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401. Prevalence And Molecular Diagnosis Of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis Innili Ravi Buffaloes At Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara.

by Muhammad Altaf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1484,T] (1).

402. Effect Of Duck Egg Yolk Plasma In Extender On Post Thaw Quality Of Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Furqan Tehseen | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Hafsa Zaned | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1603,T] (1).

403. Designing The Small Interference Rna Against Expression Of Coat Protein (Cp) Gene Of Potato Virus X (Pvx)

by Shafique Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Ms. Faiza.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1605,T] (1).

404. Antibacterial Activity Of Herbal Extracts Against Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia Coli Recovered Form Retail

by Arfat | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Escherichia coli is normally present in lower part of intestinal tract of all warm blooded animals. The background of drug resistant studies on E. coli represents that extensive and irrational use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary sector for treatment, prophylaxis and feed additive made this organism resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. Retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of MDR E. coli infections in humans. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli recovered from retail chicken meat samples collected from various areas of Lahore city. Also study the effect of antibacterial activity of selected herbal extracts against isolated MDR E. coli. In current study 100 E. coli isolates were processed for isolation of generic E. coli. Identification of generic E. coli was made using standard culturing, biochemical reactions and confirmed through PCR. The recovery rate of E. coli was found 80% and multidrug resistant pattern in the E. coli isolates was determined using disk diffusion method. A total 73.86% of E. coli isolates were found resistant with at least three antimicrobials related to different groups. Current study revealed the effectiveness of herbal extracts against MDR E. coli. Clove, cinnamon and mint have good antibacterial activity as compared to coriander, kalonji and garlic. Hence, these herbal extracts can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against multiple drug resistant E. coli species. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1606,T] (1).

405. Epidemiology Of Endo And Ecto Parasites Of Small Ruminants And Its Effect On Their Hematology Profile In District Bannu

by Niomat Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1607,T] (1).

406. Comparative Efficacy Of Finney Pyloroplasty And Jaboulay Pyloroplasty As Method Of Treatment For Pyloric

by Mumtaz Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1608,T] (1).

407. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Clinically Affected Small Ruminants Of Distric Lahore.

by Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1610,T] (1).

408. Epidemological, Serological, Heamatological And Therapeutic Studies On Ovine Nematodiasis In Three Ecological Zones of Balochistan

by Abdul Razzaq | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ahraf | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The main area of research in this study was to assess the prevalence, hematological and serological aspects of ovine nematodiasis. Four main experiments were conducted to highlight the objectives of the present research study. First experiment was conducted to find out the prevalence of sheep major nematodes for one year (January-December 2011). For this purpose three sheep breeds i.e., Balochi, Babrik and Harnai (either sex and between 1-5 years age groups)were selected randomly from three sites i.e., Quetta, Ziarat and Loralai. Faecal analyses of these sheep showed overall higher (40.25%) nematodes prevalence at Loralai followed by Ziarat (29%) and Quetta (23.92%). Five nematodes infection were recorded at three experimental sites. Among these, H. contortus (5.58 to 10.42%)and was the higher prevalent followed by N. battus (6.92 to 9.33%), S. papillosus (4.42 to 9%), T. colubriformis (2.33 to 7.33%) and T. ovis (1.83 to 6.83%).The nematodes prevalence was higher in one and five years old sheep. The female-sheep were infected with higher nematode prevalence higher the than male once and sometimes non-significant difference. These five nematodes were prevalent almost throughout the year; however, a peak infection was recorded during August/September. The high temperature, rainfall and humidity during these months may be predisposing factor of higher prevalence. Second experiment was on diagnosis of sheep nematodiasis through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For this purpose H. contortus and T. ovis positive samples (200) based on coprological examination were also indicated 100% positive sensitivity by the ELISA based on crude somatic antigen, while on excretory antigen based showed lower (92%) sensitivity. The sera (n=200) of non-infected sheep (based on coprological examination) showed marked difference results. Such as 168 (84%) and 166 (83%) samples were found positive with H. contortus and T. ovis, respectively. While, based on crude somatic antigen 158 (79%) and 144 (72%) samples were found positive with H. contortus and T. ovis, respectively. Third experiment was conducted to determine the hematological values and total serum protein indices in healthy and nematodes infected sheep. The statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, Eosinophil, ESR and Total serum protein values was observed among healthy and nematode infected sheep groups. While, there was no statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in TLC, Lymphocytes, Neutrophil, Monocytes and Basophils counts in healthy and nematodes infected sheep groups. Fourth experiment was conducted on assessing the comparative efficacy of synthetic (Oxfendazole and Ivermectin) and locally manufactured herbal medicine (Deedani, Kirmar and Atreefal Deedan) anthelmintics against sheep nematodes at AZRC/PARC Range-livestock Research Station Sanjavi district Ziarat. The present study results regarding the comparative efficacy showed that, Atreefal deedan among herbal products (Deedani and Kirmar) and Ivermectin than Oxfendazole was found effective against sheep nematodes. The sheep treated with Ivermectin showed highest (96%) FEC reduction, followed by Oxfendazole/Atreefal deedan (86%), Kirmar (60%) and Deedani (32%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1613,T] (1).

409. Prevalence Of Salmonella And Campylobacter Contamination In Poultry Eggs

by Hassaan Bin Aslam | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Provision of adequate food to their inhabitants and assure an atmosphere free from hunger and malnutrition is the responsibility of a civilized government. The food security objective becomes more important when 15-20% of the world population is not getting sufficient food to meet minimum nutritional requirements for a healthy and productive life. Proteins play an important role in the formation of balanced human diet. There are mainly two sources of proteins i.e. animals and plants. Commercial egg production is an important economic enterprise offering more rapid and efficient return than many other livestock production operations. In 1999-2000, 13.9 million commercial layers in Pakistan produced 3,261 million eggs contributing 27% eggs to the total egg production of 8677 million eggs. The incidence of food borne diseases is increasing globally. Many cases of food borne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidences have come from the international data on Salmonella and Campylobacter species infections. Food-producing animals (e.g., cattle, chickens and turkeys) are the major reservoirs for many of these organisms. A total of 500 raw chicken eggs were bought from different retail outlets in Lahore city for determining the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter inside and on the egg shell and enumeration of their load. Samples were graded as clean, trace, dirty and cracked. All samples were processed inside the safety cabinet. Eggs were broken from narrow end and contents were drained in the petri plate. Egg shell and egg shell membrane was processed by shell crush method in a tube in the presence of phosphate buffer saline. Sample from egg yolk and albumin was taken by direct aspiration while egg shell rinse was taken as a sample for Salmonella and Campylobacter. Isolation is done by enrichment method for this purpose selenite broth and buffered peptone water is used for Salmonella and campylobacter, respectively. The enriched sample was then plated on the Brilliant Green Plate selective for Salmonella and Campy Cefex Agar plate that is selective for Campylobacter. Thirteen samples out of 500 hundred samples were positive for presence Salmonella with over all prevalence of 2.6%. Highest percent prevalence was found in cracked eggs where it is 33.3% followed by dirty and clean eggs (0.9%) and trace eggs with zero prevalence. Colony forming units of Salmonella on the shell of one positive sample is 4.2x102 while CFUs in egg yolk of cracked egg was 7.0x102. Regarding Campylobacter five eggs out of 500 eggs were positive with overall prevalence of 1%. The highest prevalence was found in cracked eggs where it was 16.6% and dirty eggs having prevalence of 12.5%. Both clean and trace eggs were having zero prevalence. CFUs for Campylobacter were too low to count while majority of samples were observed negative for viable CFUs for Campylobacter. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1614,T] (1).

410. Nutritional Charactrization Of Common Vetch And Indian Vetch And Evaluation Of Their Glycemic Index

by Saiqa Iqbal Rao | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1617,T] (1).

411. Morphometric And Histological Modulation Of Broiler Gut Under Chronic Heat Stress With And Without Dietary Yeast Supplementation.

by Ghulam Abbas | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Saima Masood | Prof. Dr. Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1620,T] (1).

412. Molecular Epidemiology Of Subclinical Tuberculosis In Peri-Urban Human Population Of Lahore.

by Sadeem Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis (TB) is known to be a major health problem worldwide causing disease among millions of people every year. Major cause of tuberculosis in human is the infection with M.tuberculosiswhich usually causes pulmonary or lungs TB but an unknown number of patients are also infected with M.bovis which causes tuberculosis in humans as zoonotic agent along with its major hosts like cattle and deer. In developing countries where raw milk is used without pasteurisation there is a heavy risk of tuberculosis infection with M.bovis. TB infection with M.bovis mainly appears as extra pulmonary tuberculosis with and without specific symptoms of the disease.Diagnosis of subclinical asymptomatic tuberculosis and that of extra pulmonary tuberculosis is a difficult task and most of the time disease remains undiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to the unavailability of specific and sensitive diagnostic tool to diagnose the disease at early stage. Moreover prevalence of M.bovisinfection is not properly known. This study was designed to measure the diagnostic value of Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) for early and reliable diagnosis of subclinical extra pulmonary TB along with the molecular epidemiology of subclinical extra pulmonary TB to check the prevalence of M.bovisinfection. IGRA is a latest blood test with high specificity and sensitivity based on the principle of Interferon gamma released by effector T-Cell when exposed to M.tuberculosis antigens like ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in controlled in-vitro conditions. Eighty patients were selected for the study on the bases of the history of having day to day cattle contact along with feelings of sickness. Biopsy tissue samples of all the patients which were positive with IGRA were requested, however 24 out of 27 positive samples were collected and were first examined histologically. Twenty seven samples out of eighty were found positive with IGRA while 22 out of 24 samples were confirmed by histological examination as infected with MTB. Both IGRA and histological examination are unable todifferentiate between the specie specific infection with M.tuberculosis orM.bovis for which differential amplification of specific fragments of bothof the species was done by running a multiplex PCR using M.tuberculosis specific 185 bp pncA product and M.bovis specific 500 bp segment. Genomic DNA was extracted from previously formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues which requires pretreatment for deparaffinization. Xylene was used as deparaffinization agent. All of the twenty two samples positive with IGRA and histological study were found positive for M.tuberculosis infection and none of the sample was found positive for M.bovis infection. Results showeda close correlation among all three techniques with their specific benefits and limitations. Study concluded that T.Spot TB (IGRA) is a potentially reliable test for the diagnosis of subclinical, extrapulmonary TB.Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues may be used for TB diagnosis and other DNA based researches. Duplex PCR is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis of infection with different species of MTB complex, though none of the sample was found positive for M.boviswhich is may be due to small sample size of the study and it may further be studied in future researches. The research findings will help the clinicians to depend on IGRA testing for timely and reliable diagnosis of extrapulmonary subclinical tuberculosis and potential use of FFPE tissue samples as appropriate specimen for molecular based diagnosis of TB. Further studies are however, required to check the prevalence of M.bovis infection byincreasing sample size. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1621,T] (1).

413. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations Of Leaves Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) And Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Anticoccidial Drug on Coccidiosis in Pigeons (Columba livia)

by Abdul Qudoos | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The background of this study is that world health organization (WHO) reports that neurological disorders affect one billion people worldwide, including 50 million affected by epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, periodic, spontaneous and unprovoked seizures. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a heterogeneous familial condition in which family members express absence seizures initially, and then show multiple phenotypes of myoclonic epilepsy including partial or absence seizures and generalized tonic conic seizures. Molecular genetics techniques have identified various CAE associated mutations in many genes i.e. ion channels (CACNA1H, CACNA1G, CACNA1N), sodium channel genes (SCN2A, SCN1A, and SCN1B) and some GABA receptor genes (GABRG2 and GABRD). CACNA1H ion channels are the principal intermediaries of fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been frequently reported to play a significant role in a number of seizures. CACNA1H gene encodes the alpha (?) subunit and is usually located in post synaptic. Various parameters are used in the present study was aimed to investigate coding regions of CACNA1H gene for analyzing the mutations involved in epilepsy. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of CAE were collected from psychiatry departments of different hospitals of Lahore. DNA were extracted with the standard protocol and amplifications of the CACNA1H regions were done with specially designed primers. Later on, analysis of the results is done by sequencing of target fragments is carried out. Sequences are analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with the help of clustalW2 software. It has been identified by the recent study on the absence epileptic patients of Pakistan that the gene CACNA1h has SNPs in the exon 9 and 10 at the position (2025G>A) and (4867 G>T) respectively which eventually alters the protein, making it hyperactive as the mutations are in the sensor regions of the protein, thus giving a 'gain in function' property to the ion channel. In the conclusion, we must say that further study, with much larger sample number, is required to revise the effects of this polymorphism and accurately identifying the associated factors. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing epilepsy in local population of Punjab and Pakistan that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1622,T] (1).

414. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Dairy Animals Maintained at Mulitary Dairy Farm Lahore Cantt.

by Abrar Ahmed | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: NILI RAVI BUFFALOES Average age at maturitywas 829.11 ± 30.34 days. Heiferscalved in1999 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Mean birth weight of calves was found 28.16±2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 16 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 923.37 ± 30.34 days. Heifers calved in 1996 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1295.66 ± 62.91 days. Heifers calved in 2002 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during the dry summer andautumn season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Average service period was 164.1 ± 30.15 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2002 and 2008, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 11th and 10thlactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively.Average services per conception were 1.95 ± 0.23. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 2005 and 2008, respectively. In humid summer and autumn season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 9th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 310.90 ± 3.07 days. Maximum and minimum gestation periodwas in 2000 and 2009 2009 respectively. In humid summer and dry summer season, gestation period? was maximum and minimum respectively. In 12th and 8th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 474.59 ± 29.88 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 1973.15 ± 53.23 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2010 and 2002, respectively. In winter and spring season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 4th and 11th lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was 295.23 ± 64.30 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2000, respectively. In spring and humid summer season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 11th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 184.93 ± 30.99 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. CROSSBRED COWS Average age at maturity was 828.33 ± 20.39 days. Heifers calved during the year of 1998 and 1997 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at maturity was maximum and minimum, respectively. Mean birth weight of crossbred cow calves was found 23.35 ± 2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 07 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 944.18 ± 30.42 days. Heifers calved in 2004 and 1996 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at first conception was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1245.29 ± 40.96 days. Heifers calved in 2008 and 1995 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during autumn and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. In 7/8 and 5/8 crossbred level, age at first calving was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average service period was 252.83 ± 32.56 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2006 and 2010, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, service period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 8th lactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average services per conception were 2.13 ± 0.31. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 1999 and 2002, respectively. In winter and dry summer season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 9th and 8th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 5/8 crossbred level, services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 278.90 ± 4.36 days. Maximum and minimum gestation period was in 2010 and 2003 respectively. In autumn and winter season, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 2nd and 7th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 507.03 ± 33.61 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 2141.05 ± 90.10 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2008 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 1st lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 3/4 crossbred level, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was279.31 ± 8.33 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 5th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 3/4 and 15/16 crossbred level, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 238.64 ± 33.93 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 5th and 11th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1624,T] (1).

415. Qualitative Comparison Of Yoghurt Prepared From Conventional And Probiotic Culture

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Mr. Muhammad Junaid | Mr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1626,T] (1).

416. A Case Control Study To Determine The Risk Factors Of Tuberculosis In Dairy Animals In Peshawar City And Its Suburbs

by Atta Ullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is chronic infectious disease of animals and human beings, which is characterized by progressive emaciation, nodules formation in lungs and involvement of local lymph nodes. Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium species and it is endemic in Pakistan. In the world ranking regarding tuberculosis patients, Pakistan is on 6th position. A case control study was conducted in Peshawar city and its suburbs in order to determine the risk factors of tuberculosis in dairy animals. Prevalence of tuberculosis in dairy animals recorded in this study was 18.27%. A total of 750 dairy animals were included in the study in which 250 were positive cases and 500 were controls on the basis of tuberculin skin test. Controls were divided into two groups, group 1(animals above 1 year of age) group 2(animals under 1 year of age). All these animals were selected from civil veterinary hospital Peshawar and veterinary teaching hospital (University of Agriculture Peshawar); and villages located on ring road of Peshawar city. Data was collected from the owner on pre designed questionnaire to determine different risk factors associated with tuberculosis and it was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0. The calculated odds ratio in descending order were 2.70 for rotational grazing practice, 2.52 for keeping donkey with dairy animals, 2.22 for not having own bull for breeding, 2.05 for keeping animals inside the shed at night, 2.02 for living in rural geographical environment, 1.87 for low socio-economic status, 1.65 for not using tap water, 1.59 for herd size more than 16-30 animals, 1.47 for non lactating animals, 1.47 for illiterate owners, 1.42 for contact with wild animals, 1.30 for keeping old animals within the herd, 1.25 for using fertilizer on crops that offer to animals, 1.22 for cattle, 1.17 for dung disposal weekly and 0.45 for deworming practice in dairy animals. Odds ratio more than 1 was considered being a risk factor while less than 1 was being considered as a health promoting factor. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Tuberculosis is disease of zoonotic importance, and its incidence increasing day by day both in humans and animals. Therefore further research is the need of time to control and eradicate this disease globally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1627,T] (1).

417. Epidemiological Investigation About The Risk Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Outbreaks During Period Of 2011-2012 in commercial broilers in Lahore.

by Rubab Maqsood | Prof. Dr. Athar Khan | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The poultry sector is one of the most systematized and vibrant divisions of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. The poultry sector has shown a vigorous growth of 8 to 10 percent annually, which reveals its distinctive potentialNewcastle disease, is an acute, contagious rapidly spreading viral disease of domestic poultry and wild bird of all ages with mortality up to 100% in the infected flocks. It is caused by avian Paramyxovirus serotype-I. This disease is major restraint to attain acceptable production levels in commercial broiler. In Pakistan ND is commonly reported disease in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks. In the current study risk factors which were associated with the outbreak of Newcastle Disease regarding farm practices were identified and recommendations can be given for the control of ND on the basis of comparing current and previous (2011-2012) farm practices in environmentally controlled commercial broiler houses. The results of this study are applicable on all the commercial broiler population which is being reared in environmentally controlled houses in Lahore District.Number of environmentally controlled houses was 128 environmentally control sheds in Lahore District. But only 96 farm managers guven consent for the visit of their farm so the sample was n= 96 environmentally controlled houses. Sampling unit was one environmentally controlled house. A questionnaire was developed about the risk factors which were considered to be associated with ND outbreak. A total n= 96 Environmentally controlled houses of commercial broiler affected and not affected by the ND outbreaks in and around Lahore District were selected with the help of convenient sampling method and their owner/manager were interviewed face to face and information was also collected from the farm record. Out of 96 ECH(Environmentally Controlled Houses) of commercial broiler 79 suffered from newcastle disease outbreak while only 17 ECH were non-infected during period of 2011-2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and odds ratio was calculated for the studied and supposed risk factors. Distance between farms less than 5Km, feed transporting vehicle, method of dead infected birds' disposal and type of labor on the farms were found as risk factors for the newcastle disease out breaks. Water quality, biosecurity, feed storage method, heat source used, farms managers, litter disposal methods showed a negative association with the spread of disease. E. coli and salmonella infection were mostly observed as secondary infections among the ND affected flocks. Avian influenza showed an association with newcastle disease. Infectious bursal disease and hydro pericardium syndrome showed no association with ND epidemics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1628,T] (1).

418. Physicochemical Factors Affecting Infectivity Of Pesti Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Kinza Khan | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Mutti-ur-Rehma.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1636,T] (1).

419. Detection of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Gene Polymorphism in Native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck Chicken Breeds in Pakistan.

by Asad Ali | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Growth traits in chicken production system have an important role. Molecular analysis is an easier mean to identify desirable genotypes for growth. Candidate gene (s) for growth trait like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has imperative function for growth, body composition, metabolic and skeletal traits. The polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-1 was detected in native Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck chicken breeds of Pakistan. Fifty, fifty birds of Aseel and Naked Neck breed were selected from Indigenous chicken genetic resource center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore, Ravi Campus. While Desi birds were procured from conventional production farm for genetic analysis. Insulin-like growth factor-1 plays very important role in the cell growth, cell differentiation, food intake of cells and have role in overall body growth, this is why it is being used as a marker to study traits like growth. The polymorphism of IGF-I gene was detected by PCR-RFLP-Pst-Iand this revealed two alleles A (364 and 257 bp), B (621 bp),and three genotypes AA, AB, BB.Genotypic data was analyzed with the help of Pop-gene 1.32 software to calculate genotypic and allelic frequencies. GenotypeAB had the highest frequency in all three native breeds. Genotypic frequency of AA, AB and BB in Aseel was 20, 66 and 14% and in Desi it was 12, 64 and 24 % respectively. While in Naked Neck genotypic frequencies of AA, AB and BB were 18, 60 and 22 %. The highest frequency of allele A (0.53) was found in Aseel while highest frequency of Allele B (0.56) was found in Desi. Genotypic frequency of heterozygotes was highest in all three native breeds i.e. 66, 64 and 60 % in Aseel, Desi and Naked Neck respectively. As the frequency of heterozygotes is significantly higher in all three breeds, so all these native breeds have potential to improve through selection.Furtherstudies are needed to link these polymorphisms with performance traits and then using that information in future breeding plans for high producing individuals would be very helpful for animal breeder in marker assisted selection (MAS). As Aseel carried highest frequency of allele A so, it can be reared for selective breeding program especially for meat type line development in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1637,T] (1).

420. Identification Of Polymorphisms In 6Th & 7Th Exons Of "Parkin Gene" And Their Relationship With Parkinson'S Disease.

by Sadaf Niaz | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Aif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1638,T] (1).

421. Assessment Of Tanneries Based Heavy Metals In Fish, Water & Sediment Of River Sutlej (Near Kasur)

by Usman Atique | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1640,T] (1).

422. Clinicopathological Study Of Theileriosis In Naturally Infected Sheep

by Muhammad Waseem Akhter | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Habib.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Theleiriosis in sheep is an important infectious disease of small ruminants characterized by General weakness, weight loss, anorexia, elevated body temperature, petechial hemorrhages on conjunctival mucosa, swollen lymph nodes, anemia and cough. Changes in hematological, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters are good indicators for diagnosis of theileriosis. For this purpose a total of 100 blood samples from infected sheep as well as 50 blood samples from healthy sheep were collected on the basis of clinical examination and peripheral blood smears from different farms in and around Lahore. The collected samples were processed at Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore. Hematological parameters were measured by automatic hematology analyzer & serum biochemical parameters were measured by using commercial kits by colorimetric methods using spectrophotometer. Histopathological changes were observed by making slides of tissue samples, and observed under microscope. Molecular confirmation of Theleria sp. was done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Finally the data obtained for hematological and serum biochemical parameters were analyzed by using Student's t test. Previous studies on serum biochemical parameters and hematological parameters were mostly done in large ruminants. But there is little investigation available on the biochemical and hematological alterations of theileriosis in small ruminants. In this study blood samples taken from sheep were examined under microscope by making thin blood smears using Giemsa stain. Theileria piroplasms were seen in RBCs at 100x. Blood samples were also processed for PCR test. In all Theileria ovis positive samples 520-bp fragment was generated on gel by using primers TSsr 170F and TSsr 670R for sheep. All samples positive on microscopy were also positive by PCR. This study provides the base line data for molecular diagnosis of Theileria ovis in sheep in Pakistan. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the sheep naturally infected with theileriosis while healthy sheep were selected as control. Hematological findings revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, WBC count, Hb Conc. and PCV in infected animals as compared with healthy animals. Serum biochemical findings also revealed alterations in activities of enzymes and plasma proteins. A significant decrease in total proteins, albumin, glucose and creatinin and triglycerides was observed while significant increase (P<0.05) in ALT, AST, bilirubin was observed in affected animals as compared with healthy animals. A non significant increase in urea and cholesterol concentration was also observed in infected animals as compared to healthy animals. Different tissues were examined to study gross and histopathological changes. Liver was large, pale and friable. Prescapular lymph nodes were swollen and spleenomegaly was also seen. Kidney showed hemorrhagic spots and some were mottled. Histological examination of the lymph nodes revealed edema, widened intercellular spaces, parenchyma degeneration, massive lympholysis, widened sinuses at some areas and macrophages. Splenic nodules were sparse, diminished in size and lymphocyte depletion in follicles was prominent.In liver, mild infiltration of leukocytes around blood vessels, vacuolation in hepatocytes, increase in sinusoidal space and atrophy of hepatic cord was seen and hepatic cord was broken. In kidney, degeneration of tubular epithelium cells was seen. This study concluded that theileriosis in sheep was associated with some alterations in blood parameters and histopathological changes which could be useful in the diagnosis of ovine theileriosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1642,T] (1).

423. Mutational Analysis Of Parkin Gene And Its Association Eith Parkinson'S Disease

by Misbah Hussain | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Miss. Asma | Miss. Saeeda Kalsoom.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which dopamine neurons are lost in sabstantia nigra. It is second most prevalent disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD is also referred as movement disorder because its main characteristics are movement related like rigidity, slowness of movement and resting tremors which are caused by the loss of dopamine in putamen specially its caudal portion Lots of work has been done on PD but still actual mechanism of its progression is unknown. Scientists have declared genetic mutations, oxidative stress, pesticide exposure, high caloric food etc as causative agents for PD. There are 6 genes which are responsible for PD. Mutations in the parkin gene produce Early Onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) in 50-60% of patients. parkin gene encodes for Parkin protein which consist of 4 domains (UBL, RING1, IBR, RING2). UBL domain is involved in the interaction with substrates. While the other 3 domains helps in interaction with E2 Ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme. Most frequent mutations in this gene are the point mutations. 2nd exon of parkin gene is considered as one of the hotspot for mutations. First three exons code for Ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, which help in the attachment with substrates like Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome. Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome binds with Arginine at position 42 located in UBL domain of parkin. This 26S proteasome degrade the unfolded proteins into short peptides of 7-8 amino acids in length, which are then further degraded in shorter fragments which are then used in the formation of new proteins. In current study, I have done mutational analysis of parkin gene and found one very important noval point mutation which is a transition C'T mutation in UBL domain, which results in the amino acid substitution Arginine' Cysteine at position 42 (location where Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasome binds). Arginine and Cysteine are biochemically different in nature and in the classification based on R group they belongs to different groups. Arginine is a polar positive amino acid while Cysteine is polar uncharged and contain sulfur molecule. So, this amino acid change could result in the decreased or no attachment of 26S proteasome (catalyzes protein degradation) via its Rpn10 subunit which selectively binds with the poly-ubiquitin chain of damaged proteins. So, this decreased attachment inhibits the degradation of misfolded and defected protein in the cytosol. In result of this inhibition these defected proteins will start gathering and form aggregates within the cytosol of cell it will eventually decrease cell's function and cell will start dying. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1643,T] (1).

424. Determination Of Various Physiological Indices In Dogs Induced By Antipiroplasm Drug

by Tanzila Bashir | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1644,T] (1).

425. Assessment Of Parasitological Contamination Of Fresh Ad Dry Fruits In Lahore

by Muhammad Anis Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Azar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Fruits are important part of human diet. Eating unwashed fruits is common in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on fruits collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of fruits: Guava, Apple, Sapodilla, Sweetsop, Strawberry and dry fruits: Apricot, Date, Persimmon, Fig and Raisins were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each fruit and a total of 500 samples were taken for the study. Hundred gram of each fruit was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of fruits revealed nine genera of parasites. All fruits were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 35.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris found to be the highest (36%), followed by Trichuris (14.3%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(11.9%), while the least common parasite was Fasciola (2.9%). Fruits are the source of parasitic infestation. The most contaminated fresh fruit was strawberry (54%) followed by guava (48%). Whereas the least contaminated fresh fruits was sweetsop (22%). The most contaminated dry fruits was fig (46%) followed by date (38%). whereas the least contaminated dry fruits was (20%). The results indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of unwashed fruits. Conclusions: Strong efforts should be made to prevent contamination of fruits and vegetables during production, transport, processing and handling, much improvement is still needed in our country if hygienic production of fruits and vegetables is to be ensured. This study provides an overview of the hazards associated with eating contaminated fruits. Parasitic infections like Cryptosporidiosis can be acquired by people if orchards or water sources near cow pastures become contaminated from infected cows and people consume the fruit without proper washing. The study needs to be carried out in other areas of Pakistan and more fresh and dry fruits should be included in the study. Information regarding the contamination of the fruits should be published in the national newspapers because awareness of the public is very important for the control of these contaminations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1645,T] (1).

426. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Biochemistry And Immune Response Of Broilers Under Two Rearing Systems Withinthree Different Housing Zones

by Khalid Bilal | Mr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1647,T] (1).

427. A Study On Variable Degrees Of Angles In Z-Plasty Technique To Evaluate Extent Of Relaxation Of Contracted Skin

by Muhammad Asif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1648,T] (1).

428. Community Trials Of Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccines In District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1649,T] (1).

429. Efficacy Of Composted Poultry Litter/Dead Birds In Broiler Quail Rations

by Shoukat Ali | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1650,T] (1).

430. Identification Of Ticks And Tick Bornehemoparasitic Diseases In Equines Of District Lahore.

by Khadija Javed | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1651,T] (1).

431. Effect of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) on the Follicular Dynamics, Estrus Eepression, Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Control Internal Drug Release (CIDR) Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol in NIli-Ravi Buffalo.

by Muhammad Ilyas Naveed | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is unique to livestock and dairy industry in Pakistan as its share is major (65%) in milk production major. Reproduction is crucial for profitable production in dairy sector. Buffalo reproduction is hampered due to small size ovaries, poor ovarian reserves, and less pronounced estrus intensity, ultimately leading to substandard fertility. Synchronization technology including CIDR based protocols are well established in cows and gaining popularity in buffaloes. However, this needs modifications based on estrous cycle physiology in buffaloes. It is hypothesized that addition of eCG at the time inducing luteolysis in CIDR based synchronization protocol will promote follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of addition of eCG to a CIDR based synchronization protocol on ovarian follicular dynamics, estrus rate, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Lactating multiparous suckled Nili-Ravi buffalo (n=63) milked twice daily were assigned in a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone Pfizer Co, USA) synchronization regimen. Animals were divided randomly to receive either saline (n=31) or 1000 IU eCG i.m. (n=32) (Chronogest PMSG, Intervet, Holland) concurrent with PGF2á (Dalmazine, cloprostenol, Fatro, Italy) treatment of the CIDR protocol (Day 6). Fixed time, two inseminations were performed at 48 and 60 hours after CIDR removal (Day 7). Number of follicles of variable size recruited at CIDR removal, dominant follicle size, its growth rate and ovulation time did not differ significantly between the groups. The estrus response was not higher significantly (P>0.14) in eCG group than control group but estrus intensity was significantly higher (P>0.001) in eCG group. Ovulation rate and 26 pregnancy per AI was higher (P>0.05 & 0.004) in buffaloes in eCG group. Therefore, It is concluded that eCG is helpful to improve estrus expression, ovulation rate and pregnancy per AI in FTAI program in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1653,T] (1).

432. Oxidative Stabilization Of Butter Oil (Enriched With Iron) By Natural Nanti-Oxidant

by Ikramullah | dr. Imran Javed | Mr. Ishtiaque Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The chief purpose of this study was developed to check the natural antioxidant prospective of sesame oil against oxidation of iron fortified butter oil during storage period by using different concentrations and to investigate oxidative stability. Sesame oil and turmeric powder was used as natural antioxidants and was augmented in butter oil at 3 different levels i.e. 5%, 10% and 15% of sesame oil and 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% of turmeric powder in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. These three treatments were matched with control T0 which did not contain any antioxidant. Butter oil was procured having 0.27% moisture. Then the antioxidants were augmented and mixed thoroughly and stored at 40 0C in an incubation lab up to 90 days. After that all the four treatments were analyzed to check the oxidative stability by using chemical parameters like POV, FFA, TBA, Shaal oven test and rancidity at zero day and after every 1 month of storage period up to 3 months. The oxidation of iron fortified butter oil reduces their shelf life. These natural antioxidants are effective against oxidation. Due to this reason, a number of legislations of the world are emphasizing on the use of these natural antioxidants. Also at the international level there is emphasis on the use of natural sources of antioxidants to reduce the oxidation problems in food fat. The Sesame oil was incorporated in the iron (Iron sulfate) fortified butter oil. To check oxidation, peroxide value, TBA value and FFA etc. were used as a tool to determine the oxidative stability. During the storage period, prepared samples were also evaluated to check their sensory attributes. The data collected was analyzed using two way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques. In Pakistan, a very little work has been done to check the potential of natural sources of anti-oxidants for the oxidative stabilization of fat based dairy products. This study will be highly helpful to explore the potential of natural plant source antioxidants against oxidative stabilization of butter oil. Fortified butter oil can also be further used to develop value added dairy products. In addition, we are able to generate an inventory for the replacement of health hazardous synthetic anti-oxidants by natural sources of plant anti-oxidants. That was a very positive exploitation of indigenous sources which can even be used as a reference in future to control the oxidation of fat based dairy products. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1654,T] (1).

433. Evaluation Of Immunomodulatory Activity Of Meloxicam In Mice.

by Ghulam Fatima | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity of meloxicam was evaluated. For the evaluation of effect of meloxicam on cellular immunity the delayed type hypersensitivity assay (DTH) and cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay were performed while for humoral immunity haemagglutination assay and mice lethality test was performed. In each assay 15 mice were used, all mice were divided into 3 groups, each group was consist of 5 mice. Two groups were treated with two different doses of meloxicam (5mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) and the one group (control group) was only being administered with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally. In DTH assay, 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg meloxicam treated groups of mice showed a significant reduction in skin thickness ( P<0.05) as compared to control group at 24hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after the challenging dose of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). In cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia assay meloxicam at 10mg/kg showed a significant percentage of reduction in total leukocytes (TLC) and two types of differential leukocytes (DLC i.e lymphocytes, and neutrophils except monocytes). This significant reduction was less in 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group which in turn was less than the control group. In addition, it was observed a dose dependent reduction response in haemagglutination (HA) titre. The order of reduction in HA titre was 10mg/kg meloxicam treated group > 5mg/kg meloxicam treated group > the control group. The mortality ratio of mice in the control group, 5mg/kg meloxicam and 10 mg/kg meloxicam treated groups was 20%, 80% and 100% respectively. All the results of present study suggest that meloxicam has suppressive effect on cellular as well as on humoral component of immune system. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1656,T] (1).

434. Effect Of Mineral Variation In Soil, Water, Fodder And Serum On Reproductive Efficiency Of Buffaloes

by Muhammad Binyameen | Dr. Mian Abdul Satter | Prof. Dr. Khalid | Prof. Dr. Nasim ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This was the first study in which maximum parameters were covered to see the effect of mineral variation in canal water, drinking water, soil and fodder on blood serum. This study was conducted at canal water, drinking water, soil, fodder (Berseem), and blood samples from different groups of buffaloes at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey Distt. Kasur. The objectives of these samplings were to find out the concentration of calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus in the different types of samples and also to find out the effect of mineral variation on reproductive efficiency of buffaloes. All the sample collection was carried out on standard basis. Analyses of water and soil were performed at Agriculture Soil and Fertility Center (Thokar Niaz Baig) Lahore. To overcome variations, water sample used for drinking of buffaloes and for irrigation of soil were collected and checked separately. Soil samples were taken from same places at different depths from where fodder was coming. Samples of soil were collected between 0-18 inches up to where roots of fodder can penetrate. The soil was highly deficient in phosphorus. Fodder (Berseem) samples were checked at the start of December and at the end of March. The values of minerals were significantly (P < 0.05) low in fodder (Berseem) at the end of March because Trifolium alxendrium was at ripening stage. The history of animal reproductive status was confirmed by Honda ultrasound at 2.5 Mega Hertz. Serum minerals profile was analyzed at Buffalo Research Institute (Pattoki). All the animals were lactating excluding heifers. Blood serum of all buffaloes in this study was analyzed twice at the interval of two months to check the variation. The levels of minerals were non-significant (P > 0.05) among the groups but were significant (P < 0.05) between the groups at the start of December and at the end of March. Overall calcium was low in anestrus heifers. The calcium level was in blood serum low at the end of March. The level of magnesium were significantly (P < 0.05) different between canal and drinking water. Magnesium was non-significant (P > 0.05) in soil at different depths and similarly in fodder (Berseem) at start of December and at the end of March. Magnesium was significantly (P < 0.05) different in blood serum at start and end of March between the groups. Level of magnesium was low in normal cycling and repeat breeder buffaloes. Inorganic phosphorus was non-significant (P > 0.05) among water, soil, fodder (Berseem) and blood serum and concentration of inorganic phosphorus was low in non cycling buffaloes. Deficiency of minerals in soil, and drinking water was significantly (P < 0.05) contributing its effect on fodder. Anestrus heifers had lower Ca: P ratio among the buffaloes groups. All the results were analyzed through Independent sample T test. To observe the relationship between mineral profile of soil, water, fodder and serum of buffaloes Correlation Coefficient and multiple regression was applied. To compare difference between mineral profiles of 4 groups in buffaloes serum ANOVA was applied (Steel et al, 1997). Difference between means compared through DMR (Duncan. 1955) by using SPSS version 13. It was concluded from this study inorganic phosphorus is required to soil of Distt. Kasur. Mineral mixture rich in calcium required to anestrus heifers and Ca: P ratio was low in this group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1658,T] (1).

435. Vector Biology Of Aedes And Culex And Their Role In Dissemination Of Dengue Virus

by Syed Shakeel Shah | Prof. Dr. Azar Maqbool | Dr. Aftan A | Dr. Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1659,T] (1).

436. To Investigate The Effects Of Heavy Metals Toxicity On Vital Organs Of Rohu (Labeo Rohita)

by Ghina Islam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Muhammad Hafeez-ur-rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: At the time of collection of samples Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Conductivity and pH were determined (YSI Digital meters) of selected sites for any possible relationship between water quality parameters, heavy metal concentrations and their effects on fish body. Fish from the selected water bodies was blotted dry and then weighed individually. After wet digestion of the sampled fish, the volume was prepared for the determination of heavy metals viz. chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and manganese. Samples for histological studies were collected on monthly basis. Slides were prepared. The results of this study provided valuable information on the metal contents in fish from different sampling stations. Fish from Balloki Headworks exhibited the highest tendency of accumulation of cadmium, lead and chromium in liver and intestine while it was the minimum in fish collected from controlled fish ponds from Ravi Campus Pattoki. Accumulation of these metals was, however, the minimum in fish muscle collected both from Fish ponds Pattoki and Balloki Headworks. The present situation can be considerably improved by taking effective measures such as better cleaning of waste water from the industrial enterprises and urban agglomeration as well as by installing new waste water treatment plants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1660,T] (1).

437. Comparative Efficacy Of Hand Sanitizers And Liquid Soaps Against Commonly Encountered Microbes On The Experimentally Contaminated Palm Surfaces

by Taiba Tahir | Dr.Jawad Nazir | Prof Dr | Prof Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Hand hygiene plays a key role in the prevention, control and reduction of many communicable infections as contaminated hands are the major source of transmission for microbes. Three categories of hand hygiene products; hand sanitizers (Safeguard, Dettol, and Cool & Cool hand sanitizers), antibacterial soaps (Safeguard, Dettol, and Lifebuoy liquid soaps) and plain soaps (Lux, Capri, and Pears liquid soaps) were evaluated against five bacterial cultures (E. coli, K. pneumonia, Salmonella. spp, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa) for their antibacterial activity through in vivo and in vitro techniques. In vivo testing was performed through palmar surface contamination techniques. Palm surfaces of volunteers' hands were artificially contaminated followed by recovery of the bacteria through glove juice method both before and after the application of product for 30 seconds. Each of the experiment repeated thrice and means log reduction (MLR) in the bacterial count after the application of each product was calculated. In vitro efficacy of hand hygiene products was carried out through calculation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and phenol coefficient values. MLR values of the sanitizers were ranged from 2.0 - 5.5 log10 CFU/ml, while that of antibacterial and plain soaps were 3.0 - 4.1 and 3.0 - 4.6 log10 CFU/ml. MIC values for the sanitizers, antibacterial, and plain soaps were ranged from 1:10 - 1:40, 1:6 - 1:20, and 1:2 - 1:8 against all of the 5 bacteria. Hand sanitizers were proved to be superior to medicated and plain soaps during in vivo and in vitro testing. Both of the antibacterial and plain soaps were equally effective in reducing bacterial load on the contaminated hands because during hand washing procedure mechanical removal of contaminants through surfactant activity of soaps is mostly responsible for the removal of bacteria. While a relatively higher MIC values of the antibacterial soaps were attributed to the presence of certain antibacterial agents in them. It was not possible to calculate the phenol coefficient values for any of the hand hygiene product because even least dilutions (1:2) of the products did not stop the bacterial growth. Present study emphasizes the suitability of using hand sanitizers in health care centers as well as in routine life. Because of comparable efficacy of medicated and plain soaps, excessive use of antibacterial soaps should be avoided due to risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1662,T] (1).

438. Prevalence, Identification And Pathogenesis Of Clostridium Chauvoei In Cattle And Buffaloes In Punjab

by Muhammad Asif Idress | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In the first phase of the project, the sampling of diseased animals presumably affected by Black quarter was carried out from six districts of Punjab belonging to three different zones. Around two hundred and fifty samples from each zone were collected and were subjected to bacterial culturing and isolation procedures followed by biochemical identification mechanism. The prevalence of Black quarter in Cattle and buffaloes were thus calculated for each district and zone. Highest prevalence of BQ in Zone II was observed (27.2%) for cattle while in case of Buffaloes highest prevalence (3.2%) was noted in Zone I. similarly higher Prevalence of BQ was noted in 1st quarter of year for Zone I followed by zone II and III while 2nd quarter of season was showing higher prevalence of BQ in zone II and III. During 2nd phase of experiment tissue samples were inoculated in RCM and blood agar for the re-isolation of C. chauvoei, identified on the basis of colony characteristics and later on subjected to biochemical tests for the confirmation of the isolated organism. Then it was further confirmed through Polymerase chain Reaction for the identification of the causative agent i.e. C. Chauvoei on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Another set of primers corresponding to alpha toxin gene sequence of C. chauvoeui was also used which strengthened the belief that this strain of C. chauvoei possessed alpha toxin producing ability. During third phase of project blood samples collected were subjected to hematological estimation for buffaloes and cattle having confirmed as BQ This study revealed significant effect on RBC's count and white blood cells count (P<0.05), while Differential leukocyte count were also showing significant different as compared to Non-infected (P< 0.05). Serum samples were tested for the change in levels of different enzymes. It was found that blood-glucose level and ALT levels were not significantly higher (P>0.05) when compared with control values, Values of AST, CPK and LDH were found significantly higher (P< 0.05) in all infected animals. Histopathology of affected muscle tissues of both cattle and buffaloes was done to study microscopic changes in the muscle fibers and surrounding tissues. Lesions were somehow disappointing as compared to the magnitude of gross lesions. There were segmental degeneration, Zenker necrosis, discrete edema, occasional neutrophils and emphysema in affected muscle. Finally, alpha toxin (hemolysin) in culture supernatant of RCM broth was titrated against 2% washed RBC's of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, chicken, rabbit and mice to study the hemolytic activity of the toxin. It was found that highest percentage of hemolysis was observed in mice followed by cattle, sheep, buffalo, chicken and rabbit respectively at 25°C. Higher the dilution of toxin, lower the extent of hemolysis. At 37°C variable results were obtained. It showed the biological activity of alpha toxin is also temperature dependant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1664,T] (1).

439. Evaluation Of Cytotoxicity And Antiviral Activity Of Moxidectin Against Influenza Virus H9

by Rabia Hameed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab anjum | Mr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1665,T] (1).

440. Gender Differentiation From Fingerprint Ridge Count In Pakistani Population

by Ahmed Fayyaz | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In forensic science, fingerprinting has been used for decades as an efficient tool for identification of persons linked to an illegal activity or a crime scene. Different methods for the development and analysis of the latent fingerprints have been introduced including optical, physical and chemical methods. Each method has its own importance in the development and examination of the latent prints, which are invisible to naked eye before the application of fingerprint development methods. A lot of work has been published worldwide regarding fingerprinting. It was also reported that there is a significant difference in the ridge density of males and females. Ridge count might be helpful in the gender differentiation in Pakistani population. Patent prints of 100 males and 100 females were taken on A4 size paper or card paper using pelikan black inkpad and analysis was done with the help of 10x magnification lens. The ridges were counted diagonally within a square of 5mm x 5mm. This value depicts the number of ridges per 25 mm2. Results were analyzed by using Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results of this study are used as a helpful tool for forensic expert and law enforcement. It reveals that females have finer epidermal ridge detail than males. The degree of ridge density is used as presumptive indicator of gender of unknown print left at a crime scene. First we qualitatively examine if prints appear coarse or fine and then by quickly quantifying ridge density or ridge count in a manner similar to method described in this study. The outcomes of this study will be helpful in exoneration of innocents in different crimes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1668,T] (1).

441. Impact Of Dietary Habits, Lifestyle Practices And Preventive Health Care Services On Nutritional Status Of Females of Reproductive Age of Rural Areas in Selected Districts of Punjab

by Rabia Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was designed to describe the nutritional status of females of reproductive age years from the rural areas of selected districts of Punjab. For this purpose the data was collected for 300 females from rural areas of Lahore, Kasur and Okara district. A questionnaire was established for collecting the data along with that 24 hours dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire were also been established to assess the nutrition status of females in relation to their dietary habits as well as in relation to their life style. The data was analyzed by cross tabs using SPSS version 20.0. The results of the study showed the significant variations among the districts, age group, marital status,and appetite and food adequacy in relation to their BMI. The impact of socioeconomic status, education level, blood sugar level, menstrual cycle and family setup were insignificant as the p value in all cases was more than 0.05. The females that were receiving adequate food intake were also consuming adequate protein intake. The females of selected age group that were taking adequate food intake were mostly lie in the normal BMI range while that were receiving excessive food intake were mostly overweight as compared to the others that were receiving adequate food intake. Chi square analysis showed the significant difference among the females receiving adequate and inadequate food intake in relation to their BMI as the p value was less than0.05. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1669,T] (1).

442. Immunohistochemical Detection Of Infectious Bronchitis Virus In Different Organs Of Experimentally Infected

by Mudassar Iqbal | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ishtiaq ahmed | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1671,T] (1).

443. The Immunomodulatory Activity Of Flurbiprofen In Mice.

by Maaz Bin Nasim | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1672,T] (1).

444. Evaluation Of Comparatrive Effect Of Zinc Bacitracin, Mannan Oligosaccharides And Lactobacillus On Broiler Performance, Gross Measurements of Major Organs an Intestinal Histomorphometry

by Rabia Tamkeen | Dr. Saima Masood | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1673,T] (1).

445. Detection And Quantification Of Dna From Saaliva From Cigarette Butts In Different Genders

by Qurra-tul-Aien | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1675,T] (1).

446. Response Of Dietary Yeast Supplementation In Chronic Heat Stressed Broilers On Growth Performance and Organs Development

by Islam Zeb Khan | Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousuf | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1676,T] (1).

447. Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Four Close-Bred Stocks Of Japanese Quail Reared Under Different Dietary Levels of Lysine

by Abdul Samad Haidary | Mr. Jibran Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1677,T] (1).

448. Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Molecular Diagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosisin Bovine

by Sabiqaa Masood | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aftab | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Choudhry.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is an important parasitic infection of cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep, horses, cats, human beings and other vertebrates. Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected animals and human beings carried out on the basis of microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis determined on the basis of conventional identification method was highest in calves (23.1) followed by cattle (10.5) and buffaloes (8.47). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in calves, cattle and buffaloes was higher at Government dairy farm (38.33, 20.55 and 16.66) followed by Gawala colonies (26.1, 12.77 and 9.44), Military dairy farm (18.3, 6.11 and 4.44) and then House hold dairies (10, 3.88 and 3.34). Percent prevalence recorded in calves having age less than six months was higher (26.45) than those with 7-12 months of age (16.6). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle having age of 2-3 years was higher than those cattle having 3-7 years of age. Similarly, infection rate was higher in buffaloes with 2-3 years age (11.8) than 3-7 years (9.8). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female calves was higher (24.04) than male calves (18.2). Percent prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts observed in feces of male cattle was little higher (11.25) than female cattle (10.4). Cryptosporidiosis percent prevalence recorded in female buffaloes was higher (13.3) than male buffaloes (8.3). The data was analyzed monthly for the purpose to trace out the specific period of the year having the highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection. The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in fecal samples of calves was during summer (27.5) followed by autumn (25.8), spring (20.3) and the lowest in winter season (14.5). Overall the highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in cattle recorded was during summer (15), followed by spring/autumn (10.88) and the lowest in winter (6.6%). The highest percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis recorded in buffaloes was during summer (12) followed by autumn (20), spring (7.5) and the lowest in winter season (4.5). In human beings patients suffering from diarrhea were examined by microscopy and percent prevalence calculated was 40 in present study. Molecular percent prevalence rate determined was 12.22 in cattle. Percent prevalence recorded using PCR was the highest at Government dairy farm (22.7), followed by Gawala colonies (14.41), Military dairy farm (7.7) and the lowest at House hold dairies (5). The highest season wise percent molecular prevalence was observed during summer (16.6) followed by autumn/spring (13.3), the lowest in winter (7.7). The higher molecular percent prevalence in young cattle (2-3 years) was higher (23.7) than those having age between 3-7 years (10.7). Molecular percent prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in selected cattle was lower in females (13.6) than males (15). The efficacy of albendazole observed was 43.05, 58.7 and 64.6 percents on 13th, 20th and 27th day post treatment. The efficacy of albendazole determined on this dose was 34.8, 57.1 and 62.9 percents on days 13, 20 and 27 post therapy. Efficacy of drug calculated on days 13, 20 and 27 was 32.8, 53.3 and 56.6 percent, respectively. Percent efficacy of used drug was 55.04, 68.5 and 79.4 on days 13, 20 and 27 post treatment, respectively. At 50mg/kg body weight dose rate of paromomycin significant decrease in OPG count was recorded from 6th day post treatment and onward (P<0.05). On days 13, 20 and 27 percent efficacy of used drug determined was 48.1, 65 and 69, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1678,T] (1).

449. Phenotypic Characterization Of Two Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes Of Pakistan

by Amjad Iqbal | Dr. Afzal Ali | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry is the second largest industry of Pakistan and a significant proportion of poultry products (meat and eggs) originates from the rural poultry production system which is an important source of livelihood for about 80% of the rural households in Pakistan. The quest for greater production through the use of exotic breeds has created difficulties for backyard production systems and is dangerous on economic, social and scientific grounds. This practice is also resulting in rapid erosion of indigenous genetic resources. The commercial sector itself may require access to indigenous genotypes as its genetic base is quite narrow and for catering the future needs industry may require improvement in many other characteristics (for instance, adaptability and disease resistance) in addition to just egg and meat yield enhancement. Unfortunately, in many countries the indigenous breeds have not been studied for their potential uses and benefits and have been indiscriminately cross bred with exotic breeds. Therefore, it is crucial to study and characterize the indigenous breeds and generate necessary information to be used in future to reap maximum benefits. The generated knowledge would provide useful information essential for conservation of indigenous genetic resources. The knowledge about the morphological attributes of native chickens has not been adequately documented on technical and scientific grounds. Keeping this in view the present study was planned and data on qualitative and quantitative traits regarding the morphology were collected on Aseel and Naked-neck chickens using a specially designed performa.All recorded data were entered in MS Excel 2010 spreadsheets. The qualitative parameters were expressed as percentages and quantitative parameters were expressed as mean ± standard error. A great variation in plumage colors and patterns was observed in both Aseel and Naked-neck chickens. The Aseel chickens possessed a pea comb whereas Naked-neck chickens possessed single comb. Also it was interesting to note that about 10% of Aseel hens possessed spurs however spurs were absent in Naked-neck females. On the basis of quantitative traits,it was found that the Naked neck chickens were smaller in size than the Aseel chickens regarding body weight (Aseel: 1938.7±36.9 g in females and 2317±98.4 g in males; Naked neck: 1160.4±19.3 g in females and 1415±22.2 in males), shank length (Aseel: 8.1±0.1 cm in females and 10.3±0.1 cm in males; Naked neck: 7.5±0.05 cm in females and 8.6±0.1 cm in males), shank circumference (Aseel: 44.2±0.5 mm in females and 52.4±1.1 mm in males; Naked neck: 36.5±0.7 mm in females and 41.4±0.5 mm in males), and keel length (Aseel: 15.1±0.1 cm in females and 16.0±0.2 cm in males; Naked-neck: 14.1±0.2 cm in females and 14.7±0.1 cm in males). The information about indigenous Aseel and Naked-neck chickens documented in the present study can be used as reference in future for conservation and breed improvement programs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1679,T] (1).

450. Prevalence And Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Different Isolates Of Hydatid Cyst In Ruminants In Okara

by Ali Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cystic hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution. Echinococcusis cause great economic loses in Pakistan and lead to the loss of worth 276.20$ per 100 sheep and goats, as well as 165.72$ per 100 infected buffaloes, cattle and camels. It has zoonotic importance and also have well-recognized zoonosis in Pakistan and numerous cases have been reported in the medical literature. Cystic hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, (E. granulosus), tapeworms. Adult tapeworms of this specie are small in size. Their measurement revealed that they reach upto 2-11 mm in length and contain protoscolex, the cephalic end for attchment and 2-5 proglottids segments. Two rows of keratinized hooks and four number of suckers are present on scolex. The last gravid proglottids segments bear the large number of fertilized eggs, which are shed after every 7-14 days. Eggs are oval in shape, having clearly distinct oncophore and 30-36 micrometer in diameter. There are several different strains of E. granulosus, which are genetically distinct. These strains vary phenotypically and therefore, this feature can be used for the control of this parasite. 10 genotypes of E. granulosus are identified up till now. Therefore, in this study we used PCR technique for prevalence determination and molecular characterization of specific strain of E. granulosus. The primers specific for E. granulosus were used in this study. The E.g.ss1for (5¡Ç-GTA TTT TGT AAA GTT GTT CTA-3¡Ç) worked as forward primer, while E.g.ss1rev (5¡Ç-CTA AAT CAC ATC ATC TTA CAA T-3¡Ç) worked as reverse primer. For this purpose, total 200 numbers of cyst samples (100 from each district) were collected from liver and lungs of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep slaughtered at different private and public abattoirs in Okara and Jhang. An antimortem examination was performed on each animal LIV and data regarding each animal entered in data capturing form before slaughter. Whole cyst sample was collected without rupturing and preserved in ice packs. Then these isolates were transferred to laboratory and stored at -20 ¢ªC for further processing. For the genetic analysis of E. granuous (Hydatid cyst) DNA was extracted from germinal layer and cystic fluid by using DNA extraction reagent (TRIREAGENT¢ç, Molecular Research Center, Ohio, USA) according to the manufacturer.s instructions. PCR was carried out by using primers specific for G1 strain of E. granulosus. The whole three steps (Denaturation, Anealing, Amplification) of PCR was carried out in PCR thermo cycler under conditions specific for E. granulosus. The final PCR product was electrophoresed in a 1% agarose gel containing 0.5 ug/ml of ethedium bromide. Electrophoresis was completed by applying 90 volts for 40 min. After required time, gel was placed in UV trans-illuminator to visualize the band shown by specific genotype of E. granulosus. Specific bands at 254 bp confirmed the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Results indicated the prevalence of 37% in Okara and 65% in Jhang district of Punjab. While in cattle (58.00%), buffalo (76.00%), sheep (36.00%) and goats (34.00%) prevalence was observed. As well as, (44.7%) prevalence of E. granulosus was calculated in liver and (54.8%) was observed in lungs in both districts. So, this study predicted the prevalence of hydatid cystic disease in ruminants in Okara and Jhang. PCR technique was used for the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in animals. This molecular characterization technique enables us to know the specific strain of E. granulous existing in these two districts. Finally the data gathered from this study help to understand the disease structure and to develop future plan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1681,T] (1).



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