factor 5 (Myf5) Gene Polymophism With Meat Quantity And Quality Traits In Sahiwal

by Faiza Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Atif Hanif.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Pakistan has a large population of farm animals, which are consuming for many purposes. Livestock is the major source of money for any country. Livestock is the major machines and factories which convert roughage (grasses and shrubs etc.) into quality food i.e. Meat and milk. The Myf5 gene is a member of basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors which is involved in the regulation of myogenesis. Its main role in muscle growth, development, proliferation, muscle fibers formation and muscle functioning makes it a candidate gene for molecular marker of meat production in livestock. Myf5 gene in cattle has been mapped to chromosome 5 and has a length of 3236 bp (Gen Bank accession no. NC-007303). It consists of three exons and two introns. Exons have the lengths of 659, 76 and 1245bp. Role of Myf5 gene in muscle development and growth makes it a candidate gene for meat production in farm animals. In this study association of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) gene polymorphism with meat quality and quantity traits in Sahiwal cattle was checked out. In this study blood samples were collected from Sahiwal cattle breeds and DNA was extracted from leukocytes. DNA amplification was done by PCR. Then sequencing of amplified gene was done by Genetic Sequencer. Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies were statistically analyzed by using SNPator software. The relationship between SNP marker genotypes of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) gene with meat quality and quantity traits was evaluated by using SNPator software. This study will be a helpful tool for marker assisted selection of beef cattle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1561,T] (1).

365. Performance Evaluation of Male Cattle Calves Treated Via Injectable, Implant and Oral Growth Promoters Raised Under Intensive Production System.

by Zaheer Ahmad | Dr. Jalees Ahmad Bhatti | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr | Animal Production and Technology.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Growth hormone study were conducted to evaluate the growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economics of production of male cattle calves under intensive production system at Dairy Animals Training and Research Centre, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Twenty (20) male cattle calves of approximately same age (20-21 months) and weight (220 kg) were divided into four groups i.e., A, B, C and D according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each group had five calves. The calves on treatment 1 were as injected Bovine Somatotropic Hormone @ 500 mg/animal at 15 days interval, Zeranol was implanted @ 36mg/animal to the calves in group 2, calves in group 3 was on Harmonic Media M2 @ 500 mg/animal/day mixed in concentrate diet and the calves in group 4 was considered as control. The duration of experiment was 84 days. The calves belonging to all groups had free access to maize silage and concentrate with a ratio of 40:60 on dry matter basis. Concentrate ration was prepared using local feed stuffs and free access to Fresh and clean drinking water was ensured to calves. The calves were provided 15 days adjustment period. The daily mean DMI/kg/day (gm) of calves in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 28.34±1.40, 29.52±0.55, 29.68±0.51 and 31.22±1.44 gms respectively. Statistically daily dry matter intake/kg/day was significant among treatment. Highest (31.22±1.44 gm) daily dry matter intake/kg/day was recorded in calves on Treatment 4, followed by 3, 2 and 1, respectively. The lowest dry matter intake/kg/day was observed in treatment 1 (Bovine Somatotropic Hormone Injectable). Weekly weight gain of all the calves were recorded throughout the trial period. Statistically results showed significant differences among the treatments 1, 2, and 4. There was non- significant difference between treatments 1 and 3. Mean weight gain of calves on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 6.99±3.32, 6.06±1.83, 6.95±1.68 and 3.84±0.79 kg, respectively. Highest (6.99±3.32 kg) weekly weight gain was observed in treatment 1 (Bovine somatotropic hormone) followed by 3, 2 and 4, respectively. Lowest weekly weight gain was observed in calves on treatment 4 (Control). Daily feed conversion ratio for each calf was recorded on daily basis in calves allocated to different treatments. Mean daily feed conversion ratio of calves on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 was11.09±7.71, 11.40±6.22, 9.71±4.50 and15.41±5.82, respectively. Statistically feed conversion ratio showed significant difference among treatments 1, 3 and 4. But non-significant difference was recorded between treatment 1 and 2. Highest (15.41±5.82 kg) weekly feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment 4 (control) followed by 2, 1 and 3 respectively. Lowest weekly feed conversion ratio was observed in animals of treatment 3 (M2 hormone). It means that treatment 3 showed best FCR and treatment 4 showed poorest FCR. The data on variable costs involved during the experiment was recorded to calculate the economics of production (Profit) for each treatment. Gross margins regarding different treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were Rs. 3742.70±1830.51, 4413.75±1679.28, 1938.70±1394.22 and 404.15±508.07, respectively. Highest (Rs. 4413.75±1679.28) gross margin was observed in treatment 2 (Ralgro implant) followed by 1, 3 and 4, respectively. Lowest margin was observed in calves on treatment 4 (control). On the basis of above mentioned results it is concluded that the growth promoters are helpful in fattening of calves as they improved growth performance, feed conversion ratio and better economics of production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1562,T] (1).

366. Sources Of Salmonella Contamination In Poultry Meat During Processing And Its Resistance To Antibioties

by Atif Masood Ahmad Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Veterinary and Animal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The unhealthy birds which are slaughtered at poultry retail shops may be transferring the pathogen to the healthy meat via butcher's block, clothe (used for cleaning carcass), weighing scale, table, knife and drum in which they are bled after slaughter. The tools which are used in butchers' chicken sale point ; different objects in their shop; the feed they give to birds and bird droppings ; all were analyzed and not surprising they were found heavily contaminated with Salmonellae. Salmonellae is an enteric organism and at chicken sale points contamination to objects through birds' intestine is not much surprising. Therefore a strong need to push the pressure on government to devise laws and set standards for clean premises at chicken sale points. Extensive and irrational use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary sector in the treatment, prophylaxis and as feed additive have made this organism resistant to many of the commonly used antimicrobials.These resistant organisms are being transferred to human body due to the consumption of contaminated poultry meat. Therefore the Salmonellae in humans show resistance to many antibiotics. It is assumed that Salmonellae can transfer resistant genes via bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction.As a result it is becoming resistant to many antimicrobials. Therefore a strong check on irrational use of antibiotics is needed. The purpose of current study was to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonellae at chicken sale points in Lahore city. In current study 250 samples of 8 different types were collected from different poultry meat sale points in Lahore city.The selection of sale points was random. The samples included50 samples of each poultry feed and bird droppings. 150swab samples of butcher wooden blocks, table, drum( in which the birds are slaughterd), butcher's balance, knife , cloth (used to clean block, knife, table and chicken meat) were also collected from different chicken meat sale pointsin Lahore city.The Samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonellae by culturing and biochemical tests.The percentage of Salmonellae positive samples inwooden block, weighing balance, cloth, birds' droppings, drum, bird feed, knife and table surface was 44, 24, 36 ,16, 32, 8, 28, 20 respectively.Overall prevalence of Salmonellae was 23.2 %. The isolated Salmonellae were then checked for antimicrobial resistance against 18 antimicrobials by using disk diffusion method. All the Salmonellae isolates were resistant to atleast four antimicrobials. 49 different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1563,T] (1).

367. Characterization Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Isolates And Their Use In The Production Of Indigenous

by Mushtaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1564,T] (1).

368. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Coccidioosis In Small Ruminants In Dera Ghazi Khan

by Ghazanfar Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is one of the most economically important parasitic diseases of small ruminants and infection may cause subclinical production losses to sheep and goat industry.Coccidiosiscause a serious threat to livestock productivity, due topoor feed utilization, stunted growth, poor weight gain, associated morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment and control measures. The disease is worldwide in distribution and is caused by many species of Eimeria which invade cells of intestinal epithelium. To treat and control coccidiosis in sheep and goats, numerous drugs were found to be effective including Amprolium, Toltrazuril, Decoquinate, Diclazuril and Sulphadimidine. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coccidiosis in Dera Ghazi Khan, for this 752 fecal samples (376 from sheep and 376 from goats) were collected and examined through direct smear method and salt flotation method. Overall prevalence of coccidialinfection was 48.67%, with prevalence of 52.92% for sheep and 44.41% for goats. The prevalence of coccidiosis in sheep was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to goats. Eleven Eimeria species were identified 6 from sheepand 5 from goats. In sheep the common Eimeria species wereE. ovinoidalis(56.78%), E. ahsata(47.23%), E. parva(35.67%), E. intricate (30.15%), E. faurei(26.63%) andE. pallid (19.09%). In goats the prevalent species wereE. ninakohlyakimovae(68.86%), E. alijevi(59.88%), E. arloingi(53.29%), E. caprina(46.70%) andE. hirci(22.15%). Eimeria infection was significantly high (P<0.05) in female (54.57%; 310/568) compared to male (30.43%; 56/184).The prevalence of coccidiosis was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ?6 month as compared to above 1 year age.A significant difference was found in three feeding systems (i-e) in stall feeding, grazing and both (grazing + stall) feeding system.Coccidiosis was significantly high (P<0.05) in animals with poor and week body condition compared to medium, good and fat animals. A strong association (P<0.05) was observed between fecal score and prevalence of Eimeria infection. Peak prevalence was observed in month of August (68.08% and 60.63%) while low in October (38.29% and 30.85%) in sheep and goats, respectively. In present study threeaniticoccidial drugs were used and the percent efficacy of Furazolidon, Sulphadimidine and Amproliun was 96.34, 95.40 and 98.08 percent, respectively at day 7. Whereas 98.58, 98.03 and 99.55 percent,respectively at day 21.It was concluded from the results that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the percentage efficacy of Furazolidone, Sulphadimidine and Amproliun used in these trials. Hematological analysis was performed using Automated Hematological Analyzer. Hematological analysis showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) in total erythrocyte count (TEC) and hemoglobin (HB) content due tococcidiosis. Results show a significantincrease (P<0.05) in TLC, MCV and PCV of infected animals as compared to control negative. Mean lymphocytes, Monocytes, MCHC and MCH counts were also decreased in infected animals. Hematological values of treated animals become normal at day 21stafter treatment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1565,T] (1).

369. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Coccidiosis In River Region

by Muhammad Shoaib Jahanzaib | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Bovine coccidiosis-is an infectious-disease affecting cattle and buffaloes resulting in great economic losses to the beef and dairy sector all over the world. Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease and usually associated with poor growth, bloody diarrhea and sometimes death of young animals. As bovine coccidiosis is commonly found in cattle and buffaloes, therefore it severely affects the production of milk and beef in Pakistan. 500 fecal samples-were collected (250 from-cattle and 250 from buffaloes) randomly to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in River Ravi Region Lahore. Overall prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded 57.2 % and 58.8 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Slightly high prevalence was found in female animals. Highest prevalence (66.66% and 70.31%) was observed in animals below 6 months of age, while lowest (44.87% and 48.91%) prevalence was found in animals above 1 year of age in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The study further revealed that highest prevalence occurs in August, followed by September and October while lowest prevalence was observed in July. The infection rate was a little high in crossbred (59.26 %) and Sahiwal cattle (57.89 %) as compare to imported breeds. Seven Eimeria species were identified from fecal-samples of cattle while Six species were identified from buffaloes, where E.bovis and E.zurnii were found most prevalent among them. Coccidiosis was prevalent significantly higher (P < 0.05)-in animals housed in confined-and dirt yard (72.13 % in cattle, 74.13 % in buffaloes) as compare to animals housed on paved (58.49 % in cattle, 61.22 % in buffaloes) and those having outdoor access. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in stall fed (71.64% and 73.68 %) as compare to grazing (28.58% and 31.91%) cattle and buffaloes. Highest (73.07 % and 72 %) prevalence was found in animals with Poor body condition (score-1), while animals with body condition score 3 (Good) were found with lowest prevalence (37.5% and 47.76%). Highest (82.35 % and 84.21 %) prevalence was found in diarrheic while lowest (36.19 % and 42.85%) prevalence was observed in animals with normal fecal score (1) both in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against coccidiosis in buffalo calves was also determined in current study. Non-significant difference-(P > 0.05)-was observed-in percentage efficacy of all three anticoccidial drugs at day 28 onward, i.e. 100 % for Amprolium (Amprovil), 99 % for Furazolidone (Furasym) and 99 % for Trimethoprim+Sulphadiazine (Trisym). All the three drugs showed satisfactory results against coccidiosis in buffalo calves and no toxic effects were found during and after treatment. The current study also determined the effects of coccidiosis on various blood parameters of buffalo calves. A significant reduction in Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC), Hemoglobin concentration, PCV, MCH, MCHC and statistically significant increase-(P < 0.05) in TLC, DLC (except Lymphocytes) and MCV was observed in infected animals. Also a statistically significant difference-(P<0.05)-was observed in mean hematological-values of infected not-treated and treated animals at day 28, where treated groups showed an improvement to the normal values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1566,T] (1).

370. Effect Of Different Levels Of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cervisiae) Sipplementation On Milk Production And Milk Quality in lactating Buffaloes

by Muhammad Haider | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Absul Jabbar | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1567,T] (1).

371. Vitro Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Testing Of Artemisinin, Digoxin And Silymarin

by Saran Siddique | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three drugs artemisinin, digoxin and silymarin were evaluated against vero cell lines in this study. Thesolution of drugs was prepared in phosphate buffer saline(PBS) after dissolving in DMSO. For cytoticity dilutions of these drugs were applied in triplicate manner on Vero cells that were confluent in 96 well cell culture plates. MTT (3-[4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide)assay was used for the cytotoxicity testing of these drugs and the cytotoxic doses of these drugs was 100µM for artemisinin, 100nM for digoxin and 380 µM for silymarin. After the cytotoxicity testing we also evaluated the genotoxic potential of these drugs against the same cell lines. For the genotoxicity testing we have used alkaline comet assay.For that base slides was prepared with normal melting agar and then a layer of pretreated cell suspension in low melting agar is used and after that another layer of low melting agar is coated on the last layer on the slides.Then lysis was carried out of the cells in lysing solution after that electrophoresis was done after that the slides was washed with neutralizing buffer and after that ethedium bromide stain is used and then slides were viewed under fluorescent microscope and we have observed that artemisinin showed genotoxic potential at 250µM, digoxin had shown genotoxic potential at 1000nM and silymarin have showngenotoxic potential at 500µM. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1568,T] (1).

372. Identification Of Single Nucleotide Potymorphisms In Atp Synthase F0 Subunit 6 And Synthase 8 Genes

by Rizwan Ali | Mr.Tanveer Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Pakistan is a fertile country regarding Animal Genetic Resource (AnGR), which have more than 1 million camel population belonging to 21 breeds of one humped camel i.e. Camelus dromedarius. Pakistan is the third major camel raising county in the world after Somalia and Sudan. All camel breeds of Pakistan has unique phenotypic traits, however, genetic data is inadequate for their evolutionary and phylogentic study. So to explore and use the genetic potential of dromedary camel, this research work was done. ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes ATP synthase is an enzyme in which oxidative phosphorylation occurs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The objective of this research was to examine the sequence of ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes in eight camel breeds of Pakistan (Marceeha, Barela, Kachhi, Pahari, Thari, Watni, Kharani, and mix-bred) to find SNPs and to see phylogenetic relationship among them as well as their position while considering already reported camel breeds from all over the world along with other mammalian species in GenBank NCBI. A total of 79 blood samples from eight selected camel breeds of Pakistan, were collected from different government livestock farms and private owners in respective breeding areas of each breed by travelling throughout the country. DNA was extracted and quantified using standard protocols. Specific primers for the selected ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes was designed using primer fox software from reported sequences from the NCBI GenBank (Accession number, JN632608). Primers were optimized and PCR amplification was done on all camel DNA samples. Then all PCR products were processed for sequencing using ABI Prism Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl following standard protocols. Sequence and Phylogenetic analyses All sequences were aligned and analyzed using blast2sequence available on NCBI and CodonCode Aligner. Twenty nine Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from the aligned 842 bp coding region of ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes. Consensus sequences for eight breeds of Pakistan were used for construction of phylogenetic tree (Neighbor-Joining method) among them using MEGA5.1 software package. The tree indicated high genetic similarity between Mareecha and Pahari camel breeds of Punjab. The Thari, Watni, Kharani and Kachhi breeds of Balochistan province grouped close to each other indicating genetic relatedness among them. Further the phylogenetic trees were constructed for the comparison of Pakistani camel sequences with reported sequences of other camel breeds of the world and different species/ mammals available on GenBank, NCBI. The UPGMA Phylogenetic tree showed the high similarity of all Pakistani camels with Arabian dromedarius camel confirming the dromedarius genetic architecture of Pakistani camels. The two humped (Camelus bactrianus) grouped separately like llama, alpaca (the biological cousins of camel), However both types of camel and llamas were clustered together in one clade while all other mammalian species were grouped together in another clade. However cattle, yak and American bison grouped together, buffalo remained close to cattle. Sheep and goat were also grouped together. Conclusively the phylogenetic tree based on ATP 6 and ATP 8 genes reconfirmed not only the genetic position of Pakistani camel but also the biological/ taxonomic classification of other mammals and species. Significance of research work This work provided the genetic information on eight selected camel breeds of Pakistan and contributed in the existing information in Animal Genetic Resources of Pakistan and helped in exploring the rich genetic structure of our local camel breeds for their effective and meaningful conservation for future generations of Pakistan. This study was just an initial step to explore the genetic worth of Pakistani camel and data produced may act as base line information for other researcher planning to do more research work on camel to get maximum benefits from genetic potential of camel with its unique characteristics. This may also be helpful in designing proper breeding and conservation policies for camel in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1570,T] (1).

373. Docing-Based Virtual Screening Studies For Ets-1 Inhibitors Using Indian Plant Anticancer

by Sara Mehreen | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study is designed to screen drug molecule against phosphorylation site of transcription factor Ets-1. Molecular docking was carried out by using AUTODOCK 4.02. One compound (Picrocrocin) was selected with binding energy of -4.23kcal/mol, making 3 hydrogen bonds with active site residues after molecular docking. Picrocrocin is present in saffron. Ethanolic extract of saffron stigmas was prepared and preserved in laboratory. CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) assay was performed. The aqueous solutions of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3%, 6%, and 12% of ethanolic extract of saffron were prepared. All of eight concentrations were applied to CAMs on fifth day of incubation of chick embryos. One group was treated as control receiving distilled water without any extract. The diameters of primary, secondary, tertiary blood vessels of control were 12µm, 8µm, 6µm respectively, for 2% treated samples values were 2µm, 1µm, 0.3 µm respectively and for 3% treated samples diameter was 3µm, 2 µm, and 1 µm respectively. Area of abbott curves for control, 2% and 3% treated samples were 0.0545 mm², 0.0538 mm² and 0.0540 mm² respectively. At 25 & 3% concentrations, values roughness parameters were lowest of all other samples. The present study results with discovery of novel antiangiogenic compound that is constituent of plant saffron. Inhibitory effect of saffron on cell reproduction, cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenic effect presents saffron as efficient candidate in cancer chemotherapy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1572,T] (1).

374. Effect Of Supplemented Phytase On Phytate Phosphorus From Feed Stuffs Of Vegetable Origin In Broiler Rations.

by Hafiz Rizwan Akram | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1573,T] (1).

375. Effect Of Inoculatied Corn Silage On Milk Production Performance Of Lactating Sahiwal Cows.

by Zahid Khan | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fodder and forage production in Pakistan is seasonal and this leads to erratic supply of feedstuffs to the animals. After a rich legume season, a depression period occurs, which is replaced by non-legume forages and followed again by a scarce fodder supply season. These changes in the forage supply have unfavorable effect on livestock performance. The key solution to this problem is the conservation of forages for the time, when there is feed scarcity. Keeping in view the existing availability of green fodders and silage additive products, the methods of developing alternative means to ensure availability of quality feed to animals having high nutritive value. The Experiment was carried out at Livestock Production Research Institute, (LPRI), Bahadurnagar, Okara. Two types of corn silages were prepared, one was be untreated corn silage (Control as diet-b) and other corn silage was treated with inoculants; a commercial product "Sil-All" by ALL-TECH, (diet-a). Eighteen healthy lactating Sahiwal cows at the same milking stage were randomly distributed to two groups A and B (9 each) and were fed individually. Data was collected during the feeding experiment of 60 days duration on feed intake, daily milk production, milk composition, silage composition and body weight gain. Sahiwal cows belonging to all groups were offered concentrate according to milk production @ 1 Kg for each 3 liter of milk produced. Milk samples were analyzed for Lactose, Fat, SNF and Protein using "Milk-O-Scan" in the Dairy Laboratory of LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara. The feed samples were analyzed in the laboratory for Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Ether Extract, Crude Fiber, ADF, NDF and Ash contents. The data thus obtained was analyzed through Paired Sample T-test. Daily silage intake in Sahiwal cows was 30.12±0.601 and 26.29±0.614 kg fed on inoculated silage and untreated corn silage, respectively. Inoculated silage intake was higher (P < 0.05) in Sahiwal lactating cows than cows on untreated corn silage. Milk production was higher in cows of group A fed with inoculated Silage. The results showed that Sahiwal cows fed on inoculated corn silage and untreated (control) corn silage produced 6.11±0.40 and 5.94±0.28 liters milk daily, respectively. It is also evident from the data that the cows on inoculated silage diet produced milk significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the cows under control. Mean milk fat contents were 5.65±0.11 and 4.95±0.03 % in the milk of Sahiwal cattle fed on inoculated and untreated corn silage diets, respectively. The results showed that the cows under inoculated silage feeding produced significantly more milk fat than the cows under control. Higher (P < 0.05) milk fat contents were recorded in cows on inoculated silage than on control. Mean milk protein in the milk of Sahiwal cows fed on inoculated and untreated corn silage were 3.11±0.02 and 2.85±0.05 %, respectively. Lactose content were also higher (4.62±0.04 %) in cows on treated corn silage diet as compared to cows on control diet (4.22±0.03 %). Significantly higher (P < 0.05) solids not fat contents were recorded in cows on inoculated silage diet than the cows on untreated corn silage diet (7.72±0.14 %). Sahiwal cows given inoculated corn silage diet had higher (329.09±5.028 kg) body weight than the cows under control (322.96±5.08 kg). A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among treatment. Sahiwal cows showed a fortnightly weight gain of 01.029±0.017 and 00.712±0.010 Kg per cow fed on inoculated and untreated corn silage, respectively. Silage pH was also improved in the diet containing inoculated silage (3.90±0.05) than the untreated silage showing a pH level at 4.08±0.35 in the untreated corn silage, showed non-significant difference (P>0.05).Dry matter contents in the inoculated corn silage had higher (30.40±0.60 %) DM % while untreated corn silage had the lowest (28.14± 0.84 %), statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean crude protein level was 6.27±0.33 and 5.39±0.28 % in the diets having inoculated corn silage and untreated silage, respectively. Highest value (9.17±0.75 %) of Ether Extract was recorded in inoculated corn silage diet, while untreated silage diet showed lowest (7.69± 0.24 %) value, and significant difference (P <0.05) was observed. Inoculated corn silage diet had highest (25.17±0.35 %) crude fiber level, while untreated corn silage diet showed lowest (24.51±24.51 %) crude fiber level. Inoculated silage diet had the highest (53.41±0.79 %) NDF, while untreated silage diet showed the lowest (49.34± 0.58 %) feed NDF. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the inoculated diet as compared to untreated silage. The inoculated silage diet had the highest (30.23±1.00 %) ADF, while untreated silage diet had the lowest (28.26± 0.63 %) level showed a significant difference (P<0.05).The diet untreated had the highest (9.16±0.82 %) ash level while the level of Ash contents was lowest (7.69± 0.24 %) in the inoculated diet. The results of the trial indicated significantly higher daily intake and increased milk production in Sahiwal cows was recorded when fed on inoculated silage diets. Milk constituent (Fat, Protein, Lactose and SNF) were also improved significantly in cows under inoculated corn silage diets. Sahiwal cows given inoculated corn silage diet had higher body weight than the cows under control. The composition of inoculated silage diet (DM, CF, NDF, ADF and Ash %) was also improved significantly as compared to untreated silage diet. On the basis of results presented in the study it is concluded that the use of additive or inoculant like Sill-All can be used to enhance milk production and overall performance of dairy cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1574,T] (1).

376. Serofpidemiology, Zoonotic Potential And Chemotherapy Of Neosporosis In Dogs And Cattle

by Muhammad Mudasser Nazir | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The aim of current study was to demonstrate the most important features of Neospora caninum infection in Pakistan. In the present study, I examined the prevalence of N. caninum in 7 districts of the country and to accessed the efficacy of various drugs against the parasite in cell culture. For the achievement of this purpose, the core objectives were, To have an overview on the overall seroprevalence of neosporosis throughout the country by means of cELISA in aborting, at risk and clinically healthy cows. To check the correlation of Iscom ELISA and cELISA, and determination of prevalence of N. caninum by means of Iscom ELISA on milk samples. To identify the transmission of disease towards human. To determine the efficacy of various drugs against N. caninum. In phase 1, overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle (detected by means of cELISA, VMRD, Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) was found to be 43.4% with a significant difference (P < 0.05) of seropositivity among all 18 herds (n = 5 aborting herds, n = 13 non-aborting/clinically healthy herds) selected from 7 districts of Pakistan. The seropositivity of cattle to N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in aborting animals (52.7%) as compared to non-aborting cows ( 41.5%), indicating a significant difference between aborting and non-aborting cattle. In case of pregnant and non-pregnant animals, similar findings were recorded in our study. A significantly higher rate of seroprevalence was observed in pregnant dams (59.8%) than non-pregnant cattle (35.2%). Overall, higher serological prevalence was evaluated during the summer season (61.1%) in all areas followed by autumn (46.9%), spring (34.9%) and least seropositivity was observed in winter season (26.6%). The difference in seropositivity was significantly different among all age groups, greater in animals older than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.05) among cattle of different breeds. Seroprevalence in cases of crossbred animals were higher followed by exotic and indigenous breeds. Phase 2, describes the seroprevalence of N. caninum in clinically healthy dairy cows. A selection of 760 animals from 13 dairy herds located in Punjab and Sindh Province, Pakistan to demonstrate the presence or absence of the Neospora caninum infection in commercial dairy cattle. The serostatus of the cows towards N. caninum was detected by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, WA). Out of 760 animals, (43.2%) were seropositive to N. caninum. A significant difference of positivity was recorded among all 13 dairy herds. Age wise prevalence though not statistically significant among all age groups, was greater in animals over 2 years of age and least in heifers. Variation was also observed in samples from cattle of different breeds. A significantly higher prevalence was observed in crossbred animals than in purebred and nondescript cattle. Seasonal prevalence was higher during summer season than rest of the seasons. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in pregnant cows was significantly greater than in non-pregnant animals. Second experiment of this phase describes the seroprevalence of 240 animals from 5 herds with a high rate of abortion, the percentage of seropositivity observed in these herds was 43.8%, slightly higher than the clinically healthy and non-aborting cattle. No significant difference was observed among all sample locations in this experiment. However, significant difference of positivity was recorded among different breeds of cattle. Age wise prevalence, though not statistically significant (P > 0.05), was greater in animals older than 2 years of age. The assessment of milk samples from lactating cows were also determined for Neospora caninum antibodies by means of Iscom ELISA (SANOVIR® Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden) and showed a good level of agreement (r² = 0.9959) between the two tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA). Although, the cELISA (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, USA) expressed a higher seropositivity and sensitivity than Iscom ELISA (Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden). Therefore, both of the ELISA tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA) for the detection of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle can perform better in lactating animals. The Iscom ELISA has some advantages over cELISA as it's easy to collect milk samples than serum samples, moreover Iscom ELISA is cheaper and easy to use but has low sensitivity than cELISA and cannot be used in dry animals. The percentage of positivity detected through Iscom ELISA on individual milk samples were 61.4% and 76.6% by cELISA. In phase 3, an epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs of different breeds and age groups. The serum samples of dogs were analyzed by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, USA) showed a seropositivity of 23.5%. There was no significant difference of seropositivity among various sample locations, highest prevalence was observed in Muzaffar Garh (31.9%), followed by Gujranwala (27.9%), Lahore (25.1%), Hafizabad (20.2%) and least prevalence was recorded in district Okara (14.6%). A significant difference in prevalence of N. caninum antibodies between male (26.1%) and female (18.8%) dogs were recorded. The difference in seroprevalence was not significant among all age groups. The samples with no age record showed a highest prevalence (29.5%) and least seropositivity was observed in adult dogs of 3-6 years of age (18.7%). During Summer season, highest positivity to N. caninum was (31.0%) recorded while the lowest prevalence (16.0%) was observed in Winter season. Phase 4, describes the seroprevalence and transmission of N. caninum in humans. A selection of 52 serum samples from humans was analyzed for the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The serostatus of the humans towards N. caninum antibodies (IgG) was determined by using commercially available antigen coated IFAT slides (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, Washington USA) and human conjugate. Overall very low prevalence (1.9%) of N. caninum antibodies was reported in this study. Only one case was found to be positive, these findings indicate that no strong evidence of N. caninum infection in humans. In phase 5, in vitro drug trials was conducted to access the best efficacy of three commercially available drugs. We found that among three anticoccidial drugs i.e Clindamycin, Diclazuril and Sulfadiazine, Diclazuril has best inhibitory effect against N. caninum tachyzoites in cell culture followed by Clindamycin and sulfadiazine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1575,T] (1).

377. Effect Of Enzymatic Complex On Growth Performance Of Broilers At Defferent Dietary Levels Of Wheat.

by Irfan Ahmed | Sr. Saima | Dr. Athar | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study was conducted at environmentally controlled shed of poultry research and training centre, department of poultry production, UVAS-Ravi campus, Pattoki. The objectives of the study were to see the growth performance of broilers by use of enzymatic complex diet replacing different dietary levels of wheat with corn. Enzymatic complex (allzyme SSF) contained xylanase, beta-glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, phytase, protease and amylase was used to counteract indigestion of fibers and improved utilization. There are some evidences that the inclusion of supplemental phytase, xylanase, and the complex of enzymes might have a positive effect on broilers growth and increased the nutrients. The trial was containing 525 birds, 7 treatments and 35 replicates. Treatment 'A' is controlifor all treatments there were different levels of wheat and same quantity of enzymatic complex added to observe its effects on growth performance. Duration of trial was 35 days. 7itypes of feedsuwith unique formulation were prepared. Feed 'A' was control diet having the profile same as that of commercial feed (crude protein =21%, ME=2900 kcal/kg). The parametersiof thisiexperiment were feed intake,ibody weight gain,ifeed conversion efficiency (FCR),irelative organs weight, immune organs weight and visceral organs weight, length, mortality. The parameters were collected during the trial as well as at the end of trial. Finally,idata wasicollected, analyzedistatistically using ANOVA inicompletelyirandomized design withihelpiofia computerbbasedistatistical package (SAS). In first week the birds being offered feed 'D' were observed more feed intake and significant difference was observed among groups. In 2nd week, feed intake was decreased in birds fed enzyme supplemented feed. In first four weeks, significant difference was found between groups while last group was non-significant difference. Groups supplemented with enzyme than non-supplemented groups. In 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, control group weight gain was the best and 5th week was non-significant for all groups. The average body weight in groups supplemented with enzyme recorded was significant difference than non-supplemented with enzymes. In case of FCR, group 'A' was observed to be the best in all groups. Analysis of variance among all groups in fifth groups found to be non-significant difference. FCR in groups supplemented with enzymes was recorded better than non-supplemented with enzymes. Mortalities in groups A, B, C and E was the less than D, F and G. More mortality was recorded in group 'F' supplemented with 25% wheat and without enzymes. Dressing percentage was best in A and followed to B, E, F, C, G and D. Results obtained from immune organs of bursa showed that bursa weight was found to be better in group 'G' supplemented with 25% wheat and enzyme supplemented than rest of groups in following sequence i.e. D, A, E, B, F and C. Pancreas weight of group 'B' was found to be better than result groups. Results were non-significant because weight of non-supplemented was better than supplemented with enzyme groups. While results obtained from thymus weight recorded showed that group 'G' was best supplemented with enzymes than all of other groups as followed D, A, B, C, E and F. Results of heart weight showed that results were significant between groups except F and G groups. Best weight was observed in group 'A' control diet group. Results of liver weight showed significant difference among groups except D and E. Liver weight of control diet group was lower than other groups. Results of gizzard weight filled showed that groups supplemented with enzymes were significantly lower than groups of non-supplemented with enzyme except in groups G and F respectively. While results of empty gizzard weight of supplemented groups were found to be significantly difference increased as compared to non-supplemented with enzymes. Results of spleen weight were non-significant for all groups. Results of intestinal weight showed significant difference among the groups. Intestinal length of group 'G' found to be more than other. Intestinal length of groups supplemented with enzymes was more than non-supplemented groups. In case of intestinal weight filled and empty, non-significant difference was found among groups except in D and E. Conclusions: Based on finding of study, it is stated that effect of dietary supplementation of wheat and enzymatic complex in broilers diets has improved weight gain and decreased feed consumption. Similarly, dietary supplementation of wheat and enzymatic complex performed better in case of survival and less mortality was found. So it is recommended that for fibers' digestion, enzymes showed be used in diets to improve the growth performance in modern day broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1576,T] (1).

378. Carrier Status Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Ruminants Through Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain

by Muhammad Usman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmed | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picornaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, O, C, Asia 1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3. Serotypes A, O, C and Asia1 are endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry .So priority is to apply quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV infection and to limit the spread of outbreaks of the disease. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. RT-PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done within three hours after receiving of samples to the laboratory. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. The outbreaks of FMD in 1999 in Morocco, in 2001 in the United Kingdom & in 2007 in Cyprus has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of FMD into previously disease-free countries. The difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the development of more rapid screening tests to assist in future control programs. In Pakistan, no study has been conducted to depict the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology and transmission of FMD virus to the large ruminants. Keeping in view this neglected area of research, present study is planned to apply the sensitive and economical RT-PCR technique for the rapid detection of carrier status of FMD virus in ruminants; and to highlight the importance and need of vaccination to small ruminants against FMD virus in order to control outbreaks of the disease and transmission to the large ruminants population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1577,T] (1).

379. Rheological And Microstructural Study Of Commercial Cheddar And Mozzarella Cheeses By Using Farinograph

by Saima Inayat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: A series of five experiments were conducted using Brabender Farinograph-E to study rheological properties of different brands of cheeses. This is a computerized machine having data recording capacity. It was found that Farinograph was a use full machine for preparing cheese and studying its rheology. The data recorded in the form of Farinogram showed that torque (resistance against flow of farinograph paddles) depended on fat content, temperature employed and time given to cheese formation. Also, the texture of cheese was influenced by these factors. Sensory tests are not capable of measuring results more accurately as compared to Instrumental tests. To study cheese properties and effects of many manufacturing factors the fundamental methods will help researchers to develop cheeses with required and persistent textural and rheological properties. The instrument most frequently used all over the world for determining water absorption and mixing characteristics of wheat and rye flour in baking industry is Brabender Farinograph®. The present study was conducted by using Farinograph-E as a major tool to measure rheology of cheeses. In this study cheeses of different ages, and kinds e.g., Mozzarella, medium Cheddar, mild Cheddar, old Cheddar, extra old Cheddar, Ricotta and Parmesan were included. The parameters for operating Farinograph-E were developed and initial trials were conducted in various directions to finalize the procedure. Farinograph-E (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) was used in this study by using its bowl W-50. The tests were performed by cutting whole cheese bars into small pieces and shifted into air tight containers. The grated cheese was loaded with the help of spatula into Farinograph bowl. Water bath was adjusted at various temperatures like 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C. The temperature was continuously monitored through a temperature probe, inserted into the bowl contained cheese sample. The speed of paddles/ spindles was fixed in Newton meters (Nm) and was kept as constant for all the trials. The lid was closed after filling the bowl and clamped in order to avoid any disturbance. The test was allowed to run for specified time for 35 and 60 minutes. After completion of time durations the test was stopped automatically. The readings were recorded in the form of a graph (torque, time and temperature) of cheese dough resistance over mixing time. Besides Farinographic studies, the results of Mozzarella and medium Cheddar Farinographic samples of (brand No name) were examined through Cryo-scanning electron microscopy and Fluorescence microscopy to study their microstructure at different stages and their relationship with quality of cheeses. The present study revealed that temperature, time and different fat percentages of different cheese brands shows significant effects on torque values. The results indicated that by increasing fat percentage the torques value decreases. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed finer details of cheeses. Shape, size and distribution of fat globules were observed through fluorescence microscopy. The changes in globule sizes and their interaction with casein matrix was also observed. Size of globule was estimated using image analysis technique. Aggregation of globules and their rupture was also observed. These changes in fat globules shape and sizes affected flowability, meltability and viscosity of cheeses and thus affected production of torques which were observed in graphs produced by Farinographs. By studying microstructure it was obvious from micrographs that Stage 1 showed smaller fat globules in large numbers. In Stage 2 the globules became larger in size and lesser in number and like bubbles in shape, as shown in plates. At stage 3, there was no particular change from Stage 2 texture, except slight change in colour. The same changes are depicted in the shape of curve, that moved up and downwards and then upwards. Full fats at stage 1, showed smaller fat globules those enlarged at stage 2. In stage 3, only enlarged globules were observed, and the resistance increased against paddles of farinograph and sharp increase was seen in the slope of graph. Globules retained their features at next stage and slope in graph became horizontal to x-axis after reaching maximum value. These results suggest that size distribution of fat globules tended to impose influence on Farinographic results. Overall it is indicated that Farinograph is a suitable instrument for measuring rheology of cheeses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1578,T] (1).

380. Therapeutic Trials Of Trypanosomiasis In Equines Of Gujranwala And Sialkot District.

by Syed Manuchahar Ali | Dr. Muhammad IJaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis is an infectious malady of equines characterized by weight loss, anemia, progressive paresis, enlarged lymph nodes, petechiae of serous membranes, conjunctivitis, edema of the legs and lower part of the body, urticaria, and alopecia. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to study prevalence and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in equines of Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. For this purpose, 300 equines (horses=100; mules=100; donkeys=100) were examined for Trypanosoma infection. The blood was collected by ear-tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. T. evansi was identified by their morphological characteristics as described by Smyth, (1996). Overall prevalence of T. evansi in equines was estimated as 13%. Individually there were 16%, 13% and 12% prevalence of T. evansi found in horses, mules and donkeys respectively. The effect of trypanosomiasis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC, and PCV) was determined in 30 equines (horses=10; mules=10; donkeys=10). The remarkable decrease in Hb, TEC, PCV, and lymphocytes were observed. The value of ESR increased, while there were no remarkable changes in TLC, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils. For chemotherapy, 36 equines (horses=12; mules=12; donkeys=12) positive for trypanosomiasis, were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups, comprising of 4 animals in each subgroup. The animals of group A (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) were treated with diaminazine aceturate (Fatrybanil®, Fatro, Pakistan) @ 3.5 mg/kg BW I/M, and the efficacy of drug was found 83.3% in equines against trypanosomiasis. The group B (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with isometamedium chloride (Trypamidium Sumarin®, Merial, Pakistan) @ 0.25 mg/kg BW I/M alone, and was observed 91.6% effective. While the group C (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Auk (Calotropis procera) @ 0.3mg/kg BW, 8 doses at alternate days (local treatment), which was found 41.6% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and recovery rate of the animals, and blood smear examination at day 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post-medication. Finally, the data on prevalence of trypanosomiasis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance whereas data on haematology was analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station T×77845, USA), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of equine in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present project was designed to check prevalence and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in equines of Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1579,T] (1).

381. In-Vetro And In-Vivo Anti-Theilerial Activity Of Medicianal Plants

by Mukhtar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In vitro study was carried out in order to estimate the anti-theileria effect of Calotropis procera and Peganum harmala. Water and chloroform extracts of each plant were used in-vitro study along with standard drug Buparvaqoune (Butalex®). For this four concentrations i.e.4, 8, 12 and 16mg/ tested solutions of each extracts of each plant were applied on cultured lymphocytes exposed to theileria parasite infection. ELISA reader findings showed that the mean OD were found less in treated theileria infected lymphocytes cell culture as compared to untreated culture wells mean OD values. The highest cell reduction (94.36%) with C. procera chloroform extract treatment was observed at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Lowest concentration (1mg/ml solution) of C. procera chloroform extract reduced non-significant (P>0.05) lymphocytes cell proliferation (40.97%) as compare to control negative group. P. harmala water extract was effective against the theileria parasite as significantly lower (P<0.05) mean OD value (1.802 ±0.341) was measured at a concentration of 4mg/ml solution and maximum inhibitory effect (92.20) was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. ELISA reader findings showed that P. harmala chloroform extract treatment failed to inhibit lymphocytes cells propagation even at highest concentration. The highest inhibitory effect (85.33%) against theileria infected lymphocytes propagation was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Plant extract was evaluated in respect of feed intake in rabbits. It showed that when administered extracts of C. procera in rabbits at dose of 3 mg and 5 mg/kg body weight, did not affect on feed intake in rabbits. However the chloroform and water extracts of both plant i.e. C. procera and P. harmala when were administered in rabbits parentally at dose 10 of mg/kg body. It showed that the feed intake of rabbits was non-significantly reduced as compared to other treatments groups. Hematological parameters such as WBC X103 count, RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl values were measured at various days. Findings showed that significantly lesser RBC X 106 count was in group A3 and D3 than control at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl measurements in all treatments groups. Kidney and liver functions were evaluated by measuring biochemical parameters, uric acid, creatinine and ALT at 0 days, 9 days and 30 days. Findings showed that serum creatinine and urea enzyme levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A3 as compare to control group at day 30 of experiment. Serum level of urea was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in group B3 and D3 at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in ALT in all treatment groups at day 30 than control. Post-mortem was performed at day 30 of experiment. Gross lesions consisting of hemorrhages, congestion, and lung emphysema were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed moderate gross lesions. Histopathology of organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and heart was performed. Toxicity lesions were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed histopathological lesions in lungs, liver and kidney. Theileria infection was studied in vivo by developing through theileria infected Hayalomma ticks in crossbred calves (n=30) through. At day 15 of infection maximum increase in mean rectal temperature (105.24 ± 0.46F) was observed, twenty four calves had pyrexia (104.1- 105.6 F) and six claves were showing pyrexia > 105.6 F. A significant increase (P<0.05) in pre-scapular lymph node enlargement score of challenged calves was seen by day 7 of infection and maximum lymph node score (grossly enlarged size) was noticed in twenty calves (Table 4.14 , Plate 4.16) with peak mean score (2.73±0.44) on day 13 of infection. The piroplasm peak score (3.80±0.83) was observed in challenged calves at 22 day of infection and remained significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.60±0.54) in untreated calves until the 36 day of infection (Fig.4.29 and Table 4.16). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean schizonts was observed in pre-scapular lymph node biopsy smear from day 7 of infection to onwards. Blood samples of challenged calves (n =30) were confirmed theileria positive through PCR test. The amplification of Theileria species were amplified at 1098 bp (Plate 4.20 and Theileria annulata was amplified at 721 bp (Plate 4.21). In order to estimate the pattern of disease severity, severity score was measured by summation of mean score of piroplasms, schizonts, lymph node swelling and rectal temperature. From day 7, mild response (3-5 score) was seen in infected calves (n=10). With increase in the severity of disease a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in mean values of the Hb g/dL amount, WBC and RBC count, Hct (%) concentration and lymphocytes percentage from day15 of infection onward to 36 day of infection. A non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the mean values of MCH pg was seen throughout the experiment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean values of MCHC g/dL along with significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean measurement of MCV fL (64.14±3.53) values was seen at day 36 of infection as compare to day 0 values, indicating macrocytic hypochromic anemia in challenged calves. These findings showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in excretory products (uric acid and creatinine) from day 15 of infection and onward as compared to day 0 values, indicating damaged kidney in infected calves. Biochemical analysis showed the significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) from day 15 infection and onward. Anti-Theileria activities of drugs were estimated by evaluating clinical manifestation of the disease and parasitological findings. Beside this treatment effect on hematological and biochemical reactions of liver and kidney functions was determined. A significant difference (P<0.05) in rectal temperature of calves groups (B and E) was observed than control positive (group F) at day 21 of post-treatment. On other hand calves treated with treatments A, C and D had a non-significant difference (P>0.05) in rectal temperature compared with untreated calves (group F). It was found that calves (n=5) dosed with C. procera chloroform extract (group A) had rectal temperature in normal range by the day 7 of post-treatment. Similarly calves (n=5) treated with Butalex were found with normal rectal temperature from the day 7 of pos-treatment. On other hand, at day 21 of treatment 40%, 20%, 40% and 80% calves were found with pyrexia in treatments groups B, C, D and F, respectively (Table 4. 46). By the day 14 of treatment, calves of treatment groups B and E showed no parasitemia (piroplams ?1). Disease severity was estimated on accumulative score of rectal temperature, lymph node swelling and parasitological findings (piroplasms and schizonts score). It was found a significant decrease (P<0.05) occurred in the disease severity of score of disease in calves of groups B and E as compare to A, C and F at day 3 of post-treatment. At day 21 of treatment all treated calves were recovered from anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1580,T] (1).

382. Biomass Production Of Pasteurella Multocida By Using Biofermentor For Preparation Of Montanoid Based Vaccine

by Noreen Sarwar | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Atif Hanif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is a contagious bacterial disease of large ruminants principally in cattle and buffalo with high morbidity and mortality. The disease is endemic in nature and outbreaks are common during hot, humid and wet season. The acute and fatal nature and brief duration of the disease limit the antimicrobial therapy. In Pakistan, the disease causes heavy economic losses to dairy industry. Vaccination therefore, is an option for controlling the disease. For a quality vaccine, biomass production of P. multocida along with well developed capsule (immunogen) is necessary. The problem associated with the production of a quality vaccine is poor biomass production of P. multocida when grown in ordinary or routine media. Present study was designed to isolate P. multocida from sick animals and its molecular characterization in the laboratory and study factors (temperature, media composition, pH incubation time and agitation or shaking) affecting its immunogen production and "in process quality control" factors (biological titer, dry mass, adjuvant and storage time) that affect antibody response. Finally, biomass production of the organism using biofermentor and monitoring of the antibody response of buffaloes to inactivated Montanide ISA-70 based P. multocida vaccine. Each of the field isolates showed grey, viscous, mucoid, translucent and non hemolytic colonies on blood agar. There was no growth on MacConkey's agar. It was Gram negative coccobacilli or thin rods and bipolar when stained with Leishman's stain. The isolates were positive for Catalase, Oxidase, Hydrogen sulphide and Indole production along with nitrate reduction while it was negative for urease production, citrate utilization and gelatin liquefaction. The bacteria fermented glucose, sucrose, mannitol, mannose, but failed to ferment arabinose, maltose, salicin, lactose, dulcito and inositol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on isolated colonies by using P. multocida specific and HS causing serotype B specific primers. P. multocida specific PCR gave product of 465 bp while HS causing serotype B specific primers amplified a product of approximately 590 bp. Growth of the bacteria in casein yeast sucrose broth was optimized under different conditions. CSY broth showed dense growth of P. multocida during incubation for 18 hours. A temperature in between 35°C and 40°C showed its optimum growth. Poor growth was observed below 30°C and no growth was detected at 50°C and above. No growth occurred at pH 0.5 and 10.0 but best growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 8.0. There was positive correlation between shaking in terms of rpm and growth. There was optimum growth at 500 rpm for 24 hours. Inactivated HS Vaccine was prepared from dense growth in biofermentor on the basis of dry mass and bacterial count. The effect of biomass, adjuvant, storage of the vaccine, priming alone or with boosting on its potency was also studied along with boosting effect of montanoid ISA 70 oil based vaccine. Dry mass 1.7 mg/dose produced protective antibody titer while bacterial count 10-14/ml was sufficient to produce the protective antibody titer. Montanoid ISA 70 based vaccine provided immunity to buffalo calves better than aluminium hydroxide gel and bacterins. Boosting with oil based vaccine can help to keep the animal immunized for whole year. For better results of vaccine, it can be stored at 4oC for six months. It is concluded that the proposed study improved quality of the vaccine and reduced volume of the vaccine dose, cost of its production and frequency of vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1581,T] (1).

383. Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan

by Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Baber.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used. The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females. Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval. The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively. The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively. Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups. The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero. It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy. 1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise. 2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality. 3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births. 4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits. 5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection. 6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits. 7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there. 8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1582,T] (1).

384. Transovarian Transmission And Molecular Characterization Of Hydropericardium Syndroe Virus In Experimentally Infected Poultry Birds

by Rabia Tahir | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the important and growing industries in Pakistan. It has now become the tremendously growing sub-sector of livestock. But the major constraint in growth of this industry is infectious diseases of poultry which leads to high mortality and morbidity rate resulting in heavy economic losses. The present study was conducted on one of the infectious poultry diseases named Hydropericardium syndrome which commonly affects broilers between 3-5 weeks of age. The causative agent is highly infectious virus belonging to Avian Adenovirus serotype 4. These are non-enveloped DNA viruses. It is an acute, infectious disease characterized by high mortality and excess pericardial fluid and multifocal hepatic necrosis. The incubation period ranges from 2-5 days followed by inoculation with liver homogenate or purified virus. This disease is characterized by the accumulation of straw coloured jelly like fluid in the pericardial sac, discoloured and inflamed liver with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, congested kidneys and mortality up to 70%. The present research was planned to prove that hydropericardium syndrome virus besides horizontal transmission is also transmitted by vertical transmission through transovarian route. For this purpose Liver sample was used as source of this virus. These liver samples were processed for further propagation of virus in live birds. Moreover, Virus neutralization test was also conducted for the confirmation of virus. To prove the transovarian transmission of this disease liver homogenate of infected birds was injected in 22 wk old breeder. Eggs were collected at 7-14, 15-21 and 22-28 days post infection. The day old hatched chicks were slaughtered to obtain liver and spleen sample for confirmation of virus through PCR. For confirmation, DNA was extracted using KIT method followed by polymerase chain reaction and amplified genomic material was visualized through gel doc system. After validation of PCR 90 samples of liver and spleen were processed for DNA extraction followed by PCR. None of the samples of extracted DNA processed for each tissue from chicks produced a visible band of DNA in agarose gel after ethidium bromide staining. The possible reason for these negative results may be that viral load was below detectable limit or the presence of high titre of neutralizing antibodies. The implications of these findings are that vertical transmission via transovarian route does occur in poultry birds but the exact mechanism and establishment of latent infections further need to be investigated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1585,T] (1).

385. In Process Quality Control Factors Affecting Potency Of Inactivated Black Quarter Vaccine

by Kashif Hanif | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Black quarter (BQ) is a majorbacterial disease of cattle and buffalocharacterized by loss of appetite, lameness, depression, fever, swelling of the skeletal muscles, crepitating sounds followed by sudden death without any clear signs of disease. It results in irrecoverable economic losses. The disease prevails in all provinces of Pakistan especially in District Dera Ismail Khan,Cholistan and Chakwal etc. Morbidity losses comprise of losses due to reduced milk production, work hindrance, treatment charges etc. The survey revealed that 15.91% losses were due to morbidity and 84.09% losses occurred due to mortality caused by black quarter in cattle and buffalo. Reliable diagnosis, mass scale vaccination and clamping strict bio-security measures are the only ways to control the disease.The present study was aimed to optimize the PCR for prompt and reliable diagnosis of BQ and to evaluate the inactivated whole culture vaccine with variable biological titer to induce protective immune response in calves. The comparative antibody response of animals to adjuvanted (Aluminium hydroxide gel & Montanide ISA 70) and non adjuvanted vaccine and duration of immunity was also studied. Effect of boosting on the humoral immune response of animals as well as shelf life of various vaccines was also evaluated. All of the vaccines were inoculated in a group of four animals. Serum samples were collected at specified time intervals and antibody levels were detected through antihemolytic units. The PCR was optimized for diagnosis of C. chauvoei in clinical specimens from infected carcasses. Study of factors (temperature, media composition, pH, incubation time and anaerobic agents)for biomass production of bacteria and its hemolytic toxins revealed that certain growth parameters can be improved to enhance the bacterial growth and its hemolytic toxins. Like use of RCM medium for vaccine production enhances the growth of C. chauvoei and its toxins under in vitro conditions. Supplementation of nitrogen gas in culture medium can enhance the bacterial growth and hemolysin. Proper incubation time, temperature and pH can be very helpful factors for the growth and biomass production of C. chauvoei under in vitro conditions. Finally, biomass production of the organism using manual biofermentor is a very cheap and cost effective method for concentrated vaccine production in our country where commercial biofermentor cannot be afforded. So by using these techniques we can make more no. of vaccine doses from less quantity of bacterial culture. It will also help us in developing bivalent, trivalent or multivalent vaccine. Study of in process quality control factors (bacterial biomass and toxins) production and "in process quality control" factors (biological titer, bacterial count, hemolytic units, adjuvants and storage time) that affect antibody response of vaccinatesrevealed that vaccine with 250 HU / dose showed relatively similar antibody titer in calves as the vaccine with 500 HU or 750 HU per dose. So this can be helpful to produce more doses of vaccine with same culture. The Montanide ISA 70 gave best result for development of good and prolonged immunity but gel based vaccine also produce satisfactory results.So in future oil based vaccine may be used to attain long term and effective immunity. Effect of priming and boosting revealed that boosting give better results as compared to primed group by producing prolonged immunity. The results were very encouraging. Effect of storage showed that the quality of immunogen was not affectedwith the passage of time if the vaccine is properly stored at 4 °C upto three months. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1586,T] (1).

386. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Sheep Fasciolosis In Different Ecological zones of balochistan

by Masood Ul Haq Kakar | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Yasmeen Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Various epidemiological aspects of human and sheep fasciolosis were investigated in four districts of Balochistan (Pakistan) having different ecology i.e. district Bolan from (Plain zone), Lasbela (Coastal zone), Qilla Saifullah (sub humid and semi arid sub zone of Upland zone) and district Pishin from (Arid sub zone of Upland zone). Sheep samples were examined through Coprological examination showed overall prevalence of 10.26% in one year study period from June 2010 t0 May 2011. The uppermost prevalence was recorded in district Bolan (14.79%) followed by Lasbela (10.63%), Qilla Saifullah (8.75%), and the lowest in district Pishin (6.88%). Overall the highest prevalence by season was recorded in autumn (25.31%) followed by winter (9.22%), summer (6.41%) and lowest in spring (5%). Amongst the month the overall highest prevalence was recorded in the month of September (30.63%) and lowest in the month of May (1.88%). Sex wise prevalence was found highest in female more susceptible to infection (11.22%) than male (8.48), but sex wise difference was non-significant statistically. Amongst the age group significantly higher prevalence was recorded in adults young than adult of age group (5.91%). During one year study period prevalence (%) of human fasciolosis in some districts of Balochistan was recorded (0.42%), with overall district wise prevalence in Qilla Saifullah and Bolan (0.83%) and (0%) in Lasbela and Pishin. Overall season wise prevalence was noted the highest in autumn (1.25%) followed by summer (0.63%) and 0% prevalence in winter and spring. Month wise results showed 2.5% prevalence only in the month of August and October while 0% in the other months. Gender wise prevalence 0.42% was found only in male, no female samples were collected due to some religious, traditional and community problems. Prevalence by age was recorded the highest in above 20 years of age group (0.74%) while this value decreased to zero in below 20 years of age group. Antibodies against fasciolosis in serum samples through indirect (ELISA) were recorded 13.13% (63/480) in sheep and 0.42% (2/480) in human indicates the higher prevalence (%) as compared to fecal examination. Likewise district, age and sex wise seroprevalence (%) of fasciolosis was reported higher than coprological examination in case of humans as well as in sheep. In sheep positive correlation was noted between fasciolosis and relative humidity while negative correlation with temperature (ºC) and rainfall (mm). While in humans prevalence positive correlation was observed with temperature (ºC), relative humidity (%) and rainfall (mm). Overall 1123 snails belonging to different 5 genera were collected from different district from different agr-ecological zones of Balochistan from June 2010 to May 2011. Amongst the snails the highest prevalence (37.04%) was found for Indoplanorbis, followed by Bulinus (32.15%), then Lymnea (20.66%), Melanoides (5.52%) and the lowest Physa (4.63%). Comparative study for coprological and serological tests (ELISA) was conducted for four districts from different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan i.e. District Bolan from (Plain zone), Lasbela (Coastal zone), Qilla Saifullah (sub humid and semi arid sub zone of Upland zone) and district Pishin from (Arid sub zone of Upland zone) for one year i.e. from June 2010 t0 May 2011. Overall prevalence of sheep and humans was 0% and 8.13% by coprological examination and 13.13% and 0.42% by indirect ELISA tests. Prevalence by ELISA was found higher than fecal examination when analyzed statistically. Similar seroprevalence for month, districts, age and sex was noted higher than coprological examination for sheep and humans. ELISA Sensitivity (%) and specificity (%) was recorded >97.0% and 95% and 100%, 100%, respectively for sheep and humans. Indigenous plants i.e., Saussurea lappa (roots), Fumaria parviflora (aerial) and Caesalpinia crista (seeds) were used at dose level of 60, 70 and 80 mg/kg body weight against naturally infected sheep with fasciolosis and their effectiveness was compared with triclabendazole (10mg/kg body weight). Triclabendazole was found 100 % effective after second dose whereas all herbal medicine it reached up to this mark after administration of second dose of 80 mg/kg body weight. From this study we can conclude that these herbal medicines can safely replace the triclabendazole, which is not, only cost effective but have no side effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1587,T] (1).

387. Epidemiological, Haematological & Serological Studies Of Leptospirosis In Dogs And Human At High Risk In And Around Lahore City

by Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of global importance capable of causing significant subclinical and clinical syndromes both in humans and animals. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia and other signs consistent with renal and hepatic disease. Considering the significance and the substantial losses rendered by Leptospirosis, the present project was designed to study epidemiology and haematology in dogs and humans at high risk in Lahore district and its peri-urban areas. The study was accomplished in 4 phases. In phase-I, sero-prevalence both in dogs and human was studied including case fatality rate and associated risk factors through cross a sectional study. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from dogs attended at the Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and other private clinics situated in and around Lahore area through systematic random sampling technique over a period of one year (1st Dec. 2010 to 30th Nov.2011). Blood samples from every fifth un vaccinated dog were collected, but if the dog was vaccinated then the sample was collected from the next unvaccinated one. In this phase 100 sera samples from human volunteers which were at maximum risk (veterinarian, pet and livestock owners, para-vet staff) were also collected. All samples were screened out by using ELISA kits like Canine Leptospira IgG ELISA Kit Catalog no. BG-CAN11485, NovaTein Biosciences, Woburn, MA, USA and Serion Elisa Plate, Virion/Serion GmbH, Wurzburg, Germany for dogs and humans respectively at the Medicine Laboratory and University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs a total of 429 dogs were examined and it was found that out of 429 blood samples 155 were found positive for Leptospira antibodies. Thus an overall prevalence of Leptospira was recorded as 36.13%. Prevalence of Leptospirosis in dogs during different months of the year was also recorded. The months of September, October and June showed ere the highest prevalence and recorded as 50%, 48.57% and 45% respectively. Although, a few cases were seen during the months of December, January and February while moderate number of cases was recorded during the rest months of the year. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the prevalence of Leptospirosis during the different months of the year. Out of these 429, 93 pups and 336 adults were examined for Leptospirosis and found that 26 pups and 129 adults were positive i.e. a prevalence rate of 27.95% (26/93) and 38.39% (129/336) for Leptospirosis was recorded in pups and adult dogs respectively and this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In this study a prevalence rate of 38.49% (102/265) and 32.31% (53/164) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female dogs respectively and this difference between the sexes was also non-significant(p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 21.24% (24/113) in winter, 35.82% (24/63) in spring, 40.34% (71/176) in summer and 49.32% (36/73) were recorded in fall season and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The highest prevalence rate was observed in fall and summer seasons of the year during higher rain fall seasons of the year. To study overall prevalence of Leptospirosis in humans, a total of 100 blood samples were examined through random sampling technique during the whole study period and overall prevalence rate of 44.00% was observed in human population. Different risk factors like different months of the year, age, sex and season were also studied and that the highest prevalence of Leptospira in humans was observed in the months of March, April and August i.e. 66.66%, 66.66% and 60.0% respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the sero-prevalence of Leptospirosis in human during the different months of the year was observed. Sex-wise prevalence rate of 48.71% (38/78) and 27.27% (06/22) for Leptospirosis was recorded in male and female respectively and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The results of this research project revealed a prevalence rate of 47.29% (35/74) and 34.61% (09/26) for Leptospirosis in adults and young ones respectively and this difference was again non-significant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study a sero-prevalence of 41.93% (13/31) in summer, 40.00% (06/15) in fall and 25.92% (07/27) in winter, while 66.66% (18/27) was recorded in spring season of the year and this difference was significant (p<0.05) and the highest prevalence rate was observed in spring. In phase-II, the effect of Leptospirosis on various blood parameters were determined in both dogs and human. The results of present study revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the Hemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR), Packed cell volume (PCV), Total Leukocytic count (TLC), Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes of healthy and Leptospira affected dogs, while a non-significant difference was observed (P >0.05)among values of lymphocytes. It showed that values of Hb forthe diseased dogs were lower than healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Monocytes, were more than in normal dogs. Likewise, in humans all the studied parameters were significantly (P <0.05) different between infected and healthy ones. The values of Hb concentration in diseased humans were lower than the healthy ones while ESR, PCV, TLC, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, and Monocytes were higher than in healthy people. A negligible change was observed in the percentage count of lymphocytes. In phase-III, the comparative efficacy of commercially available vaccines against Leptospira was studied. Two commercially available vaccines, Vaccine #1 with protection against two serotypes of Leptospira (Canicola, Icterohaemorragiae) and vaccine #2with protection against four serovars of Leptospira i.e Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa and Pomona were compared After six months it was observed through ELISA screening that the vaccine #2 provided better overall protection compared to the vaccine #1 to the pups as well as adult dogs against the Leptospirosis but this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). In the last phase of this study the chemotherapy trial was conducted. Results found that the efficacy of Penicillin G was 70%, while in group B Amoxicillin produced 60% results and in group C Sarsaparilla proved to be 40% effective against this infection although this difference was non-significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that among therapeutic agents used to treat Leptospirosis in dogs, Penicillin G , Amoxicillin and Sarsaparilla are ranked in respective order of efficacies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1588,T] (1).

388. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Terminalia Citrina Fruit In Mice.

by Ammara Saleem | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1589,T] (1).

389. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic And Antipyretic Activities Of Fruit Of Grewia Asiatica

by Bushra Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1591,T] (1).

390. Effecacy Of Prebiotic Galacto-Olingosaccharides Produced In Low Lactose Skimmed Milk Powder By Transgalactosylation

by Tauseef Ahemd Faiz | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. M. Nasir | Prof. Dr. M. Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Functional food does not only provide nutrition but works as defense against human nutrition related diseases (Menrad et al, 2000). Global market of functional foods industry has worth at least 33 billion US$ (Hilliam, 2000). Functional foods are the foods that provide health gains and can reduce the risk of diseases beside basic nutrition, including health care of gut. The first generation of functional foods involved supplementation of calcium (Ca) and vitamins for their recognized health attributes (Saarela et al, 2002). Among these additives, probiotics and prebiotics have acquired more interest as a major group of functional food additives (Gibson and Ziemer, 1998). GOS present in commercial milk powder has the ability to promote the growth of bifidobacterium and lactobacilli in vitro reported by the studies (Cummings et al, 2001; Cummings, 1995).The market of GOS in infant formulae milk as a food ingredient and due to its bifidogenic properties is gaining popularity (Chow, 2002). GOS are chiefly used in infant milk formula and infant foods (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Their remarkable thermostable properties allow them to be incorporated in large variety of foods and commercial products in addition to infant foods (Yang and Silva, 1995). Recently, they have been used in beverages (fruit juices and other acid drinks), meal replacers, fermented milks, flavored milks, and confectionery products (Affertsholt-Allen, 2007). Laboratory scale reactions for GOS synthesis were carried out by dissolving 600mM lactose solution in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH: 6.8) to which £]-galactosidase at varying levels was added. As indicated by studies in the literature (Kim, 1997; Barbara et al, 2006; Playne et al, 2009), high lactose concentrations facilitate transglycosylation reactions. Milk was procured from local market and concentrated for 15 min and milk was stored at refrigeration temp for further analysis. 5ml of milk samples was taken for enzyme analysis 0£gl, 100£gl, 200£gl, 300£gl and 800£gl respectively samples was collected at 30min _____________________________________________________________SUMMARY 48 and 1hr. Enzyme was denatured by applying heat and samples were analyzed on TLC with lactose and Yakult Oligomate (Oligomate 55N.) as standard. Large scale milk trial was done with respect to our optimization trial is was carried out temprature of 42.5„a C with 2.5hr reaction time. 10litter milk was transgalactosylated and boiling was done at 100„a C to stop further enzyme acticity. Milk was dried through freeze drying technique in PCSIR lahore. Mean values for proximate data of Milk powder is presented in table 4.4 shows Dry matter (96.03¡Ó1.12) while for Fat, Ash and Protein values respectively(18.04¡Ó1.53), (4.02¡Ó0.91) and (31.75¡Ó1.41) respectively. The statistical analysis pertaining to Lactobacilli log10 cfu/g of feces in two groups of mice divided on the basis of prebiotic milk powder incorporation in their diet were highly significant (P <0.01) and also highly significant in study intervals. Similarly bifidobacteria and E.Coli log10 cfu/g in feces of mice were significantly different (P <0.01) in groups and with study interval times. Functional food product milk powder containing transgalactosylated oligosaccharides milk powder can be used at extensive scale for human trials. This could be value added product in which we could produce prebiotic economically. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1594,T] (1).

391. Influence Of Early Weaning On Growth Performance, Plasma Metabolites And Rumen Fermentation Indices In Neonatal

by Muhammad Afzal Rashid | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Rearing of young calves is a labor intensive and costly segment of livestock production. From birth to weaning, young calf undergoes a transition from monogastric to adult ruminant. The concept of weaning from milk at an early age is based on early development of functional rumen enabling calves to utilize low quality roughages. In current study, a series of experiments were conducted to refine the more effective weaning regime for buffalo calves and use of by-products of the ethanol production industry in early weaned cattle calves. Conventionally, buffalo calves are kept with the dam, allowed to suckle a little amount of milk along with seasonal green forages, and weaned around the age of one year. To date, limited published work was available on growth performance and economics of buffalo calves weaned from milk at an early age. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to reduce the weaning age and evaluate the growth performance of male Nili-Ravi buffalo calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatments: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF), and early weaning (EW). After colostrum feeding, calves were individually fed whole milk at 10% of their BW, adjusted weekly until 6 wk of age. Thereafter, milk allowance was gradually tapered to zero in CMF, LMF and EW treatments at 12, 10 and 8 wk of age, respectively. Calf starter feed was provided ad libitum from wk 2 through wk 12 and individual intakes were recorded daily. Blood sampling was carried out form wk 6 through 12, on a weekly basis. The BW and structural measurements (HG, WH, and HW) were carried out at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. In young buffalo calves, the regimen of weaning at 8 weeks of age was more effective. The early weaned calves showed similar growth rate to those in the CMF and LMF by consuming more calf starter and saving a substantial amount of high priced milk. On the basis of the results of this experiment, buffalo calves successfully adapted to early weaning that might help to mitigate issues like poor growth and low returns associated with traditional calf rearing practices. Furthermore, this study effectively reduced the weaning age from 1 year to 8 weeks of age. Hence, reducing weaning age did not affect the growth performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves by 12 weeks of age. Early development of the rumen is the main objective of a successful early weaning program which depends upon the amount of starter intake, VFA production, and ruminal papillae development. Studies have shown that grains in starter feed can be replaced by DDGS up to 28% of DM without compromising the growth performance and rumen development. Second experiment was planned to evaluate the effects of replacing grains and soybean with DDGS and ammonia treated DDGS at 25% of DM. Study was conducted in collaboration with dairy science department SDSU (USA). Twenty one neonatal male Holstein calves were assigned to one of the three of dietary treatments: C = 0% DDGS, DDGS = 25% DDGS, CAFEX-DDGS = 25% CAFEX treated DDGS. In a 10 week experiment, calves were fed 680 g MR through 4 week, reduced to half during wk 5, and weaned at the end of wk 5. Starter intakes were conducted daily; whereas, body weights, structural measurements were conducted at the start of experiment and then on a weekly basis. Jugular blood samples were taken on a weekly basis using EDTA and NaFl coated evacuated tubes. Rumen samples were collected from a subset of 15 calves (n=5 calves/ treatment) at wk 5, 7 and 10. At the end of experiment, four calves from each treatment were also slaughtered to determine rumen morphometric measurements (PL, PW, RWT and PC). Experiment illustrated that weight gain, structural measurements, total starter intake, DMI and feed efficiency were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS and CAFEX treated DDGS at 25% of DM in starter feeds. CAFEX treatment of DDGS improved the CP contents of DDGS from 29.5% to 40%; however, inclusion of CAFEX-DDGS in starter reduced feed intake during the pre-weaning period. Whereas, overall starter intake was higher in calves fed DDGS based starter feed indicating the effect of ammonia treatment on palatability. Lower pre-weaning starter intake, slow rumen fermentation of CAFEX-DDGS resulted in lesser BHBA concentration leading to lesser development of rumen papillae growth (PL and PW). However, there was a tendency for higher weight gain in calves fed DDGS based starter due to increase in starter intake. In the light of these results it is concluded CAFEX-DDGS can be included in starter feeds at 25% of DM without affecting the growth performance. However, further research is required to evaluate the digestibility of DDGS after CAFEX treatement. Similar, growth performance indicates that CAFEX-DDGS can replace the corn and soybean meal in starter feeds. In third experiment, microbial diversity in developing rumen and intestine of young calves fed DDGS and CAFEX treated DDGS at 25% of starter was investigated. Experiement was carried out at SDSU dairy research station (USA). Fifteen calves with n=5 per treatment, fed according to protocols described in Experiment II. Calves were sampled for rumen contents at wk 5, 7 and 10 of age; whereas, intestinal contents were collected at the time of slaughter. The DNA was extracted subjected to PCR-DGGE and dendogram was constructed using cluster analysis software. Results revealed that microbial population was highly different from each other at wk 10 indicating the effect of age and dietary treatment on rumen micro flora. Whereas, intestinal and rumen bacterial diversity at wk 5 and 7 of age was not affected by inclusion of DDGS and CAFEX-DDGS in starter feed. The changes in intestinal microflora of DDGS and CAFEX-DDGS fed calves compared with control group showed that the effect of dietary treatments on post-ruminal availability of nutrients and microbial proteins. In conclusion, rumen bacterial population changes with the advancing age and the type of ingredients used in the diet. Further, research is required to identify the effect of feeding DDGS on growth of particular bacteria like methanogen and their impact on methane production and feed efficiency. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1595,T] (1).

392. Pathology Of Experimental Enterotoxemia In Sheep And Goats

by Azam Ali Nasir | Prof. Dr. M. Yonus Rana | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muti-ur Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: During the present study intestinal scrapings were collected from sheep suspected for enterotoxaemia. Samples were subjected for the isolation by repeated culturing in Reinforced Clostridium medium. Growth on blood agar revealed characteristic colonies of Clostridium perfringens after 18-24 hours. Biochemical and mice inoculation tests were performed. Isolated organism was identified by indirect ELISA. The pure growth was subcultured in RCM in bulk quantity and calculated the dose for experimental infection. In the second part of the study, sheep and goats were procured, dewormed and kept in the experimental house of UVAS, Lahore. The experimental infection comprised of the whole culture of C. perfringens type D was inoculated intraduodenally via para-mid line between animals of group A and B while in animals of group C and D inoculated only starch solution to achieve the objectives. Accumulative clinical score in sheep was found to be 9 to 16, 13 to 22 and 15 to 23 at 10, 20 and 30 hours PI respectively while in goats the accumulative scores varied from 5 to 15, 9 to 16 and 14 to 21 at above mentioned time intervals. The highest mean score for clinical findings in sheep was anorexia, frothing followed by dehydration while in goats, the highest mean score was recorded for diarrhea dehydration, and anorexia. No significant clinical findings were noted in control groups. There was a significant increase in blood glucose, urea and serum creatinine in infected group of sheep and mean values reached up to 141 mg/dl, 92 mg/dl and 7.5 mg/dl respectively at 30 hours PI while in goats a similar pattern was observed with the mean values raised to 142 mg/dl, 111 mg/dl and 10.2 mg/dl for blood glucose, urea and serum creatinine respectively. There was no significant change found in RBC and platelet count of both species but there was an early increase in the mean WBC count of sheep 19.7x103/µl at 10 hours but then decreased to 14.7x103/µl at 30 hours PI while in goats it was 23.6x103/µl and then decreased to 15.3x103/µl. The mean PCV % age increased in animals of both infected groups but more in goats and reached to 52% in 30 hours. During the third part of the present study, the animals were slaughtered and PME performed. The accumulative score for gross lesions were recorded and it was found between 14 to 24 in animals of group A with the highest score for congestion and edema of different organs whereas in goats it was between 12 to 22 with congestion and hemorrhages of intestine having highest scores. The samples were kept in formalin for histopathological examination and accumulative lesions score was noted in different organs. The highest mean score in sheep was recorded in kidneys and lungs and in goat intestine, lung and kidneys were the major organs affected. A polymerase chain reaction was optimized under our own laboratory condition for the detection of alpha and epsilon toxins of Clostridium perfringens type D from different tissues. Alpha gene was amplified at annealing temperature 52.2oC with amplicon size 247bp and ETX gene at the annealing temperature. 50.2oC with amplicon size 665bp. The erythrocytes of different species were used to know the sensitivity against culture supernatants of C. perfringens type D. It was observed maximum hemolysis occurred in human erythrocytes (68%) followed by mice (57%) at 37oC. It was also recorded that a significant increase was found at 37oC as compared to25oC except for dog and rabbits where no significant difference was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1596,T] (1).

393. Develoopment Of A Reliable Microsatellites Maarkers Panel For Parentage Analysis In Cattle Breeds Of Pakistan and Its Validatio Through Cytochrome B Gene Sequencing

by Tanveer Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Ahmad Ali | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Pakistan posseses enormous Animal Genetic Resource (AnGR) with 36.9 millions of cattle population. The data on genetic fabric of these breed is yet to be documented for their genetic characterization and identification. This work reports first country wide microsatellite markers and cytochrome b gene based genetic characterization of 10 famous cattle breeds of Pakistan. A total of 352 blood samples from unrelated and phenotypically representative of ten native cattle breeds including Bos indicus; Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sindhi, Tharparker, Dhanni, Dajal, Lohai, Bhagnari, Achai and Bos indicus x Bos taurus; Nari Master, and an exotic Bos taurus; Holstein Friesian breeds were collected from their respective home tracts, institutional herds and private livestock farms located throughtout the country. These samples were subject to DNA extraction using inorganic method caliberated to same concentration in Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory of the Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan. A total of 21 microsatellite markers recommended by the programme for the global management of genetic resources (MoDAD) for breed characterization of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) were applied. Multiplex PCR were optimized for amplification and were genotyped using ABI Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl using LIZ as size standard. Genotyping results were analyzed using POPGENE and Arlequin ver 3.5 software. The observed and effective number of alleles ranged from 10 (INRA32) to 43 (TGLA126) and 2.3574 (CSSM66) to 15.0019 (BM6526) respectively in all breeds? The observed and expected heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.0638 (INRA32) to 0.7101 (BM2113) and 0.6510 (INRA32) to 0.9347 (BM6526) respectively in the experimental samples. Mean values for observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.4943 ± 0.1647 and 0.8164 ± 0.0930 respectively. Mean values for Fis, Fit and Fst in all cattle breeds were calculated as 0.2819, 0.3864 and 0.1456 respectively. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) of all microsatellite loci was 0.81 indicating a high degree of informativeness of all microsatellite markers used. It implies that the same set of markers is equally good and could reliably be used for parentage confirmation in Pakistani cattle breeds. The data produced, also showed least degree of genetic difference between Red Sindhi and Tharparker breeds. This may due to mixing of the two breeds for being in close proximity of their home tracts. Fragment mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was also amplified using specific primers through PCR of 130 individuals representing all selected breeds and sequencing was done using ABI Genetic Analyzer 3130 xl. The sequences were aligned and analyzed with CodonCode Alligner 4.0.4 software. The analysis revealed highly degree of sequence conservation in all the Pakistani cattle while documenting changes in only 9 nucleotides from 26 individuals whereas multiple nucleotide changes in 5 locations were shown by more than one individual in the data presented. One polymorphic site was found in nucleotide 318 (T?C) in several breeds of indicine cattle while 2 Lohani and 5 Nari Master individuals showed nucleotide changes specific to taurine cattle. Of all the changes found, only three of them caused changes in the amino acid sequence. The UPGMA tree using MEGA 5.1 showed a clear differentiation between taurine and indicine cattle, except for Nari Master Pakistani cattle showing mitochondrial taurine sequences because it's a cross between Bhagnari (Bos indicus) and Australian Draught Master (Bos taurrus). The estimates of divergence among breeds were also low for most breed pairs, except for Nari Master and Dhanni whereas the overall divergence within Bos indicus or within Bos taurus were also very low (0.002 and 0.003, respectively) but the differences between Bos indicus and Bos taurus were significantly higher (0.014) as should be the case. These results of microsatellite markers have produced a set of information that can be recommended as a reliable marker panel for studies on genetic diversity analysis, parentage confirmation. The cytochrome b data on the other hand not only substantiated genetic diversity analyses but it also proved to be equally good for comparative Phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani cattle breeds and exotic breeds. This work provides most authenticated data and adds a great deal, to already existing information on Pakistani AnGR. This information coupled with prospective data using next generation genetic technologies will assist designing breed improvement focused breeding policies and conservation activities in future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1597,T] (1).

394. Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan

by Maqsood Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1598,T] (1).

395. Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory And Analgesic Potential Of Aqueous Methanolic Extract Of Thuja Orientalis In Albino Rats

by Muhammad Zahid Tanveer | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study in vivo anti-inflammatory assay, central analgesic assay and peripheral analgesic estimation of methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis was performed by using carrageenan induced paw oedema model, hotplate test and acetic acid induced writhing test on albino rats, respectively. For anti-inflammatory assay, the experimental animals were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals and three groups of six animals were arranged each for central and peripheral analgesic evaluation. In all groups of animals in antiinflammatory assay, oedema was produced by using 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan. The group II served as standard control group and was additionally treated with 10mg/Kg p.o indomethacin (a standard drug). The Groups III, IV and V received 50, 100 and 300 mg/Kg p.o of aqueous methanolic extract of Thuja orientalis (TO-Cr) respectively. All the treatment groups (II, III, IV and V) were treated 1 hour before injection of carrageenan. The volume of paw of rats was measured at 0 h and 3 h and the results of all treatment groups were compared with group I. In the present work, central analgesic study was done by using hot plate method. Tramadol was used as the standard drug in positive control group. Peripheral analgesia was determined by acetic induced writhing test using aspirin as standard analgesic drug. In the writhing test 1 % solution of acetic acid at dose of 0.1 ml / 10 grams was injected intra peritoneal. All the groups were pre treated 30 min before chemical stimulus with the standard drug and extract dose. Number of writhings was counted for 20 min. after injection. The statistical analysis of these values showed that results at 0 hour are non significant as P > 0.05 (Table 3).But it is evaluated from the study of paw volumes after 3 hours that there was significant decrease in oedema in group treated with standard drug i.e. indomethacin (79.70 % decrease) as compared with the 60 negative control (Fig. 11). The response of the extract under study was dose related. There was 13 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 50 mg / kg dose of TO-Cr (Table 7). Similarly there was 34 % and 59.57 % decrease in paw oedema as compared with negative control at 100 mg / kg and 300 mg / kg doses of TO-Cr (Table 7). In central analgesic model of hotplate, there was significant increase in latency time in treatment group at 60 min interval (Table 15) and then it remained almost same after 90 min (Table 18). In peripheral analgesia of acetic acid induced writhing test, there was significant decrease in the number of writhings in positive control (7.33+1.63) and Thuja orientalis extract (12.50+2.35) also decreased the number of writhings significantly as compared with the negative control group (20.67+2.16) (Table 22). It is concluded from the results that aqueous methanolic extract of the fruit of Thuja orientalis has significant anti-inflammatory activity and produced dose dependant reduction in inflammation and it also has both central and peripheral analgesic properties. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1599,T] (1).

396. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Various Endoparasites In Pheasants

by Bushra Nazeer | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The study was designed to check the prevalence of nematodes in pheasants. A total of 200 faecal samples (100 from Lahore Zoo & 100 from Jallo Park Lahore) were collected from pheasants. Faeces were examined by using direct smear and centrifuge floatation technique. Forty six out of 200 Pheasants were found to be infected with nematodes. The overall prevalence of nematodes was 23%, while 20% & 26% prevalence was reported for Lahore Zoo & Jallo Park Lahore respectively. The overall species wise prevalence of nematodes reported as, Capillaria, Ascaridia, Coccidia, Trichostrongylus and Heterakis 23.9%, 30.4% 19.6%, 2.2% and 23.95 respectively. Then forty five birds were selected for chemotherapeutic trial by using fenbendazole and tetramisole and checked the efficacy of these drugs against the nematodes. The decrease in mean of EPG in faecal samples was calculated before and after treatment. All the Pheasants in group A were treated with tetramisole and mean EPG was 1000 at day 0 (before treatment). The reduction in mean EPG after treatment was observed 293, 220 and 367 on days 3, 7 and 18 respectively and tetramisole efficacy was 71%, 78% and 63%. The lowest (63%) tetramisole efficacy was calculated after 7 day, likewise highest (78%) on day 7 after treatment. The overall percentage efficacy of tetramisole was calculated 71% during this drug trial. On the other hand in group B the mean EPG was 961 before treatment (on day 0). The mean EPG was calculated 226, 193 and 327 on days 3, 7 and 21 respectively after fenbendazole treatment, indicating the egg load reduction 76%, 80% and 65% respectively. In group B, the highest reduction load (80%) of eggs was calculated on day 7 after medication, on contrary 65% on day 18 (post-treatment). The significant difference (p<0.05) was seen in EPG before and after treatment with anthelmintic in group A and B. The efficacy of fenbendazole was found highly significant (p<0.02) than tetramisole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1600,T] (1).

397. Identification Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Hemo-Parasitic Diseases Along With Therapeutic Trial Of Tick Infestation

by Sadaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1601,T] (1).

398. Investigation Of Post Spawning Mortality In Selected Carps

by Shahid Sherzada | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1381,T] (1).

399. Comparative Study On The Normal Social Behavior Of Nili Ravi Buffalo And Sahiwal Cattle Calves

by Imran Abbas | Mr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jaless Ahmed Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1412,T] (1).

400. Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides On The Performance Of Neonatal Cross Bred Calves

by Muhammad Adeel Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Jalees Ahmed Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1418,T] (1).



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