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451. Comparative Study Of Different Closure Methods And Suture Materials For The Closure Of Jejunal Enterotomy In Dogs

by Farooq Ahmad Ch | Prof. Dr. Muahmmad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1682,T] (1).

452. Isolation And Characterization Of Auxin Producing Bacterial Strains From Plant Rhizosphere

by Kanwal Aziz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Auxins are a class of plant hormones or plant growth substances. Auxins have a cardinal role in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes in the plant. Soil samples were serially diluted and screened for auxin production by Salkowski method. Isolates that have the ability to produce auxin were identified by culture characters, morphology, and bio-chemical profile. From 150 isolates, 04 bacteria were selected (AUX-36, AUX-53, AUX-137, and AUX-142). The bacteria were identified by following the flowcharts described in “Berges Mannual of Determinative Bacteriology”, 9th addition. These isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus marinus respectively. Next, different physical and chemical parameters for growth of bacteria and auxin biosynthesis were optimized. For the optimization of bacterial growth OD values of the culture broth (at wavelength 600nm) was taken by spectrophotometer. To estimate the amount of auxin (ìg/ml) produced in the culture broth; a standard curve (concentration of auxin ìg/ml at x-axis and OD value at y-axis) was prepared by using commercially available auxin. The optimum conditions for growth and auxin production by AUX-36 was found to be pH 7, 0.98% osmotic pressure at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. If the medium is supplemented with 0.1 and 1.0% glucose, sucrose and peptone then it increased the bacterial growth which ultimately increased the auxin concentration in the broth medium. The growth and auxin Production by AUX-53 was 0.98% NaCl concentration at 37 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH was found to be 7 but it showed good growth at acidic as well as alkaline pH. The addition of glucose and sucrose in the growth medium increased the growth as well as auxin production. The optimum conditions for the growth of AUX-137 were as follows: pH=7, 0.98% osmotic pressure, temperature 37 °C. However the isolate had good growth at 28 °C and 2% NaCl concentration as well. The bacterial cell density and auxin increased with incubation time up to 72 hours. The isolate produced highest concentration of auxin under the same conditions. Similarly, the cell density and auxin increased with the increasing concentration of glucose in the growth medium. Sucrose increased the auxin only in the culture filtrate. While the bacteria AUX-142 showed highest growth as well as auxin production at 42 °C after 72 hours of incubation. The optimum pH and osmotic pressure was found to be 7 and 2% respectively. The cell density and concentration of auxin increased with the increasing concentration of peptone in the growth medium. Addition of tryptophan (1-2%) increased the auxin concentration in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Next, the seed germination test and plant pot experiment were performed of selected isolates to observe the effect of bacterial inoculation on wheat plants. In seed germination test treatment of seeds with AUX-36, AUX-53 and AUX-142 significantly increased the root length and number of root hairs as compared to non-treated seeds. In plant pot experiment comparison of various growth parameters of inoculated plants with non-inoculated plants revealed the improvement in plant growth by bacterial inoculation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1684,T] (1).

453. Isolation And Characterization Of Phytase Producing Microrganism From Soil

by Ghazal Aziz | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Phytase is an enzyme of great importance because it is added as a biofertilizer to soil and added in animal feed to increase the uptake of inorganic phosphorous. Phytase production is the property of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that harbor in rhizosphere part of the soil. These phytase producing bacteria can be utilized as biofertilizers as and can increase the soil fertility and crop production. Soil samples were collected and screened for the production of phytase (an extracellular) enzyme on phytase screening media (PSM). Six bacterial isolates (PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30) showed distinguished clear zones (> 6mm) on PSM. Isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei PHY02, Enterobactor intermedius PHY03, Bacillus badius PHY06, Escherichia coli PHY07, Shigella sonnei PHY12, and Klebsiella pneumonia PHY30. Effect of physical parameters (temperatures, pH and osmotic pressure) on growth and enzyme production by selected isolates was determined. Optimum growth and production of phytae by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 (27, 9, 19, 40, 32, and 19 IU, respectively) was at 37°C. PHY07 showed highest enzyme production, followed by PHY30 and PHY02. Isolate PHY06 showed similar growth and enzyme activity at 37°C and 42°C but it was significantly reduced at low temperature. Effect of pH on phytase production on selected isolates indicates that all isolates produces maximum amount of phytase at pH 6.5. At pH 6.5 enzyme units released by PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30, were 26, 15, 19, 41, 19, and 32 IU, respectively. Production of enzyme decreased with the increase in osmotic pressure. PHY02, PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12, and PHY30 showed optimum enzyme production (27, 15, 17, 41, 18, and 32 IU, respectively) at 1 % NaCl in PSM (Figure 1C). Effects of carbon source on both growth and phytase production of isolates showed that PHY03, PHY06, PHY07, PHY12 had significantly higher (P<0.05) cell densities and enzyme production in glucose, while PHY02 and PHY30 had higher enzyme activity at 0.3% lactose. Nitrogen source in growing media also effects the growth and production of enzyme. PHY02 and PHY12 had better growth and production at 0.1% peptone, while PHY07 and PHY30 had significantly higher phytase level in media modified with peptone but at higher concentration (0.3%). Addition of tryptone in growth medium significantly enhanced the growth and enzyme production by PHY03, and PHY06. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1685,T] (1).

454. Toxinotyping And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Isolates From Muttion, Beef and Poultry Meat

by Madiha Khan | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A total of 300 meat samples including chicken, mutton, and beef (100 each) collected from local butcher shops as well as large meat outlets and grocery stores situated in various localities of Lahore were analyzed to determine the level of C. perfringens contamination. The samples were enriched in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM), purified on Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine (TSC) agar that is highly selective media for C. perfringens and were identified by their culture characters, morphology and biochemical profile. C. perfringens was successfully isolated from 12 out of 300 samples with an overall positivity ratio of 4 %. A relatively higher percent prevalence of the C. perfringens was found in meat from local butcher shops (6.66 %) in comparison to the ones collected from the larger meat outlets (1.33 %) where meat is supplied under cold chain management system. Within each meat type a total of 6, 5, and 1 of the samples from chicken, mutton, and beef meat, respectively were found positive for the presence of C. perfringens. Toxinotyping of the positive isolates was performed using commercially available alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins detection ELISA kits. Out of 12 confirmed isolates of C. perfringens only six were found positive for the production of various toxins. Three of the isolates produced alpha toxin and were grouped as type A, one of the isolate produced alpha, beta and epsilon toxin therefore confirmed as type B, one of the isolates produced alpha and beta toxin so belong to type C whereas one of the isolate produced alpha and epsilon toxin so it was grouped as type D while six of the isolates did not produce any toxin. The toxin producing isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against 13 antibiotics commonly employed to treat the foodborne infections. It was observed that most of the antibiotics were effective against C. perfringens exhibiting a wider zone of inhibition around the antibiotic discs. All the six isolates were susceptible to the chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and ceftriaxone. Five out of six isolates were susceptible whereas one of the isolate was classified as intermediate against tetracycline, lincomycin, and cefotaxime. Five isolates were sensitive and one was resistant to erythromycin. Four isolates were susceptible to penicillin and one each was intermediate and resistant to the antibiotic. All of the other drugs were relatively less effective with a least activity of amoxicillin against the isolates. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1686,T] (1).

455. Genotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Metformin And Aspartame Alone And In Combination

by Amna Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1690,T] (1).

456. Evaluation Of Cytotoxicity And Antiviral Activity Of Ivermectin Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Sidra Azeem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Mr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1691,T] (1).

457. Effect of Timing of Artificial Insemination and Ovulation in Relation to Onset of Standing Heat on Pregnancy Rate in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Umair Riaz | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Artificial insemination (AI) is one of the first and most influential biotechnologies of animal agriculture. To be beneficial artificial insemination must be done properly. There are many factors involved in quality of AI performance, including insemination technique, technician, semen quality, cleanliness, etc. However, the single most important factor in achieving high conception rate in buffalo is the timing of AI relative to the timing of ovulation. Application of AI is difficult because of poor estrus expression by buffaloes and poor estrus detection by owners, a highly variable duration of estrus and the difficulty to predict time of ovulation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of A.I at different time intervals (0, 12, 24 hours after the onset of standing heat) in relation to time of ovulation on pregnancy rate in buffalo. For this purpose, buffaloes with average body condition 2.5 ± 0.5 at Livestock Experimental Station Bhuneki, Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki District Kasur during breeding season (September to December) were exposed to teaser bull two times in a day at 12 hours interval (6:00 am in morning and 6:00 pm in evening) to determine the standing heat (0h). Buffaloes, allocated randomly, at different time intervals i.e., either 0, 12 or 24 hours after the onset of standing heat were bred artificially using frozen thawed semen. Trans-rectal ultrasonography (HS 1500V; Honda; Japan, with 7.5 MHz transducer) was used to determine ovarian follicular development and ovulation, from onset of standing heat till ovulation after every 12 hours. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography, 30 to 40 days post AI. Results revealed that the overall time of ovulation from onset of standing heat averaged 35.33 ± 0.21 h. Pregnancy rates were 26% (8/30) at 0 h, 37% (10/27) at 12 h and 53% (15/28) at 24 h after the onset of standing heat. It is concluded that timing of ovulation is about 35 h and 24 maximum pregnancy rate are achieved when bred after 24 hours after the onset of heat in buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1694,T] (1).

458. Effect Of Control Internal Drug Release & Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Administration On Day 7 After Fixed Time

by Ali Husnain | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr Mian Abdul sattar | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1697,T] (1).

459. Preparation & Evaluation Of Combined Pre & Fmd Vaccines For Small Ruminants

by Zanira Shakoor | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Prof. Dr. Khushi Mohammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: PPR is an acute, febrile and contagious viral disease of small ruminants caused by Morbillivirus. Similarly, FMD is another highly contagious viral disease of cloven hoofed animals that affects more than 33 species of domestic and wild animals. Although disease severity is relatively higher in large ruminants but small ruminants might also play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of FMD. Mass vaccination is the most effective mean to control viral diseases like PPR and FMD in small ruminants. The present study was designed to evaluate the immune response of goats to various monovalent and bivalent as well as adjuvant and non adjuvant PPRV and FMD "O" virus vaccines. A total of nine groups of animals each comprising 5, were inoculated with various formulations of the vaccines. Serum samples were collected at the beginning and at 1, 2, and 3 months post vaccination. Mean neutralizing antibody titers (MNA) against PPRV and MNA along with complement fixing (CF) antibody titers against FMD "O" in the serum samples were measured to test the efficacy of the vaccines. Live attenuated wet, gel and oil based PPR vaccines induced 229.2 (±112.79), 253.6(±83.05), and 424 (±182.06) MNA titers in the goats after 3 months of vaccination. Similarly, animals inoculated non-adjuvant, gel based, and oil adjuvant FMD "O" vaccines developed 20(±4.35), 186.2 (±65.39), and 285.8 (±63.80) MNA and 0.4 (±0.894),22.4(±8.76) and 25.6(±8.7) CF antibody titers at 3 months post vaccination (PV). Bivalent (PPRV and FMDV) non adjuvant vaccine induced 249.6(±3.130) and 27.2(±14.53), gel based vaccine induced 306 (±99.82) and 296.2 (±58.21) while the oil based vaccine provoked 417.8 (±141.56) and 286 (±97.13) MNA titres against PPRV and FMD "O" virus respectively, at 3 months PV. Results of present study demonstrate that live attenuated PPRV vaccines can induce better immune response in comparison to killed FMD "O" virus vaccine. Addition of adjuvants is helpful to enhance the immunogenicity of the added antigens. While adjuvant bivalent vaccines containing PPRV and FMD "O" virus can effectively provoke equivalent antibody response against both of the immunogens in the vaccine. Antibody titee in response to Bivalent vaccine of PPR and FMD seotype"O" containing oil as an adjuvant was superior to gel adjuvant and non adjuvant bivalent vaccines. There was poor immune response of goats to non adjuvant FMD"O" vaccines. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1698,T] (1).

460. Cytogenetic Analysis Related To Infertity Problems In Buffalo In Pakistan

by Muhammad Dawood | Prof. Dr. khalid Javaid | Prof. Dr. masroor Ellahi babar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics which deals with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of chromosomes using different banding techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosomes were first discovered in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842 and in animal (salamander) cells were described by Walther Flemmin, in 1882. In 1964 IngemarGustavsson was the first who work on clinical cytogenetics in animals and found first 1/29 robertsonian translocation in cattle. Hundreds of abnormalities have been reported in past 50 years with clinical disorders. Some abnormalities include robertsonian translocation in captive Thai Gaur (Chaveerach et al. 2007), in Veitnamese cattle (Tanaka et al. 2000), pericentric inversion of chromosomes and chimeric karyotypes in cattle and buffalo, sex chromosomes reciprocal translocation including X;X translocation in Mehsana buffalo (Patel et al. 2006) and bovine freemartin syndrome. Livestock population have been extraordinarily improved in the last 40 years through cytogenetic screening (Ducos et al. 2008). This study was carried out to optimize the protocol for lymphocyte culture, harvesting and slide preparation techniques for indigenous buffalo in local conditions and to document the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities leading to infertility problems in buffalo. Lymphocyte culture was used for the cytogenetic studies of indigenous buffalo. Procedure for lymphocyte and culture was standardized in Animal Genetic Lab, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus. In blood cell culture incubation time will be 72 hours at 370C. Mitosis was induced through Phytohaemagglutinin. After incubation cells were arrested by colcimid. Slides were prepared for karyotyping and checking for the chromosomal abnormalities. In this study 30 repeat breeder and anestrus animals along with 5 normal animals were used for chromosomal analysis. Good quality metaphase spreads were cytogenetically analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities (structural and numerical). Results of this study show that there is not any sex chromosome abnormalities and autosomal abnormality foundin the group of repeat breeders and anestrus animals. All the standard procedures regarding cytogenetic culture, harvesting, slide preparation and staining were optimized in Animal Genetic Lab. Genus 3.2 Applied Imaging System software was used for karyotyping the animals. We can conclude that cytogenetic analysis can play more effective role in the betterment of livestock. Through this technique we can screen out abnormal animals at very early stage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1699,T] (1).

461. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Therapeutic Agents Against Pre In Goats

by Zunaira Akhter | Dr.Aneela Zameer Durrani | prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwer Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1703,T] (1).

462. Role Of Cyprinus Carpio In Innutrient Dynamics Of Fish Ponds Under Polyculture System

by Muhammad Ahmad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present project was planned to study gradual replacement of Cirrhinus mrigala with Cyprinus carpio and its impact on pond ecosystem. 900 fish individuals belonging to six species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophythylmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were stocked in four earthen ponds. The dimensions of each pond were 220 X 198 X 7 feet length, breadth and depth. The stocking density in pond 1 (T1) was C. catla 150, L. rohita 200, C. mrigala 200, C. idella 150, H. molitrix 150 and C. carpio 50. The stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in pond 2 (T2) was 150 and 100, in pond 3 (T3), 100 and 150 and in pond 4 (T4) it was 50 and 200, respectively while the stocking density of all the other four fish species remained constant in all the four ponds. All the fish were fed with a diet of 25.16% crude protein @ 2% body weight. C. idella and C. mrigala showed maximum growth in T1, C. catla and H. molitrix in T2, L. rohita and C. carpio in T3. Maximum growth was observed in T3 followed by T4, T1 and T2. Among fish species C. idella and C. carpio showed higher growth rates than the rest of fish species. Our results reveal that in polyculture system stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in a ratio of 1: 1.5 gives better results. In treatment 1 pond higher SGR 0.552% was observed in H. molitrix and lower 0.238 in C. carpio. Similarly, in T2 pond maximum SGR 0.703% was observed in H. molitrix and minimum 0.260% in C. idella. Maximum SGR 0.409 % was observed in H. molitrix in on T3 pond while it was minimum 0.153 in C. mrigala. In T4 pond maximum SGR 0.322% was observed in L. rohita while it was minimum 0.139 in C. idella. During present study major water quality parameters remained in the favorable range for fish culture, average value of temperature remained in the range 27.08 to 28.66 oC, salinity 0.86 to 0.99 ppt, DO 5.15 to 5.91 mg/L, EC ranges from 2.23 to 2.32 Ms/cm and pH ranges from 8.04 to 8.23 were observed within the optimum range throughout the experiment. Statistically significant variations in nitrate content of water were observed in T1 and T4 ponds while non-significant differences for nitrates were recorded in T2 and T3 ponds. Similarly, phosphates in water showed significant differences in T1 as compared to T3 and T4 ponds while T2, T3 and T4 showed non-significant differences for phosphates. Light penetration varied significantly between T1, T2 and T4 ponds and its values varied from minimum 18.17±0.946 cm in T4 to maximum 25.50±1.057 cm in T1 ponds The phytoplankton density was similar in ponds during the given period except the start month of study the low plankton values in April due to the ponds being filled with fresh water and immediately stocked with fish. The density of zooplankton components was higher under T3 where silver carp gained more weight. A total of 11 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Cyanophyceae, 30 species of Chlorophyceae, 2 species of Euglenophyceae, 3 species of Cladocera, 4 species of Copepoda, 9 species of Myxophyceae, 9 species of Crustacea, 11 species of Rotatoria and 1 species of Olygochaeta were identified. The number of identified species was relatively small, consisting of eurytopic species only, possibly as a result of the heavy activity these ponds suffered. Microcrustaceans, being valuable food organism for many fish species, were represented by genera Daphnia, Cyclops, Bosmina, Moina and Scapholeberis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1705,T] (1).

463. Isolation Identification & Molecular Based Investigation Of Bovine Rotavirus

by Ambreen Masood | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqoob | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Livestock is an important part of the economy of Pakistan. Calf's diarrhea due to group A bovine rotavirus causes high morbidity and mortality, which results in significant economic losses to livestock. In Pakistan overall prevalence of bovine rotavirus infection is 2.6%. As Pakistan is a developing country, survival of calves is really important to produce milk, meat and hides for propagation of livestock. The aim of current study was to isolate bovine rotavirus from faecal samples of diarrheic calves by antigen capture ELISA and molecular investigations. So, it was helpful to check the prevalence of bovine rotavirus in Lahore district. This study will be a milestone for better treatment strategies of calf diarrhea problem. It will also pave the way for better vaccine development strategies to cure the disease. A total of 100 diarrheic faecal samples of cattle and buffalo's calves less than three months of age were collected from Lahore district. Rotavirus screening was done by direct sandwich ELISA by using commercial Rotavirus detection kit (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium). ELISA confirmed 12 samples to be positive for bovine rotavirus. Among 12 positive samples, 7 were found positive in buffalo calf and 5 in cattle calf. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the PCR was done for amplification of VP4 gene of all ELISA positive bovine rotavirus samples. But only 5 samples (3 buffalo calf samples and 2 cattle calf samples) give desired product of 880 bp of VP4 gene. After sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, phylogenetic tree was constructed. It is evident that Pakistani bovine rotavirus VP4 gene (BRV/QOL/13) has maximum identity of 98% with Indian bovine rotaviruses VP4 gene. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1707,T] (1).

464. Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan

by Riaz Hussain Mirza | Prof. Dr. Khalid Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study. The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval. Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs. A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively. A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons. Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament. Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09; udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively. Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment. Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament. Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively. Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively. The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone. The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone. Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight. Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area. Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low. Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001. About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor. All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats. Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons. Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats. All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor. Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively. Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively. Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg. Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes: " In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding. " A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament. " Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed. " Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study. " A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature. " Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped. " Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00. " Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield. " Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves. " Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves. " Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. " Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential. " Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1708,T] (1).

465. A Cross Sectional Dtudy To Evaluate The Quality Of Community Pharmacy Services

by Irum Iftikhar | Dr. Sonia Khiljee | Malik Allah Bukhsh Awan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011-13Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1709,T] (1).

466. Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Goats And Their Attendants In Dort Minro (D.G.Khan), Punjab (Pakistan)

by Shams-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of cats, however all warm blooded animals comprising mammals, birds and human beings can be infected with it. The disease is manifested by abortion, resorption, neonatal loses, birth of weak kids, birth defects and mummification of fetuses in pregnant animals. Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis is continuously evolving in animals and human beings. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis, the present study was conducted, in Fort Minro, to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of Toxoplasmosis in goats and their attendants. A total of 52 pastoral goat herds with herd size of "?20 - ?40" animals per herd were selected by convenient sampling technique. Out of these 52 pastoral herds, 237 goats were selected by systematic sampling method i.e each 5th unit was selected for sampling. The goats were sampled if the age of goats was ?6 months. Most common breeds of these herds were, Pahari and Hairy goat breed. A total of 92 herd attendants were also selected to determine the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasmosis in Farm workers / attendants. All serum samples were screened by LAT. For this purpose, the commercial Latex agglutination kit (Wiener Laboratorios S.A.I.C. Riobamba 2944, 2000 Rosario Argentina) was used for detection of specific antibodies of T.gondii in serum of goats and their attendants. A herd was considered as a positive, if at least one goat was found to be positive in that specific herd. Out of total 52 goat herds, 36 herds presented at least one or more than one seropositive animal. The number of positive animals in each herd, ranged from 1-10 animals. Out of 237 goats, 64 goats were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Thus overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats was 27%. The seroprevalence was significantly high in female goats (21.5%) as compared to males (5.5%). Kajli/Pahari goat breed was more positive (14.8%) as compared to Hairy goats (12.2%). An increase trend of seropositivity was observed in goats with increase in age. Age group of "?3 years" of goats had highest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence of Toxoplasmosis, followed by age group "?1-<3 years", while age group "?6 m-<1Year" had lowest share of percentage prevalence to overall prevalence. Prevalence in males had 5.5% share in overall prevalence (27%) while prevalence in females had 21.5% share in overall prevalence. Data analysis of various risk factors determined that natural reservoirs of water, pastoral grazing and presence of cats and dogs were major risk factor of Toxoplasmosis in goat herds. Access of cats to drinking water and food resources and eating medium cooked meat were major risk factors for goat attendants. High prevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats and Farm workers, suggests that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in the study area and further epidemiological studies should be focused on goat meat, milk and milk products. It is concluded that Toxoplasmosis can be reduce in human beings and animals by reducing risk factors and maintaining proper hygienic measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1710,T] (1).

467. Studies On Risk Factors Associated With Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157: H7 In Abattoir Environment

by Samiullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1711,T] (1).

468. Molecular Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Salmonella Isolates From Poultry

by Saba Zeb Khan | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Salmonella is a gram negative bacteria which can cause a number of different diseases including gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and typhoid fever, with the most common being gastroenteritis, some serotypes of it are pathogenic and cause serious food poisoning in humans and major economic losses in both chicken and turkeys. The birds can be the reservoir of Salmonella species which cause food borne infections in human. Human get such infections by ingesting contaminated products. In poultry farms, Salmonella can be introduced by means of contaminated feeds, particularly those that contain animal raw materials. Use of antibiotics in poultry has become a popular practice. Different antibiotics like tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim etc. are given in poultry via water and feed for growth and protection against diseases. Extensive and uncontrolled use of antibiotics resulted in increased development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Statistical data shows that Salmonella is resistant to many antibiotics especially tetracycline. The goal of our study was Molecular characterization of tetracycline resistance genes in Salmonella spp. and to check the prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in Salmonella isolates from poultry drinking water. Total 50 water samples were collected from different poultry farms and poultry meat shops in Lahore district.Various biochemical tests were performed to confirm the isolated strains as Salmonella. Tetracycline resistance was examined against isolates. Plasmid DNA was extracted from these bacteria. Antibiotic resistant plasmid genes were amplified by PCR. After gel electrophoresis the resulting fragments were sequenced through genetic analyzer. After sequencing the sequence thus obtained was compared with the reported sequences of tet genes in Salmonella strains in NCBI. It was found out that Salmonella isolates from the poultry drinking water are highly resistant to tetracycline, as 83% of the isolated Salmonella from poultry drinking water showed their resistance towards tetracycline.PCR amplification of tet genes indicated the presence of tetA gene in 100% of tetracycline resistant Salmonella, whereas 64% of the samples contained tetB gene. TetB gene was present only in combination with tetA gene. None of the sample contained tetC, tetD and tetGgene. This study helped to find out the prevalence of antibiotic resistant genes in Salmonella isolated from poultry drinking water, which were potential threats to human being and this study will also help us in future to develop strategies to restrict the emergence of antibiotic resistant genes and their spread. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1714,T] (1).

469. Evaluation Of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Supplemented Diet On The Growth, Digestibility And

by Sajid Mahmood | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aahraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Present experiment was conducted in 8 aquaria of size 1.5ft x 2ft x 3ft (width, height and length, respectively) with 1.5 feet water level in each aquarium on fingerlings of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Sun dried different parts of water hyacinth was used to prepare three isoproteic diets (30%) i.e. whole plant meal diet (WP), leaf meal diet (LM), root meal diet (RM) and a control diet. Overall significant (p. 0.05) difference was observed in weight and length among the treatments. On termination of experimental trial, all the fish were harvested, weighed and measured for assessment of growth performance. Representative samples from each treatment were randomly picked up for determination of body composition and histological studies. Former were dried for proximate analysis while latter were dissected, liver and kidney were excised out for further tissue processing. Statistically non-significant variations in increase in weight and length were recorded among Control, WP and LM diets while RM depressed fish growth. Mean weight 4.636}0.605g and length 78.757}3.995mm were relatively higher when grass carp juveniles were fed with LM and the same were the lowest 2.465}0.178g and 65.405}1.877mm, respectively, for RM diets. Higher weight gain was observed in LM (7.14 g) and lower on RM (2.10 g). Maximum length increase was observed on WP (50 mm) and minimum on RM (20 mm). Better FCR was observed on LM (2.113}0.102) and poor on RM (5.142}0.212). SGR % was observed maximum on LM (0.787}0.051) and minimum on RM (0.415}0.041). Histological study showed that there was no variation in liver and kidney in the Control diet whereas variations in cell patterns have been observed due to incorporation of water hyacinth which may be due to inherent toxic materials present in water hyacinth or due to some 61 heavy metals it absorbed from the surroundings. This research exposes that Eichhornia crassipes meal has an optimistic nutrient utilization effect on fish growth. Farmers can use water hyacinth to formulate cost-effective fish feeds. Water hyacinth leaf meal is more appropriate for fish production than the whole plant meal. But farmer has to be very careful and make sure that water hyacinth to be used in feed should come from clean water, because water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals and poisons from polluted water. Such plants if used in fish feed will affect the fish health and farmer profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1716,T] (1).

470. To Investigate The Morphology Of Lip Prints And Their Effectiveness In Individualization And Sex Determination

by Makhdoom Saad Waseem Ghouri | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Abu Saeed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1720,T] (1).

471. Evaluation Of Cellular And Humoral Responses Of Piroxicam In Mice

by Bushra Zahoor | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1721,T] (1).

472. Evaluation And Comparison Of Anti-Viral Activity Of Ethanolic And Chloroformic Extract Of Juniperus Excelsa Against Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

by Amber Sharif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed | Mr. Allah.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1723,T] (1).

473. Association Of Antimicrobial Resistant Campylobacter With Poultry Meat At Retailer Shops In Lahore Through Cross-Sectional Study

by Abdul Moeed | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1 Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are considered to be the most frequent cause of human acute bacterial enteritis worldwide, furthermore, numerous transmission vehicles are known, but raw milk, untreated surface water and especially poultry meat are major sources of human infections. In Pakistan studies reveal that among meat samples, the highest prevalence (48%) of Campylobacter was recorded in raw chicken. Therefore, the increasing level of resistance to the antibiotics among Campylobacter spp. is recognized as emerging public health problem. 6.2 Hypothesis " Campylobacter spp. was present in the poultry meat at retailer shops. " Unhygienic measures concerning to meat handling had a considerable effect on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter. 6.3 Methodology A cross sectional study of 3 months duration was carried out in the Lahore city of Punjab, Pakistan. Using the standard microbiological techniques and statistical analysis, the prevalence of Campylobacter and its pattern of antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Furthermore, through premeditated questionnaires, public awareness regarding meat-borne diseases, food safety and inappropriate usage of antibiotics were assessed as well. 6.4 Statistical design Data will be analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative variable were presented by using mean ± S.D. Qualitative variable were presented with help of frequency tables, pie charts and bar charts. Chi-square test was applied to see the association among different variables. P value <0.05 was be taken as significant. 6.5 Outcome Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence and pattern of the antibiotic resistant campylobacter was assessed; moreover public awareness with special reference to food safety, knowledge of meat borne diseases and usage of antibiotics wereevaluated. Furthermore, one could play an influential role in public health by dissemination of awareness among the masses about the proper usage of antibiotics and food safety measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1728,T] (1).

474. Nosocomial Infections At Intensive Care Unit In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Lahore City

by Ajmal Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1729,T] (1).

475. Production And Evaluation Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Vaccine

by Muhammad Aness | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: PPR is an acute highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants which is endemic in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to evaluate the freeze dried PPRV vaccine with variable biological titer to induce protective immune response in beetal goats. The comparative immune response of animals to adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccine and duration of immunity was also studied. Effect of boosting on the humoral immune response of animals as well as shelf life of various vaccines was also evaluated. Each of the vaccines was inoculated in a group of five animals. Serum samples were collected at specified time intervals and antibody levels were detected through cELISA as PI values and neutralization test as MNA titer. The virus was propagated on the Vero cells. It was estimated that infecting 2 x 107cells with 104.00 TCID50 virus concentrations added to a T-175 cell culture flask at the time of subculture yielded maximum virus titer in the cell culture harvest following three freeze thaw cycles of the contents. The freeze dried vaccine with a biological titer of 105.00 TCID50 per dose provoked maximum antibody titer followed by the ones with a titer of 104.00 or 103.00TCID50 which provoked nearly equivalent protective immune response while the animals inoculated with a vaccine having 102.00 TCID50virus concentrations developed minimum antibody titer. The oil adjuvant PPRV vaccines elicited significantly higher antibody titer in comparison to gel based vaccines but however minimum antibody titers were detectable in response to freeze dried vaccines. Although protective antibody level (? 10 neutralizing antibody units) was detectable in the animals vaccinated with either oil based, gel based or freeze dried vaccine containing biological titer of 104.00 TCID50 but however the extent and duration of immunity was found to be most superior in response to oil based vaccines. It can be concluded that a single shot of either gel or oil based vaccine can provide protection in the vaccinated animals for a minimum of one year duration. Goats receiving a booster dose of the vaccines had a significantly higher antibody tier in comparison to the ones who received single dose of the vaccines. The freeze dried and wet vaccine kept at 4 °C did not show any significant drop in the biological activity of the virus even after 12 months of storage. Immunogenicity of the both adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccines, as measured through the immune response in the vaccinated animals, also remained unaffected after 12 months of storage at 4 °C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1731,T] (1).

476. Antibody Response Of Buffalo Calves To Oil Based Multivalent (Pasteurella Multocida, Clostridium Chauvoei And FMD Virus "O' "A" and "Asia1") Vaccine

by Muhammad Farooq | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Microbial diseases are one of the constraints for further development of dairy industry as a profitable enterprise. The diseases are causing heavy economic losses to the industry. The diseases such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS), Black Quarter (BQ),etc., are endemic in Pakistan and perpetuate among the dairy animals. These diseases can be effectively controlled by vaccination. FMD virus "O", "A" and "Asia 1" were grown on BHK-21 and were inactivated with BEI. Culture of P. multocida and Cl. chauvoeiwere grown on CSY and RCM media, respectively and inactivated with formalin. The vaccine containing 0.2 x 107 units of TCID50of each serotype of FMD virus ("O", "A" and "Asia1"), 2 mg of Pasteurella multocida and 250 Hemolytic units of Clostridium chauvoei per dose were prepared. Oil adjuvanted vaccines of HS, HS + BQ, HS + FMD ("O", "A" and "Asia 1"), BQ, BQ+ FMD ("O", "A" and "Asia 1"), FMD ("O", "A" and "Asia 1") and HS + BQ + FMD ("O", "A" and "Asia 1") were prepared and injected into the buffalo calves in 7 group of 3(n=3) animals each separately at Living Dairies, Chunian. 8th group of three animals was kept as negative control. Antibody response against FMD virus, Cl. chauvoei and P. multocida were measured by CFT, Anti hemolytic Assay and IHA, respectively at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 post vaccinations. Two groups (n=3) of calves vaccinated with whole culture FMD vaccine and NSP free FMD vaccine. Data was analyzed by one way ANOVA procedure and significance was determined by Duncan Multiple Range Test through SPSS version 13. The vaccine when injected in buffalo calves induced Log22.00±1.00units of anti FMD "O" CFT antibody titer, Log22.22±1.00 units of anti FMD "A" CFT antibody titer, Log22.22±0.84 units of anti FMD "Asia 1" CFT antibody titer; Log22.99±0.58 units of Indirect Haemagglutinating (IHA) units of antibody against Pasteurella multocida and Log25.44±1.02, Anti Hemolytic Units (AHU) of the antibodies against hemolytic toxins of Clostridium chauvoei. There was no significant difference among the titers of FMDV "O", "A" and "Asia 1"; Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium chauvoei whether used in monovalent or in multivalent.In present study anti-NSP-FMD virus ELISA antibodies in the animals vaccinated with FMD (whole culture) vaccine were undetectable on 15 days post priming while detectable on 30 and 45 days post priming. However anti-NSP-FMD virus ELISA antibodies in the animals vaccinated with FMD (NSP free) vaccine were undetectable on 15, 30 and 45 days post priming. Moreover these antibodies were detectable in FMD carrier animals on 15 days post recovery.Cellular pellet of Pasteurella multocida, Clostridium chauvoei can be used to further minimizing the volume of culture required and further Brucella abortis vaccine can be added in it in conjunction with FMD. This will revolutionize the field of vaccination in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1732,T] (1).

477. Trace Analysis Of Gun Shot Residue On Different Fabrics Using Locally Manufactured Ammunition In Pakistan

by Muneeba Butt | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Ms. Faiza | Ms. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1733,T] (1).

478. Prevalence Of Defferent Developmental Stages Of Aedes Mosquitoes And Their Role In Transmission Of Dengue

by Sabila Afzal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aftab A | Dr. Muhammad Latif.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1735,T] (1).

479. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Catharanthus Roseus On Gross And Micro-Structures Of Selected Internal Organs of Broilers

by Saba Anwar | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Saima Masood | Prof. Dr. Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1737,T] (1).

480. Seasonal Variations In The Testicular And Seminal Characteristics Of Cholistani Bulls

by Umer Farooq | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Prof. Dr. Habib Rehman | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: All the indigenous cattle of Pakistan belong to Zebu (one-humped) cattle (Bos indicus). There are 15 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle which constitute 43% of the total cattle population in the country. Hefty work has been documented on many aspects of Sahiwal and Red Sindhi breeds of cattle in their respective local climates which have rightly gained them an international fame as being the vital tropical milk breeds of Pakistan. However, scanty work has so far been reported on reproductive indices of other indigenous cattle breeds of Pakistan such as Dajal, Cholistani etc under their local climatic conditions, and their potential still remains unearthed. Hence, it is the dire need of time to comprehend the urgency of protection and propagation of the indigenous cattle breeds of Pakistan at every front. Following the global lead, an effort has been made through the present study to highlight a formerly neglected indigenous cattle breed of Pakistan- Cholistani- being reared by the nomadic herders of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. The study was executed with a specific objective to assess baseline data, seasonal variations and correlations between various non invasive, readily measurable reproductive [age, body weight (BW) and orchidometric parameters viz. scrotal circumference (SC), scrotal skin fold thickness (SSFT), average testicular length (Avg L), average testicular width (Avg W) and paired testicular volume (PTV)], seminal (fresh semen and seminal plasma) and haematobiochemical attributes of Cholistani AI bulls (n=06). Keeping in view the prevailing climatic conditions of the study area, 4 seasons of 2 months duration each were defined as i) stress free autumn (October-November), ii) stressful winter (December-January), stressful dry summer (May-June) and iv) stressful wet summer (July-August). The overall mean values (± SEM) for age, BW, SC, SSFT and PTV in the present study were 92.83±2.63months, 527.55±4.5kg, 35.39±0.28cm, 1.03±0.02cm and 851.84±16.34cm3, respectively. The BW was recorded to be significantly lower (P<0.05) during the stress free autumn (507.08±8.26kg), however no significant difference was found in the remaining stressful seasons of winter, dry and wet summer. The SSFT was significantly higher (P<0.05) in stress free autumn (1.07±0.04cm) and winter (1.13±0.05cm) being followed by that in wet summer (0.97±0.02cm) and dry summer (0.94±0.03cm). SC and PTV were found to be constant during all the study seasons with no significant variation. Significantly positive correlations (P<0.01) were noticed between various traits. The overall mean values (± SEM) for ejaculatory volume, number of ejaculates per bull, mass motility, individual sperm motility, number of dozes frozen per bull, sperm concentration, live sperm, morphologically normal sperm and those with acrosome integrity in the present study were 4.92±0.14mL, 1.89±0.02, 2.26±0.06, 63.51±1.03%, 208.26±8.42, 989.73±27.4million/mL, 86.74±0.55%, 86.34±0.51% and 86.64±0.48%, respectively. In general, all the seminal attributes revealed significantly (P<0.05) better results in stressful seasons as compared to stress free season, with the exception of number of ejaculates per bull which was not affected significantly by seasons. In terms of semen production, a total of 39778 doses of 0.5 mL straws were frozen during the study period. Significantly higher number of doses per bull (P<0.05) was frozen during dry (245.37±17.84) and wet summer (250.37±17.75) as compared to autumn (191.4±14.22) and winter (143.92±11.25); the difference between the latter two seasons was also significant, while it was non significant between the former two seasons Regarding the subjective analysis of spermatozoa, higher (P<0.05) mean values were recorded for all three parameters (live, morphologiclly normal and acrosome intact sperm) during stressful winter and dry summer as compared to wet summer and autumn, the difference between the former two seasons was, however, non significant. Moreover, mean values for these attributes were significantly higher during wet summer as compared to autumn. Amongst the physical attributes of semen, only mass motility revealed a significantly positive (P<0.01) correlation with individual sperm motility (r 0.619). However, regarding the subjective analyses, live sperm had a positive correlation with normal (r 0.848) and with acrosome integral sperm (r 0.790). In seminal plasma chemistry, the overall mean values (± SEM) for Na+, K+, cholesterol and glucose recorded in the present study were 236.41±4.2, 142.95±3.81, 152.02±3.17 and 127.22±3.65 mg%, respectively. Amongst these, Na+ was significantly higher (P<0.05) during dry summer (270.35±8.89mg%) whereas K+ was higher in dry summer (169.1±5.54mg%) and winter (154.80±6.29mg%). Cholesterol and glucose were found to be significantly elevated (P<0.05) during dry summer season being 173.7±4.24 and 147.95±7.74mg%, respectively. Na+ had a significantly positive (P<0.05) correlation with glucose (r 0.232). Similarly, positive (P<0.01) correlations were seen for K+ with Na+ (r 0.341) and cholesterol (r 0.390). The overall mean values (± SEM) for Hb, TEC, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC recorded for the Cholistani AI bulls in the present study were 12.24±0.15mg/dL, 6.28±0.82×106/µL, 37.3±0.4%, 59.77±0.61fL, 19.58±0.2pg and 32.89±0.33g/dL, respectively. Regarding the white blood cell values, the overall means (± SEM) for TLC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were 7.58±0.17×103/µL, 40.45±1.05%, 53.2±0.85%, 4.05±0.47% and 2.3±0.26%, respectively. DLC, in the present study, revealed that the lymphocytes were the predominant leukocytes followed by neutrophils. No significant effect (P<0.05) of season was noticed on any of the red blood cell values studied. However, TLC amongst the white blood cell values was found to be significantly higher in dry summer (8.16±0.28×103/µL). The overall mean values (± SEM) for blood serum NA+, K+, cholesterol and glucose recorded for the present study were 130.73±0.91, 7.37±0.11, 82.8±1.52 and 75.22±2.04mg%, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations between mass and individual sperm motility, morphologically normal and live sperm and sperm acrosome integrity and live sperm (P<0.01). Among biochemical attributes of seminal plasma, Na+ and K+, cholesterol and K+ and glucose and Na+ were correlated (P<0.01). Only seminal plasma cholesterol was positively correlated with ejaculatory volume (P<0.01). An overall mean value of 5.81±0.32ng/mL was recorded in the present study for testosterone being non significantly effected by seasons. All its correlations with all attributes studied were found to be non significant. In conclusion, various physical and biochemical attributes of Cholistani bull semen were better in stressful seasons as compared to stress free season. The acceptable quality of semen of Cholistani bulls recorded during wet/dry summer in the present study is an indicative of the fact that this breed has an innate ability of being well adapted to the harsh, hot desert climate. Furthermore, the present study revealed that the Cholistani breeding bulls have an amazing tendency to maintain most of their haematobiochemical parameters at a near constant level without showing much variation during stress free or stressful times. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1739,T] (1).

481. Improving Nutritional Value And Acceptability Of Dairy Products With Lower Contents Of Saturated Fatty

by Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1742,T] (1).

482. Cytotoxic, Mutagenic And Genotoxic Evaluation Of Different Aesthetic Colorants

by Wardah Naeem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Imran Altaf | Dr. Muhammad Adil Resheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1743,T] (1).

483. Molecular Characterization Of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Salmonella Isolates From Diarrheic Calves

by Hania Zulfiqar | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Abu Saeed | Miss. Sehrish Firyal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A number of infectious (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and non-infectious factors cause diarrhoea in calves. Salmonella bacteria are gram-negative and belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella infections in calves continue to be a major problem worldwide and are responsible of causing major economical losses. To avoid the consequences of disease caused by Salmonella drugs like pencillin, tetracyclines e.g, are given to cattle but it is observed that Salmonella show resistance against these drugs after certain period of time. Salmonella is the major causative agent of calf diarrhea. The antibiotic genes against tetracycline and ampicillin are present in slamonella isolates from calves which are suffering from diarrhea. Aim of my study was 1) Salmonella isolation and investigation of the antimicrobial resistance gene from diarrheic calves and 2) Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene of isolated salmonella species. For this purpose, salmonella antibiotic resistant isolates against ampicillin and tetracycline were selected. Antibiotic resistant plasmid genes were amplified by PCR. After gel electrophoresis the resulting fragments were sequenced through genetic analyzer. After sequencing all the sequences were viewed in Chromas Lite 2.1.1 , Sample sequences were aligned with the reference sequences obtained from NCBI by using Mega 5.05 software. Alignment results show that there is no Single Nucleotide Polymorphism found in salmonella. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1744,T] (1).

484. Response Of Cryopreserved Cholistani Bull Semen To Butylated Hydroxytoluene Inclusion In Semen

by Abaid-ur-Rehman Cheema | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmad | Dr. Dawar | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1745,T] (1).

485. Effect Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant On Semen Quality Of Naked Neck Chicken

by Waseem Abbass | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1746,T] (1).

486. Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in THree Body Weights

by Ahmad Ali Sajjad | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The term Designer egg has gained popularity all over the world. Egg which gives some health benefits with the provision of basic nutrients is called designer egg. Lutein a xanthophyll pigment is good for the prevention of age related macular degeneration (AMD).Egg is considered good vehicle for lutein transport as bio-availability of lutein is high through egg. The present study was aimed to produce lutein enriched eggs (designer eggs). Different sources of lutein were used and their effect on production performance and egg quality characteristics was measured. A total number of 432 Hy-line layers categorized into 3 body sizes (Heavy, Medium, Light) were offered 4 different supplementations of lutein (0, free, esterified, free + esterified) replicated 6 times having 6 layers each. Parameters regarding production performance, egg geometry and egg quality were observed.Data were analyzed according to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using factorial arrangement. Means were compared through Duncan Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.3. Results of the present study showed significantly higher Haugh unit score (87.17±0.39) in light birds during 3rd week whereas, within lutein sources significantly higher Haugh unit score was observed in layers fed with control diets (85.52±0.48). Significantly (p<0.05) higher yolk pH was observed in layers fed with esterified source of lutein whereas significantly higher (8.26±0.06) albumen pH was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein however, different body sizes could not show their effect on yolk and albumen pH. Significantly higher (62.97±0.22) albumen % was observed during 1st week of study in birds fed with esterified source of lutein whereas body weight categories did not affect the albumen% whereas, yolk % was affected by different body sizes and lutein sources during 1st week of study. Significantly higher mean value (27.48±0.27) of yolk % was recorded in birds fed with combination of free and esters of lutein whereas higher value of yolk % (27.20±0.23) was observed in medium birds. Shell percentage significantly (p<0.05) affected by different body sizes (10.96±0.13) and lutein sources (11.14±0.18) during 1st week of study whereas shell thickness was significantly (p<0.05) affected by lutein sources (0.35±0.004) during 1st week of study. Means of different sources of lutein had significant (p<0.05) effect on yolk color and the highest mean value (11.63±0.15) was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein. Yolk index was significantly (0.36±0.005) affected by different lutein sources however, body sizes did not affect yolk index. As far as egg geometry was concerned egg surface area and egg volume were found to be significantly highest for heavy birds whereas non-significant differences for egg volume and shape index were observed. However, different lutein sources had no effect on egg geometry parameters. Significantly highest egg weight (62.74±0.23) was observed in heavy layers followed by medium (61.56±0.17) and light (60.63±0.17). However, different body weights (narrow ranges) and lutein sources had non-significant effect on production (%), FCR per dozen, egg mass and FCR per kg egg mass. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1747,T] (1).

487. Humic Acid Efficacy Study Against Aflatoxin B1 In Broiler Rations

by Rana Yasir Arafat | Dr. Saima | Dr. Abdul | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Fungus is an important concern in poultry feeds because it can grow at any level of their production right from when grains are in field until the finished product is transported and stored. Therefore it is an immense need to protect raw feedstuff as well as finished feed from the attack of fungus. Aflatoxin is one of the toxins produced by fungi and it causes morbidity and mortality in poultry. In the past different compounds have been employed in order to chelate toxins produced by different types of fungi. Humic acid is produced during the normal decaying process by fermentation of organic materials particularly the plants. Humic acid as a toxin binder is a recent advancement that have got the potential to bind aflatoxins produced by A. flavis and A. Parasiticus. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate efficacy of humic acid to chelate aflatoxin B1. The study was completed in two phases. In first phase aflatoxin B1 was produced while in second phase the toxin thus produced was employed through feed to commercial broiler chicks. A total of 450 birds were used in five different treatments including positive and negative control. There were 90 birds in each treatment and each treatment was comprised of three replicates of 10 birds in each. In positive control three levels of aflatoxin B1 including 100 ppb, 200 ppb and 300 ppb were added into rations without addition of humic acid. In negative control plain feed was offered without supplementation of humic acid and aflatoxin B1. In rest of three treatments different levels of humic acid including 0.1 percent, 0.2 percent and 0.3 percent were used through feed against three levels of aflatoxin B1 including 100 ppb, 200 ppb and 300 ppb. The parameters including feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, giblet weight, keel length, shank length, dressing percentage, tibial toe ash, gross lesions on carcass, mortality and AFB1 concentrations in serum and liver extracts were studied. The experiment was planned under completely Randomized design with factorial arrangement. The data thus collected on different parameters were subjected to statistical analysis through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The difference among treatment means were compared through Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Test at P?0.05. During first week, birds in all experimental groups showed non-significant difference in terms of feed intake, weight gain and FCR as all the birds in different treatments received plain feed without supplementation of either humic acid or aflatoxin B1. During second week, feed intake, weight gain and FCR were minimum in control group consuming different levels of aflatoxin B1 only, while it was maximum among the birds in group 'B' consuming only plain feed with a non-significant difference in the birds receiving different levels of humic acid. It was observed that with increasing level of humic acid feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were linearly improved. Similar pattern was observed in terms of the parameters under discussion during 2nd to 4th week. While during last two weeks of experiment all of the birds in different experimental groups were again put on plain feed without supplementation of aflatoxin or humic acid. During this time period the birds in positive control that had consumed different levels of aflatoxin B1 showed variable levels of improvement in terms of feed intake, weight gain and FCR. Non-significant difference (at P?0.05) was observed among the birds consuming different levels of humic acid as compared to control group consuming plain diet. Mortalities were maximum in groups 'AD', 'BD' and 'CD' with the highest in 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. Dressing percentage was best in 'AK3' and followed to BK2, B, BK1 and CK3. This showed growth stimulant activity of humic acid in addition to anti-AFB1 activity. Results of giblet weight showed non-significant difference among different groups under study except positive control consuming AFB1. Maximum values were observed in groups 'B' and 'CK3' followed by 'AK2' and 'CK3' while minimum was observed in group 'CD'. Results of heart weight were non-significant among different experimental treatments except 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. Results regarding liver weight showed significant difference among the birds in positive control consuming different levels of AFB1. Maximum liver weight was observed in group 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. During last two weeks when all of the birds were receiving only plain diet again as withdrawal strategy, the birds in positive control that had consumed purified AFB1 during 2nd to 4th week, showed a reversal effect by exhibiting improvement in giblet weight. Results obtained regarding ND titres showed maximum titres in group 'AK2', 'B' and 'BK2' while were minimum among the birds in group 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. Results were significant with control group consuming different levels of AFB1. The results during last two weeks showed that the birds in different groups consuming different levels of humic acid and particularly in 'CD' that had consumed 300 ppb of AFB1 only during time period of 2nd to 4th weeks showed a reversal effect in developing ND titres. The difference was non-significant (at P?0.05) with control consuming plain diet only. During the time period of active intoxication of birds with purified AFB1, the results obtained regarding concentration of AFB1 in liver extracts showed non-significant difference among different groups consuming humic acid while significant as compared to control group 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. This demonstrated AFB1 chelating activity of humic acid. The results were also significant as compared to group 'B' consuming plain diet only. Maximum concentration was found in group 'CD' consuming 300 ppb of AFB1. After 28th day until 42 days of experiment all of the groups showed a clearance effect of AFB1 Conclusions: Findings of the current study revealed that addition of increasing levels of humic acid improved the growth and performance of commercial broiler chicks as compared to control group suggesting its potential role in chelating Aflatoxin B1 challenge of different magnitude when given through feed. Therefore, humic acid is recommended for its use as Aflatoxin B1 binder through feed at an inclusion rate of 0.2% of the ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1749,T] (1).

488. Comparative Efficacy Of Limited Contactdynamic Compression Plate (Lc-Dc) And Dynamic Compression Plate

by Farah Ijaz | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1753,T] (1).

489. Level Of Amylase From Human Saliva Deposited On Fruit First Bite Mark

by Umar Draz | Ms. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Tahir | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Saliva is colorless fluid which consists of epithelial cells, enzymes, non enzyme protein and inorganic components. Saliva is secreted by three glands in mouth. One is parotid gland, second is submandibular gland and third is sublingual gland. There are two types of amylases in human. One is salivary amylase, while other is pancreatic amylase. The salivary amylase is secreted by salivary gland while pancreatic amylase is secreted by pancreas. The salivary amylase is present in saliva, perspiration and breast milk. Pancreatic amylase is present in blood, feces and urine. Saliva stain is very important at crime scene for forensic investigation. Majority of techniques used for detection of saliva are based upon the presence of salivary amylase. Human saliva can serve for identification. One can extract DNA from saliva stain and generate DNA profile, whereby individual can be identified who is a source DNA profile that is generated from saliva stain. In present study level of salivary amylase was determined from human saliva deposited on fruit with first bite mark. Apple, peach and apricot were selected for this experiment. Ten males and ten females were selected to bite on fruits. The time interval was used as variable for determining the level of amylase. The time intervals were 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours and 48 hours. Samples were collected from bite mark area on fruit. The samples collected from apples and apricot pits were positive for amylase activity till 48 hours. The samples collected from peach were positive till 12 hours. The samples collected from peach were negative after 24 hours. This research indicates that salivary DNA could be found on bite mark area on apple and apricot pit till 48 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1755,T] (1).

490. Study Of Canine Parvovirus In Dogs And Its Chemotherapy

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: There were one hundred cases of dogs showing the clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and emaciationwhich were selected randomly. All the cases were confirmed by HA and HI test. Disease occurrence was found to be 55%. There were 55 samples found to be positive and 45 samples were found to be negative for canine parvovirus. The incidences of the disease in German shepherd was highest (38%) followed by other breeds Labrador, Rottweiler, Pointer, Cross, Russian and Local breeds which were 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4% and 3% respectively. Similarly, disease occurrence in non-vaccinated dogs was higher thanvaccinated.The disease was more prevalent in non-vaccinated dogs as compared to the vaccinated dogs. So, vaccination provides sufficient immunity against canine parvovirus. Male dogs were more affected by canine parvovirus than female dogs. Occurrence of the disease in the age of 1-3 months was the highest. Pups were more affected than the older dogs. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in the male and female were found to 60% and 43.5% respectively. Disease occurrence of canine parvovirus in September, October and November was found to be 55%, 52.5% and 56% respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 0(before the treatment) and on the day 5 (after the treatment) and analysis was done in UDL, Lahore. Four different kinds of treatment protocols were compared on the basis of hematological improvement, days of hospitalization and the cost of treatment. Of the four groups hyperimune serum when used with normal saline was found to be more effective. It was found that improvement in the leucocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocytes and platelets with P <0.05. SAFI syrup with supportive therapy was the second effective treatment with P >0.05. Supportive treatment alone was not effective for hematological recovery P > 0.05. It had also increased the cost of treatment, and duration of treatment for canine parvovirus infection. So, hyper immune serum and normal saline is the effective treatment for canine parvovirus infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1757,T] (1).

491. Burden Of Endoparasites In Ruminants In Live Aimal Markets Of Lahore

by Faiza Afzal | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Endoparsites cause severe economic losses by affecting and may cause many diseases to animal. Due to anthelmintic resistance and poor managemental practices endoparsitic disease are more common now a days. In Pakistan parasitic infestation is quite prevalent and the loss about 26.5 million rupees annually to the livestock industry. Although no exact figure of economic losses is available but it is fact that millions of rupees are being lost due to reduced milk yield, rejection of meat and edible offal, depreciation of hides, delay age of maturity and death particularly in calves and high production cost due to use of drugs, they also decrease feed intake efficiency. Present study was conducted to check the burden of endoparasites in different live animal Markets of Lahore, For this purpose 800 samples of large ruminants (cattle, buffalo) and small ruminants (sheep, goat) were collected and transported to lab for further qualitative fecal examination through macroscopic and microscopic examination. In six live animal markets overall prevalence of endoparasites found 21.37%. Out of 800 samples 171 were found positive. Prevalence of large and small ruminants was found almost similar i.e: 21.5%, 21.25% respectively. However much parasitic burden was observed 43.1% in cattle to that of 28.1% in buffalo.Prevalence in sheep was high as compared to goat whereas kacchi breed of sheep and Desi breed of goat showed higherprevalence that as 14.5%, 16% respectively.Prevalence in Nilli ravi was 28.0% in non-exotic cattle it was 31% however in exotic jersey breed prevalence of endoparasites was 11%. Endoparasites found more prevalent in Nilli Ravi. In ruminants prevalence found high in male animals as compared to female animals. Overall prevalence in ruminants was 21.0% while in male and female animals prevalence was 21.8%, and 20% respectively. prevalence found more in less than 1 year aged animal than above this age i.e, in less than 1 year of age was 22.4% prevalence while above 1 year aged animals it was 20.0% (P<0.05 ). In large and small ruminants nematodes were more prevalent followed by trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection. Among nematodes haemonchus were found more prevalent gastrointestinal parasites. Out of 171 positive samples 46 were of haemonchus (5.75%) followed by ostertagia 18 (2.25), trichostrongyloids 17(2.12), cooperia 8(1.0%), bunostomum 6(0.75%), trchuris 11(1.37%), oesophagostomumm 5(0.5%), in large ruminants. Small ruminants also found chabertia ovine 1(0.0125%) and strongyloid papillosus 1(0.0125%) infestation. During this study overall prevalence of Nematode, trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection found 15.0%, 3.5%, 1.875%, 0.625%, and 0.25% respectively. Mixed infection only found in live animal market 1 at Multan road. In live animal Market 2 at Sagyan Bridge only nematode and trematode were present. In live animal Market 3 at shahpur kanjran no mixed infection was found. And protozoa were only found in large ruminants. In live animal Market no protozoa and mixed infection was found. In live animal Market 4, 5, 6 no protozoa and cestode found. The data obtained was analyzed through chi -square test (SPSS) and probability level of <0.05 was considered as significant different. As results show ( p< 0.05) data was considered as significantly different. Fascioliasis, parasitic gastro-enteritis, coccidiosis, theleriosis, and babesiosis are major parasitic problem in ruminants in order to priority. There is urgent need to carry out research on applied aspects leading towards control of parasites. This parasitic research has been focused on a limited part of country. This should extend in broader area keeping in view various agro-ecological zones of country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1758,T] (1).

492. Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Camels Of District Muzaffargarh, Punjab

by Sami Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1760,T] (1).

493. Effect Of Different Levels Of Defatted Algae Supplement Of The Growth Performance, Blood And Tissue

by Ahsan Mustafa | Dr. Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In Pakistan poultry sector is playing a vital role in bridging the gap between supply and requirement of animal protein food for its ever increasing human population. The contribution of poultry sector in agriculture and livestock is about 6.4 and 11.5 percent, respectively (Anonymous, 2012). Poultry meat contributes about 25.8 percent of the total meat produced in the country. This sector has been growing at an annual rate of 8 to 10 percent, producing 131.4 million eggs and 0.834 million metric tons of poultry meat (Anonymous, 2012). However, despite this tremendous growth rate, this sector is facing many challenges which may badly influence its future pace of development. The most important of these is escalating cost of poultry feed which is considered to be the major cost item involving more than 60 to 70 percent share of production cost (Khan et al., 2010). Many of the traditional protein sources used in poultry diet formulations such as soybean, fish, sunflower meal and groundnut meal are becoming extremely expensive. Rapid growth of human, livestock and poultry population has increased the demand for food and feed which has necessitated that alternative feed resource should be identified and evaluated. Therefore, the search for alternative protein sources has become urgent, and in this context, algae are worthy of consideration. The possibility of using fat-extracted algae (a by-product from bio-fuels production) as a source of protein and other nutrients in poultry feeds appears to be of great significance. The use of algae as a source of nutrients can benefit poultry and bio-fuel industry. Diatoms are a major group of unicellular algae, and are one of the most common types of phytoplankton. They differ from other algae in the presence of substantial amounts of silicon in their cell membranes. The diatom, Nanofrustulum is currently under investigation as a potential source of oil for bio-fuel production. However, effect of dietary inclusion of defatted algae supplements by replacing soybean meal and corn on the performance of broilers has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was therefore under taken at Poultry Research Farm, Department of Animal Science, University of Cornell, USA, to investigate effect of defatted algae Nanofrustulum meal on the growth performance, blood biochemical composition and gross pathology of tissues in broilers. For this purpose, two levels of defatted algae Nanofrustulume 7.5 and 10 percent were used. Four different, iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental rations were prepared. The diet A was prepared without inclusion of algae (control), whereas in diets B and C the same algae at the rate of 7.5 percent were incorporated to replace soybean meal and soybean meal + corn, respectively. In diet D, algae at the rate of 10 percent replaced soybean meal and corn. Eighty, commercial (Ross), day-old, broiler chicks, 40 each of both sexes, were randomly divided into to 4 treatment groups (A, B, C and D) with two replicates each of 5 male and female birds per treatment. They were initially weighed and wing banded individually for identification and then maintained in thermostatically controlled battery cages. The birds were provided 22 hours light: 2 hours darkness schedule. All the experimental birds were fed a balanced broiler starter ration and water ad libitum until 21 days of age. All the experimental rations were supplemented with additional quantity of potentially limiting amino acids, lysine and methionine. The amount of corn oil in all the rations was adjusted to maintain metabolizable energy contents at 3000 and 3200 Kcal/Kg for the chick starter and grower rations, respectively. The amino acid contents of starter and grower diets were kept higher than NRC (1994) standards. On day 22nd, the birds were transferred to growing cages maintained at room temperature and similarly fed grower diets ad libitum until 42 days of age. The data on feed intake, body weight gain were collected. Feed conversion efficiency were calculated. On day 42nd of the experiment, the experimental birds were fasted for 3 hours and blood samples were collected from the wing vein from randomly selected, 2 birds each of both the sexes per replicate for determination of blood biochemical composition following standard laboratory procedures. Gross pathology of tissues obtained from slaughtered birds was also performed. The study was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block. Design (RCBD). The data thus recorded was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance Technique (Steel et al., 1997). The means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) Test (Duncan, 1955). The results of this study showed significant (p?0.01) difference in average feed intake among treatments and between sexes of broilers. In male broilers, the significantly highest feed intake was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets D, A and B, whereas in female broilers the highest feed intake was recorded by the birds fed diet A and then followed by those fed diets B, C and D. The results further showed non-significant differences in feed intake of male broilers between treatment groups C & A and C & D, whereas significant difference was recorded between group B and C. Significantly lowest feed intake was recorded in female broilers fed diet D which was also significantly different from treatment groups A and B. The results also showed that with increase in inclusion levels of algae in female broilers depression in feed intake increased. The results in respect of average weight gain showed that male and female broilers fed the control diet attained the highest weight gain, followed by those fed diets C, D and B, respectively in male broilers and fed diets C, B and D in female broilers, respectively. The male broilers attained significantly (p<0.01) better weight gain than female broilers. The weight gain in broilers fed the control diet was not significantly (p?0.05) different from those fed diet C. The overall results of the study showed depression in weight gain of birds fed diets containing different levels of algae in comparison to those fed control diet. In the present study, the feed conversion ratio was significantly (p< 0.05) influenced by the diets, however it was not significantly different between sexes. In male broilers the poorest FCR was observed in group D followed by in groups B, C and A. The best FCR in male broilers was recorded in group A which was significantly better than that of treatment groups A and D, however non- significant difference between FCR of groups A and C was recorded. In female broilers, the best FCR was observed in birds fed diet C followed by those fed diets A, D and B, however, non- significant difference in FCR among diets was recorded. Non- significant (P > 0.05) differences in plasma alkaline phosphatase (AKP), alanine transferase (ALT), serum cholesterol, tri glycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels among diets and between sexes were detected. Significant (P > 0.05) differences in serum uric acid among diets and between sexes were detected. Female broilers had significantly higher uric acid levels than male broilers. In male broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid value was observed to be significantly higher than those fed diet D but it was not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed diets B and C. In female broilers fed diet A, plasma uric acid concentration was significantly higher than those fed diets C and D, however the differences were observed to be non-significant. Significant (P?0.05) difference was observed between uric acid values both in male and female broilers fed diets B and D, however, female broilers fed diet C differed non- significantly (P?0.05) from those fed diet D. On overall basis, there was significant (P?0.05) reduction in uric acid concentration by addition of 7.5 percent algae in the diets. No gross pathological lesions were seen on internal and outer surfaces of gizzard and proventriculus and these were normal in size, however, the internal membrane of gizzard was darker yellow color in birds fed diets containing algae. No lesions were noticed on liver, spleen and intestines and liver and spleen were normal in size. Liver was also of normal color. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1761,T] (1).

494. Effect Of Fibrolytic Enzyme On Digestibility And Production Performance Of Lactating Nili Ravi Buffalos

by Burhan-e-azam | Dr. Saima | Prof | Prof. Dr. Anjum khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1762,T] (1).

495. Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides (Mos) From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Alone And In Combination With Antibiotic

by Musawir Rehman | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khaliqe | Dr. Saima | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Poultry feed industry worldwide has been using antibiotics for more than 50 years. But the use of antibiotics as growth promoters was completely banned in 1999 by the European Union (EU) (European Commission, 2001). This was due to increases in microbial resistance to antibiotics and residues in chicken meat products which might be harmful to consumers. In Pakistan poultry feed industry is using antibiotics. But internationally their alternatives mannan oligosaccharides (MOSs) are being used. MOSs, which are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have shown promising effects, such as decreasing pathogenic microflora of the gut, stimulating a strong immune response, and elevating the strength of the intestinal mucosa in poultry. Exact mechanisms by which MOSs show positive effects are not known but some suggestions are they provide nutrients, they aid in digestion of foods and inhibit harmful bacteria in the gut (Owings et al.1990). Gastrointestinal normal flora plays an important role in the health and performance of poultry (Thong song et al.2008). It is therefore of vital importance, both from an animal and human health perspective, to obtain natural alternatives like mannan oligosaccharide (MOSs). MOSs have been shown to increase growth in broilers (Yusrizalet al. 2003), turkeys (Kannanet al.2005), and results of many trials indicated that MOSs can be one of the best alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (Hoogeet al.2003), and even trace amounts of MOSs added to a ration were quite effective in increasing the health status and production of poultry (Savage et al. 1997). Stanczuk et al., reported that supplementation of rations with MOSs and inulin (0.1% and 0.4% MOS in diet) did not significantly affect live body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), or feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in turkeys in an 8-week trial (Stanczuket al., 2005). Actigen a product by Alltech, Inc., is having advanced form of mannan oligosaccharide, which was offered in feed to broiler birds in this trial. It acted as alternative to antibiotics without affecting the performance of birds, It protected the birds from pathogens. Keeping in view the situations the present project was planned. In this studymannan oligosaccharide (MOS) was evaluated on broiler (5*6*15=450) as antibacterial and growth promoter alone or in combination with antibiotic (neomycin) in environmentally control shed of Poultry Research and Training Centre, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS-Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Duration of this trial was 35days.The parameters of this experiment were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, mortality, carcass characteristics, and slaughter parameters, estimation of ALT, AST and cholesterol from blood. Statistically data was analyzed by using ANOVA in completely randomized design (CRD) with help of a special computer based statistical package (SAS9.1, 2002-03).The results showed that there was significant difference in feed intake when birds were fed with 0.1% MOS with antibiotic from other dietary treatments. MOSs and antibiotics alone or in combination depicted significant results upon weight gain. They were significantly different from control. There was significant decrease in FCE in groups where MOSs was used in combination with antibiotic and more in 'A' 'B' and 'D' respectively. There was significant decrease numerically regarding mortality but statistically there difference was non-significant. Effect of dietary treatments on relative organs weight was non-significant. There was also a non-significant effect on dressing %age. Regarding sera ALT level there was significant decrease in treatment groups than control group. Value of AST level was also significantly less in treatment groups than control group. There was not a significant difference in serum values of triglyceride. Cholesterol level decreased in treatment groups 'B' and 'C' significantly than control but increased significantly in groups 'D' and 'E' than control group. The outcome of this study is that MOS have definite effect on bird's performance and could be used in combination or as an alternative to antibiotics. It is cost effective and beneficial for human health and poultry industry of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1765,T] (1).

496. Immunobiological And Molecular Characterization Of Pasteurella Multocida From Buffaloes

by Muhammad Kamran | Prof. Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute bacterial disease of buffaloes and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida. In the present study, 400 samples (200 from carriers and 200 from sick animals) from Sargodha division were collected. Among four districts of the division, 15 samples were positive by API Kit, 13 by conventional biochemical tests and eleven were found positive for P. multocida through serological and molecular characterization. Biochemical profile index obtained with API kits had lesser accuracy than conventional and serological profiles for the identification of P. multocida. Passive mouse protection test and AGPT were used for serological confirmation. Different molecular techniques like SDS-PAGE, PCR and RFLP were used to investigate variation at the molecular level in field and vaccinal strains. There were no significant variation between field isolates and vaccinal strain in sick animals and carriers, or in isolates of different districts. Five major and three minor polypeptide bands were observed by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relatedness among the isolates was assessed by cluster analysis using Fingerprint Analysis of Missing Data (FAMD) of 12 isolates. The12 isolates clustered into 5 groups namely I, II, III, IV and V. Group I and II consisted of only one isolate in each (8.33%) of the total designated BKC-01 (S5) and KBO-01 (S1), respectively. Group III composed of 2 isolates (16.67%) namely KBC-02 (S4) and MNO-01 (S2). Group IV had the highest numbers of isolates (50%) designated as KBC-02 (S3), MNO-01 (S6), BKO-02 (S7), MNC-02 (S8), SGO-02 (S9) and V. Only two isolates were typed in group V (16.67%) named as SGO-01 (S10) and BKO-01 (S11). The size of amplified gene was 460 bp. HindIII I endonuclease cleaved bacterial genome at four sites as compared to other four enzymes (DNase1, PstlI, EcorI and BamHI) change the writing of these enzymes which cleaved at two sites. The isolates were also subjected to ten routinely used antibiotics for sensitivity testing and found enrofloxacin as drug of choice with 90.91% sensitivity, followed by gentamycine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacine and norfloxacine (72.73%), ampicillin and amoxycillin (45.45%), amikacin (36.36%) and lowest to sulfadiazine and erythromycine (18.18%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1767,T] (1).

497. Survival Of Probiotics In Yogurt Ice Cream

by Hafiz Shahzad Muzammil | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr.Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study was designed to produce the yogurt ice cream containing probiotic microorganisms with the recommended levels (106-107) of live cells at the time consumption. The mixture was supplemented before freezing with prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose) and cryoprotectant (glycerol) to see their (prebiotics and glycerol) effects on the survival of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis during freezing process and in storage period. Along with bacterial population, the effects of prebiotics and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties like air holding capacity, fat components, protein contents, total solids, hardness, stickiness, melting rate, glass transition, air cell size and ice crystal size were also investigated. Glass transition temperature was analyzed in each treatment mixture before freezing with differential scanning calorimeter. The results from the data obtained at various stages of study have shown different variation pattern for each property. The initial count of each bacterium before freezing in all treatments with in experiment was similar and during the freezing process there was non-significant change in bacterial population. During the storage period at -20°C in the first three weeks there was less loss in all the samples (P<0.05). With the passage of time the death rate is increased in all the samples but this decrease was very less with supplementation as compared to control samples (P<0.05). In the prebiotic yogurt ice cream the greatest loss was observed in L. acidophilus (P<0.05), while the S. thermophilus concentration was the maximum among all the bacteria (P<0.05). At the Summary 110 end of 12 weeks storage period all the bacteria maintained the minimum required (106-107 CFU/g) concentration (P<0.05). The addition of prebiotics and glycerol has increased the total solids of all the samples (P<0.05) that would ultimately led to more overrun percentage. The supplementation of prebiotics and glycerol have shown non-significant effect on the fat quantity while decreased the protein concentration significantly (P<0.05). Fat and protein contents remained unchanged during the storage period of 90 days (P<0.05). The hardness increased with prebiotics and decreased with glycerol supplementation, while the stickiness increased with the increasing prebiotics and glycerol concentration (P<0.05). The melting rate has shown different behavior although the dry matter contents increased with prebiotics and glycerol but it did not support the slow melting (P<0.05). Prebiotics show less effect on glass transition temperature, the increase was very less almost to 1°C. Glycerol has shown most of the effect and it decreased Tg to near about 10°C in 4% supplemented samples (P<0.05). The overrun percentage show most of its effect on probiotics as these bacteria are anaerobic and grow best in absence of oxygen, but the addition of glycerol minimized its effect on survival rate of the bacteria. The overrun have shown no effect on total solids, fat and protein level but it decreased the melting rate at 22 °C. The air act as insulator and prevent the melting of yogurt ice cream (P<0.05). The hardness and stickiness also decreased with increasing level of overrun (P<0.05). The prebiotics and glycerol supplementation have shown non- significant change in air cell size and ice crystal size while overrun percentage has significantly decreased the air cell and ice crystal sizes (P<0.05). Summary 111 In conclusion, the addition of prebiotics and glycerol increased the survival rate by decreasing the freeze damage caused by large ice crystal formation and also improved the physicochemical properties of yogurt ice cream. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1769,T] (1).

498. Availability Of Antidotes And Key Emergency Drugs In Tertiary Care Hospitals Of Punjab And Role Of Health

by Naheed Arslan | Dr. Sonia Khiljee | Malik Allah Bakhsh Awan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1772,T] (1).

499. Immuno Pathological Effects Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) In Commercial Broiler Chickens

by Zahid Jawad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Muti-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: These experiments were conducted to study the effects of Azadirachta indica admixed in poultry feed on weight gain performance, haemtological values,immune modulations, and toxic effects in broiler chickens. A total number of 144 commercial broiler 1-day old chicks were reared in the experimental sheds of the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, The birds were fed with balanced commercial feed and water ad libitum. The birds were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C having fourty eight chicks each. Birds of all groups were sub divided into four groups of each i.e. A1, A2, A3 and A4; B1, B2, B3 & B4 and C1, C2, C3 and C4, respectively. Each of the sub groups containd 12 birds. Sub groups A4, B4 and C4 were control group with no medication. The birds of groups A, B and C were fed with poultry feed containing dry powder of neem leaves @ 2 gm, 4 gm and 6gm per kg of feed respectively. The birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 were treated with the herb from day 0 to 42 of their life. The birds of groups A2, B2 and C2 were given the neem from day 14 to 42 of their life, whereas the birds of groups A3, B3 and C3 were treated with the herb from day 28 to 42 of their life. Difference between weekly weight gain in the birds of groups A1, B1 and C1 was non significant (P>0.05) however the difference between weight gain in the treated and control groups was significant (P<0.05). The birds treated with the herb from day 0 of their life showed more weight gain. There was no difference in the haematological indices between all of the treated groups and the control groups. The neem treated birds showed increased antibody titers against ND and IBD viruses as compared to control groups. The values of ALP and ASTshowed decreasing trend when the level of neem leaf meal was increased in the ration. Serum creatinine and serum uric acid values posed a slight declining trend in the neem fed birds. There was a decrease in serum cholesterol level in the neem treated bird groups, the higher the concentreation of the herb, the lower the cholesterol value. The organ body weight indices showed that there was no significant difference in liver, spleen and thymus weights among treated groups as well between treated and control groups. There was absence of prominent gross pathological lesions in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus, however some treated groups showed mild hypertrophied liver and kidneys as did the organs of the birds in control groups. No histopathological changes except a few mild changes were observed in liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus in the birds of experimental groups. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1774,T] (1).

500. Assessing The Efficacy Of Aqueous Garlic Extract Against Cyanide Toxicity In Mice Using Righting Reflex Recovery

by Sajid Ali | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The KCN intake has been linked to central nervous system (CNS) syndromes and thyroid in animals as well as humans. It is very potent toxin even at very narrow dose ranges. Prolonged KCN exposure has also been associated with reduced growth rate in animals, disturbance in thyroid metabolism, lesions in liver, kidneys, lungs and also CNS pathology. Male mice weighting about 20-40 grams were purchased from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Animal house, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and divided into 30 treatment groups. After acclimatization of mice, carefully, the mice were grouped as follows: Control group A group of 6 mice were treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) intra-peritoneally at 5.5mg/kg that induced a knock down state with recovery period of approximately 1 hour. Prior to each experiment, three or more mice were treated with KCN at this dose to verify that the recovery time was close to 1 hour. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 1 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 250 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 2 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 250 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 3 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 500 mg/kg BW. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 4 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 500 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 5 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was treated with AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 750 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 6 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 7 (30-min post-KCN) One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 250 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting refelx recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 8 (30-min post-KCN) A group 6 mice was given AGE at 500 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 9 (30-min post-KCN) One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Garlic Extract Group: (Group 10-15) Three groups 10 - 12 each with 6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with AGE at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time. Three groups 13 - 15 each with 6 mice were treated with AGE orally at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 16 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of SN injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 17 (5-min post-KCN) Another group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 18 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 19 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 20 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively. After 5 minutes SN and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 21 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg i.p. respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 22 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 23 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 24 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 25 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse will be treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Sodium Nitrite (SN) alone (Group 26) 6 mice in this group were treated with SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted. Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) alone (Group 27) A group of 6 mice in group 27 were treated with ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted. Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) (Group 28) The mice in group 28 were treated with AGE + SN at 750 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 29) A group of 6 mice in this group were treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Sodium Nitrite (SN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 30) A group of 6 mice in group 30 were treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. The efficacy of the antidote estimated was based upon the reduction in righting reflex recovery time. The righting reflex recovery time that was close to 1 hour was determined against KCN regimen. AGE was tested as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg intraperitoneally as well as orally at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. SN and ST were tested at 20, and 600 mg/kg respectively as antidotes against sub-lethal KCN toxicity, 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. These were also tested in comparison and a dose with minimum recovery time was noted. A comparison was made between the efficacy of AGE and SN or ST or SN + ST as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity. After 48 hours 3 mice from each group was sacrificed for postmortem examination. For this purpose the righting reflex recovery time and survival data was collected for each mouse challenged with KCN. A group of 3 mice was tested with each increasing dose of KCN to create dose response curves for both righting reflex recovery times and percent survival. Increasing doses of KCN increased the recovery time of the righting reflex. The dose 5.5 mg/kg of KCN showed the righting reflex recocery time mean 64.66 ± .333 min and was selected for trials. AGE (750 mg/kg) showed the most significant results as compared to ST and SN alone as well as in combination. Second most effective drug was ST as it showed better results than SN. Treatment results were more pronounced in 5 min pre-KCN groups as compared to 5 min post-KCN groups. From this study it was concluded that the aqueous AGE is an effective antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity as the recovery times indicated that its effects are more pronounced than SN and ST, secondly, as it is easily available and very much cheaper in Pakistan and due to easy unavailability of SN and ST, it is effective antidote that could be used in the field against sub-lethal KCN toxicity with comparatively better results both orally and intraperitoneally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1776,T] (1).



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