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51. Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infectionin Butchers And Buffaloes By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Latex Agglutination Test

by Rana Sajjad Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic zoonotic infection is usually aymptomatic in immunocompetent persons although it may be present as lymphadenopathy, febrility, etc. but it is a life threatening opportunistic infection in congenitally infected patients and in immunocompromised individuals (those with AIDS, malignancy, organ transplantation, etc). Human beings become infected with T. gondii usually by ingesting oocysts in food and water contaminated with cat feces or by consuming tissue cysts in undercooked meat. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on serological tests latex agglutination test (LAT). Detection of specific DNA seems to be of clinical value in the ingestion of patients infected with toxoplasmosis. In this study, latex agglutination test was used for the detection of the antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of repetitive B1 gene of T. gondii. The study was based on a total of 200 samples involving 50 butchers, 50 buffalo's sera and whole blood respectively. LAT established an overall infection of T. gondii in butchers and buffaloes as 20 % and 22 % respectively. The PCR analysis confirmed this T. gondii prevalence in butchers and buffaloes. LAT proved to be an efficacious method for routine serological screening for antibodies to T. gondii. The costly and sophisticated PCR results in our investigation showed good correlation with the serological data of these patients showing that LAT can be used as an alternation to PCR. The results demonstrated that PCR analysis of clinical samples of patients suspective for acute toxoplasmosis including those with an acquired infection presented by lymphadenopathy can be a promising diagnostic method that enables direct detection of parasitic DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0861,T] (1).

52. Diagnosis And Prevalence Of Trypanosoma Evansi In Camels Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) And Haematocrit Centrifugation Thechnique (HCT) in Punjab (Pakistan)

by Jahanzaib | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The most important protozoan disease of camels is trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. There was little epidemiological information on the prevalence of infection. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of Trypanosorna evansi in camels through haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total number of 100 camels of different age and sex groups were selected from different localities including Bahawalpur, Lahore, Gujranwala and faisalabad to find out the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Punjab (Pakistan) and to evaluate the sensitivity of PCR assay and HCT for the diagnosis Trypanosoma evansi. Blood samples were collected and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence was recorded as 4% and 13% by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and polymerase chain reaction. The positive samples by the polymerase chain reaction also included the positive animals by the haermatocrit centrifugation technique. The results showed that PCR was more sensitive method for the detection of trypanosomiasis as compared to the haematocrit centrifugation technique. Thus PCR can be used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosornosis during both acute and chronic phases of infection, and for use in the evaluation of treatment. Application of PCR to field diagnosis is therefore clearly indicated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0862,T] (1).

53. Effect Of Potassium Chloride And Sodium Bicarbonate Suplementation On Thermotolerance Of Broileers Exposed to Heat Stress

by Muhammad Tahir Naseem | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6ºF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P<0.05) weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P<0.05) serum potassium and bicarbonate level. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0863,T] (1).

54. Toxicological Effects Of Feeding First Cut Sorghum Vegeation And Stalks To Rabbits

by Shahzad Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the hematological and biochemical changes due to toxicity caused by sorghum (stalks, leaves) in rabbits and compared with grass feeding. For this purpose 18 rabbits of almost same body weight and age were randomly divided into three groups (6 animals per group) designated as A, B and C. Animals of each group were caged separately. Group A was fed on grass; group B was fed on sorghum stalks; group C was fed on sorghum leaves. Sorghum samples were collected from different fields A, B, C and D, near Bund road Lahore. From each field four samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Nitrate analysis in sorghum stalks and leaves showed that in all the four fields there was high level of nitrate in stalks as compared to leaves and nitrate content both in stalks and leaves was high in field A as compared to field B, C and D. This high level of nitrate in sorghum was due to excessive use of nitrogen containing fertilizers by farmers. Therefore group B and C was fed on sorghum stalks and leaves of field A for 30 days in experimental room of Pathology, UVAS, Lahore. Blood samples were taken from marginal ear veins of all rabbits aseptically with the help of syringe at the start of the experiment and then at the interval of 10 days till the expiry of the experiment. Hematological studies revealed erythrocytopenia, leukocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin and lowered erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in group B as compared to group A and C from day 10 to 30. Biochemical analysis reveled methemoglobinemia and high level of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of group B as compared to group A and C from day 10 to 30. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0864,T] (1).

55. Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Humans

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Mnsur-uddin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease. In humans it is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and occasionally by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum. Bovine tuberculosis caused by M bovis is the main cause of enteric TB in humans. it is transmitted through milk, meat and dairy products. It is also recorded that it can also cause pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. A study was conducted to detect the M bovis in human pulmonary sputum samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate M bovis from M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Sputum of 400 patients was randomly analyzed with PCR assay. Two (0.5%) out of 400 sputum samples were positive for M bovis while remaining were positive for M tuberculosis. Over all 0.5% cases were positive for M bovis causing pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. The two positive cases were analyzed in the background of their history. History revealed that both of them belong to different families and areas were in close contact with animals for a long time. It suggested that they caught infection from animals. It was an evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis of M bovis in humans. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0865,T] (1).

56. Effect Of High Dietary Fat On Serum Cholesterol And Fatty Liver Syndrome In Broiler

by Imran Ahmed Qureshi | Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Prof. Dr. Nisar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broiler. For this purpose 90 (day-old) chicks were procured from local hatchery. They were divided into three groups A, B and C having 30 chicks each. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing plant and animal fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. Group A acted as control. Experimental parameters included serum cholesterol values and pathological changes in liver. The serum cholesterol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than that of control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was greater in birds fed on animal fat that on plant fat. Grossly the livers of group B and C were enlarged in size, paler in colour, soft in consistency, having petechial haemorrhages, deposition of fat and fibrin. The livers of group A were grossly normal. Histopathologically, livers of group B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nuclei to the periphery of the cell. Addition of dietary fat from animal and plant sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0866,T] (1).

57. Clinico Epidemiological Study Of Bacterial Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Cattle And Buffalo Around Lahore

by Ahtasham-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle and buffalo. For this purpose 100 clinically sick cattle and 100 clinically sick buffalo of both sex and age were examined. The samples were taken randomly from the Outdoor Hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Lahore. various District Veterinary Hospitals of Lahore and Private Veterinary Clinics of Lahore during September 2004 to February 2005. All the animals presented during the above mentioned period were clinically examined. Those showing signs of cough and nasal discharge were clinically examined, and their respiration rate, pulse rate, temperature and lung auscultation was performed. The frequency of clinical signs were observed and found it as, abnormal lung sounds 36.5%, Nasal discharge 69%, Cough 73%, Anorexia 93.5%, Depression 90.5%, Dyspnea 28%, Fever 84.5%, Increased pulse rate 66%, Increased respiratory rate 76.5%, Increased breath sounds 64.5% and Loud breath sounds 56%.Whereas no above mentioned signs were observed in control group. A total of 200 samples of nasal mucus were collected from 100 clinically sick cattle and l00 clinically sick buffalo. Nasal swabs were collected from clinically sick animals. Nasal swabs collected from the nasal cavity of the affected animals, in gamma sterilized cultural swabs, were properly labeled and kept at 4°C till further processing. Each affected animal was also tested For Bovine Tuberculosis using Single Intradermal Test. Smears were made from each nasal swab, stained with Gram's staining and was examined for the presence or absence of bacteria. Each positive bacterial swab was inoculated in nutrient broth, tubes, which was incubated at 37°C and then examined after different intervals of time for turbidity. A loopful of material from positive turbid broth was streaked on the nutrient agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Different types of colonies were purified. Smears were prepared from each type of colony, stained with Gram's staining and examined under oil immersion lens. The staining and morphological characteristics were recorded. Out of total 200 samples, only 152 were positive for bacterial contamination. The prevalence so calculated was 76% amongst the animal examined. A total number of I 52 isolates belonging to the genera Pasteurella, Streptococcus. Staphylococcus. Escherichia and Mycobacteriurn were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, staining, cultural and biochemical characters of the organisms isolated from nasal mucus of cattle and bLiffalo. Of these Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from 43 (21 .5%), Pasteurella multocida 3 I (I 5.5%), Escherichia coli 11 (5.5%), Streptococcus 29 (14.5%), Staphylococcus 23 (11.5%) and Mycobacteriurn bovis 15 (7.5%). The main objective of this study was to assess and record the incidence of various bovine respiratory tract infections and to study the bacterial etiological agents involved in the production of respiratory tract syndrome. The etiological agents were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics of isolates. These findings will help in devising proper and early measures required to cure the disease and to boost LI the prodLictive performance of these ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0870,T] (1).

58. Clinicotherapeutic And Haematological Studies Of Coccidiosis In Qualis

by Muhammad Zahir Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of different anticoccidials i.e. Coxigon and Toltrazuril and their effect on blood values in quails. A total of 100 young healthy quails were purchased and raised for a week in good husbandry and hygienic conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D, comprising of 25 birds each. Group A was treated with Toltrazuril, while group B was treated Coxigon. Group C was infected, non medicated and group D was uninfected control group. All the groups except D were given primary challenge doses of infection. The oocysts count was done on day zero, 3, 5 and 7. Record of mortality, morbidity was kept and postmortem of dead birds was also performed. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) test, to detect the differences between the treatments and means. It is concluded that Toltrazuril as anti-coccidial revealed significant (P<0.05) difference among all the treatments in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, oocyst count, reduction and decrease in mortality ratio and help a lot to normalize the blood values of quails. The results of other anti-coccidial i.e. Coxigon was not satisfactory, due to less decrease in mortality ratio, feed intake and weight gain and help little to normalize their blood values, and group C was infected non medicated showed great mortality and morbidity rate as compared to other groups. The results of this study will help to the Feed Farmers in choosing the best anti-coccidial drug, while the farmers will get choice amongst anti-coccidial drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0872,T] (1).

59. Prevalence Of Ecto And Endo Parasites In Cross Bred Cattle At Lahore And Its Chemotherapy With Ivermectin

by Saleem Khan Niazi | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project had been designed to study the prevalence of Ecto and Endo parasites in crossbred cattle of all age groups and to test the efficacy of ivermectin (Ivergen-Symans) at recommended dose rate by the company against ecto and endo parasites in naturally infected cross bred cattle. For this project 400 crossbred cattle were scanned to isolate 60 infected animals. These 60 animals were divided in to 3 main groups i.e. A, B, and C, comprising 20 animals each. Each main group was subdivided into four sub groups, comprising 5 animals each and were marked as Al, A2, A3, & A4, Bi, B2, B3, B4 and Cl, C2, C3 & C4. Out of total 400 animals, which were scanned 278 (69%) animals were found positive having ecto- endo- and mixed parasitic infection. Faecal samples of all 400 animals were tested for GIT nematodes, out of which 158 (40%) animals were found positive, skin scrappings of all 400 animals were tested for ecto-parasites, out of which 68 (17%) animals were found positive. 52 (13%) animals were found positive for mixed infection of both ecto- and endo-parasites. The results of the present study revealed that Ivergen is highly effective at extremely low dosage against wide variety of nematodes and arthropods parasite, so it is recommended for field use. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0873,T] (1).

60. Antibody Response Of Buffalo To Inactivated Foot And Mouth Disease (Aphtho) Virus Vaccine

by Nadeem Murtaza | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Buffaloes when vaccinated against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine containing serotype "O" of the virus, showed detectable level of complement fixing (CF) antibodies. Buffaloes vaccinated with Aftovaxpur vaccine showed undetectable level of CF-antibodies when tested through complement fixation test using local vaccinal serotype "O" of FMD virus. However, buffaloes irrespective of age and sex when vaccinated with aluminum hydroxide adsorbed FMD vaccine containing serotype "O" of the FMD virus, showed detectable level of CF-antibodies, when tested through CFT using the local serotype "O" Of FMD virus. These antibodies disappeared fourth month post boosting. Buffalo calves immunized with oil based FMD vaccine showed high-level GMT titer (17.6) of the CF-antibodies. Rabbits immunized with the oil based FMD vaccine showed high level GMT (31.2) of the CF-antibodies. Low level of CF-antibodies might be sufficient to induce resistant to field exposure of the FMD virus serotype in the presence of blood complement. Sera of buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat and guinea pigs contained complement titer 35.2, 32.6, 19.2, 20.8, 614.4, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that complement activity remained stable when stored at -200C for 24 hours. The complement activity decreased from 1:512 to 192, 70.4, and 13.6 when stored at 40C, 250C and 370C, respectively. The complement activity was detectable when diluents containing Ca++and Mg++ ions were used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0877,T] (1).

61. Development Of Standard Protocols For Preparation And Evaluation Of Liver Homogenate Vaccines Against

by Sahidullah | prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Twelve vaccines were prepared from HPS infected liver homogenate by using two different virus concentrations (1x102 &1x103 LD50) and two virus inactivants (1%formalin and 0.001%Binary ethyleneimine) with and with out different adjuvants. These vaccines were evaluated in 13 groups of day old broilers (105 chicks) for their comparative immunogenicity and protection. At day 14 of age, groups A1, B1, C1 & D1 were vaccinated with 4 oil base vaccines (OB-HPSV) with different virus concentration and different inactivants. Similarly groups A2, B2, C2 & D2 were vaccinated with aluminized vaccines (AH-HPSV) and groups A3, B3, C3 & D3 with non adjuvant vaccines (NA-HPSV). Groups E was kept as unvaccinated control group. All the vaccinated birds were found sero-positive 7 days post vaccination (PV). IHA GMT results indicated no difference for different virus concentrations and different virus inactivants but same adjuvant. The IHA GMT recorded weekly during 0-28 days post vaccination was the highest and more consistent (52-181) for OB-HPSV followed by AH-HPSV (52-147) and then NA-HPSV (73.3-104). All the birds vaccinated with OB-HPSV resisted the virus challenge 21 days PV (100% protection). While protection percentage recorded for AH-HPSV and NA-HPSV was 87.5 % & 62.5% respectively. It was concluded that 1x102 LD50 oil base vaccines inactivated with either formalin or binary amine may be recommended for commercial use being the best in experimental trails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0878,T] (1).

62. Standardization Of Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay For Detection Of Antibodies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Sdrotype "O"

by Yasmeen Siddique | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An indirect ELISA was standardized for titration of anti-FMD-serotype-specific antibodies. In this test polystyrene plates were coated with known FMD serotype "O" virus using carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The blank spaces were blocked with horse serum. The immunoplate was coated with anti-FMD "O" virus specific serum from vaccinated calves. After washing, the plate was coated with rabbit anti-bovine-Ig-specific-antibodies-horse radish peroxidase conjugate. After washing, the plate was coated with HRP specific substrate. Development of color was recorded in form of OD value using ELISA reader. During the standardization of ELISA, flat bottom ELISA plates among all types of plates, 1:10 diluted virus among different dilutions of FMD "O" type virus, 1:10 diluted serum from buffalo calves vaccinated with FMD "O" type specific vaccine, 1:4000 dilution of conjugate and incubation of 4º C for coating the virus showed good results. In each experiment, plateau region, test back ground and plate back ground was recorded. Results of the study will help in establishment of an economical, sensitive, reliable indirect ELISA that subsequently be helpful to understand the percent prevalence of FMD serotypes in Pakistan and efficacy of FMD vaccines. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0879,T] (1).

63. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Flumequine And Enrofloxacin On Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccinated

by Waseem Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to determine whether Flumequine and Enrofloxacin supplementation has any immunomodulatory effects on broiler chicks. A total of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 48 chicks. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups of 24 chicks. The chicks in group 1st were administered Flumequine, those in group 2 were treated with, Enrofloxacin and those in group 3 were treated with cyclophosphamide. Chicks in group 4 were not given any treatment. The parameters of investigation included the effects of Flumequine and Enrofloxacin treatment on live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, effect on various lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and liver) and immune response of treated chicks to NDV-vaccination, post field NDV challenge mortality. Data presented in this study indicated that the Flumequine treated chicks had higher mean body weights, better FCR, higher NDV HI antibody, lesser overall mortality, no NDV post challenge mortality and no detrimental effects on their lymphoid organs, compared to the cyclophosphamide treated, and untreated chicks. The overall findings of this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Flumequine has good effect on growth and performance of the treated chickens. (Key words: Flumequine, Enrofloxacin, Immunomodulation, Broiler) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0881,T] (1).

64. Passive Immunization Against Canine Distermper Virus In Dogs

by Ali Ahmed Malik | Prof. Dr. Masood Babbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Canine distemper is an important, highly contagious disease of dogs, caused by morbillivirus of family paramyxoviridae. The disease occurs worldwide in variety of hosts. In the present study, data relative to breed, sex and age susceptibility in clinically suspected cases of canine distemper was collected and analyzed. The disease is mostly seen in young nonvaccinated dogs of 4 to 6 months of age when maternal anti-CDV antibodies are decreased. Immune serum was raised in experimental dogs with commercially available measles live virus vaccine. The level of antibodies in the immune serum was determined by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and an ELISA based assay. Immune serum containing 128 AGPT units of anti-CDV antibodies was effective to control the disease in infected dogs after natural exposure to canine distemper virus. Finally the effective time for passive immunization against canine distemper was determined in experimental dogs. It was noted that immune serum offered protection to canine distemper immediately after infection, during the incubation period of the disease , 48 hours after infection and early phase of the disease(at the appearance of clinical signs). Passive immunization is not rewarding in the terminal phase of the disease (when infected dogs show nervous signs of the disease).Thus it is very useful for the prevention of disease in dogs kept with infected dogs in kennels and pet shops. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0882,T] (1).

65. Standardization Of Indirect Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay For Detection Of Foot And Mouth Disease

by Muhammad Mujahid Amjed | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Professor Dr. Masood Rabbani | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is one of the most troublesome and infectious diseases of livestock, caused by the FMD virus. In this study Indirect Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (IS-ELISA) was standardized to characterize the FMD serotype "0" virus. Oil based FMD serotype "0" vaccine was prepared and injected at the neck region of guinea pigs and rabbits. The vaccine induced anti-FMD serotype "0" virus antibodies in the vaccinated animals after 21 days post boosting. The serum thus separated was purified through ammonium sulfate salt (NH4)2S04 and ion exchange column chromatography. Total protein content in the guinea pig serum (whole serum), Ammonium Sulfate Precipitated Guinea Pig Serum (ASPGPS) protein and Ion Exchange based purified Guinea Pig Serum (IEGPS) protein when analyzed through spectrophotometer at 280 nm and 260 nm was found to be 52 ug/mi, 24 ug/ml and 10 ug/mi respectively. Virus Neutralization (VN) test was performed to monitor the neutralizing antibody titer. The whole serum of guinea pigs and rabbits showed the 1:32 and 1:64 anti-FMD serotype "0" virus neutralizing antibody titers. While anti-FMD serotype "0" virus neutralizing antibody titer was 1:128 in the IEGPS proteins. IEGPS protein with 1:128 neutralizing antibody titer were used as capture/trapping antibody in the standardization of the assay. The IEGPS protein 1:1000 diluted with 10 ug/ml of protein content was found to be optimum as capture/trapping antibody. To cover residual blank spaces, different available blocking buffers were evaluated and Skimmed Milk Solution 5 % in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBSSKIVI-5%) proved best amongst blocking buffers. Coating of 1:1000 diluted IEGPS at 37 °C for 1 hour followed by storage at 4 °C for overnight was best incubation time in the study. FMD serotype "0" virus 1:100 diluted was optimum in IS-ELISA. Similarly rabbit anti-FMD serotype "0" virus specific immune serum 1:10,000 diluted and goat anti-rabbit IgG horseradish peroxidase conjugate 1:4000 diluted were found to be optimum during the standardization of the assay. Lastly ELISA plates were proved to be best amongst the available plates for assay. In each experiment, plateau region, test background and plate background were recorded. Results of the study helped for establishment of an economical, sensitive, reliable, robust IS-ELISA technique in research and diagnostic laboratories in the country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0883,T] (1).

66. Effect Of Norgestomet And Gnrh On Besumptio Nof Cyclicity And Pertility In Early Postpartum Non-Suckled Buffaloes

by Attiq Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Khalid | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Delayed resumption of postpartum estrus activity is the most vital factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes. This study was designed to induce ovulation in early postpartum buffaloes (30-37 days). Fifteen Nili-Ravi buffaloes with a mean postpartum period 32.6±2.72 were randomly divided into three equal groups A, B and C (n=5) on the basis of parity, postpartum period, age and milk production. The animals in group A were given Norgestomet implant at day 32.8±2.94 postpartum period for 9 days. One day after removal of implants animals were given Dalmeralin (Leciren). The animals of group B given only Norgestomet implant at day 32.4±2.50 postpartum for 9 days. Group C animals acted as control and did not receive any treatment. Same number of animals (4/5) exhibited estrus in both groups A and B. None of the buffaloes in-group C showed estrus. It is concluded that treatment of norgestomet or norgestomet + GnRH in early postpartum buffaloes, are able to induce estrus, however, fertility remain compromised. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0884,T] (1).

67. Effect Of Sperm Storage Tubules Secretions From Pre-Layer Hen On Cockerel Sperm Clumping And Motility

by Iqbal Munir | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Dr. Amir Saeed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Artificial insemination (AT) in the poultry industry has considerable importance because of better results in fertility and hatchability. Increasing male utilization in artificial insemipation depends upon the optimum use of semen by suitable diluting media to increase the volume of ejaculate and to preserve fertility. In the present study, the effect of sperm storage tubules secretions on percentage motility and extent of clumping of sperms was noticed. An optimum osmotic pressure 375 mOsm with pH 7.0 was used to preserve the cockerel's semen at 5°C. A total of 20 meat Breeder cockerels were randomly selected. After providing 10-days sexual rest, they were trained for semen collection by abdominal massage technique. Three birds failed to produce good quality semen. These birds were removed from the study. Semen from seventeen Meat Breeder Cockerels was pooled. After macroscopic evaluation, the pooled semen was divided into 4 groups.Group A was diluted with Modified Van Wambeke diluent with addition of sperm storage tubules secretions. Group B was diluted with the above diluent without SST secretions. Group C was diluted with saline solution with addition of SST secretions while group D was diluted with saline solution without SST secretions. These four groups were stabilized at 375 mOsm osmotic pressure in pH 7.0 and stored at 5°C. The diluted semen samples were examined for percentage motility and extent of clumping. After 72 hours of semen storage (5°C), group A showed significantly (P<0.05) higher motility as compared to groups B, C and D. The extent of clumping was higher (P <0.05) in group D as compared to groups A, B and C. However, group A showed less (P <0.05) clumping upto 64 hours as compared to groups B, C and D. The results of the present study suggested that at 375 mOsm, pH 7.0 the cockerels semen stored at 5°C diluted wiih Milk based extender and saline solution with addition to SST secretions proved to be suitable for short-term preservation of Meat Breeder Cockerel semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0885,T] (1).

68. Studies On Gentamicin Toxicity In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shah Rukh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of gentamicin sulphate at different dosage levels in broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted in two phases. During phase I one hundred broiler chicks were divided into A,B, C and D groups having twenty five birds in each and were injected gantamicin sulphate in the form of gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 5mg/kg, lOmg/ kg, 20mg /kg in groups A,B and C twice daily for four days respectively while group D kept as control. During phase II twenty five chicks were divided into groups E,F,G,H and I having five birds in each. Birds in groups E and F were injected gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 40mg/kg and 80 mg/kg while gantamicin sulphate injected in the form of Aagent 10% at the rate of 40 mg / kg and 80 mg/kg to groups G and H twice daily for four days respectively and the birds of I group were kept as control. Blood samples (3m1) were collected from all medicated and un-medicated groups before and after medication on different days and serum was separated for the measurement of different biochemical parameters. Post-mortem examination of all birds were performed at the end of experiment. Post-mortem examination revealed no abnormality in any bird during phase I (normal organs) while during phase II abnormalities such as congestion, inflammation of the kidney and necrosis, discoloured livers were recorded except control group. Six birds died during experiment in phase 11(2/10 at 40mg/kg and 4/10 at 80mg/kg dose). The mortality rates at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg were 20 and 40% respectively. An increase in Aspartate amino Transferase was observed in medicated birds during phase I while a significant increase in Aspartate amino Transferase, Alanine amino Transferase, uric acid and creatinine were recorded in medicated birds during phase II. From this study it is concluded that broiler birds tolerated gentamicin upto 20mg/kg while acute toxic effects at the dose of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of gentamicin were recorded in broiler chicks. No sign of visceral gout were recorded in any bird. There was no difference in the toxicity of two different preparations of gentaniicin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0893,T] (1).

69. Bioavailability Of Amoxicilin Trihydrate In Broiler Chickens Administered Through Drinking Water

by Amir Bakhsh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Bioavailability of two oral commercial formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate i.e. oracin-50 (Mediexcel, Pharmaceuticals (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica, µµchickens. The birds were divided into two groups A and B and than six replicates of each group were made. The birds were reared upto 30 days. Group A was medicated by Oracin-50 and group B was medicated by Bioxil-20. The medication was continued for three consecutive days and blood samples were collected before and after medication as per schedule. The plasma level of amoxicillin were determined by microbiological assays. The concentrations versus time data were plotted on logrithmic paper and various bio-availability parameters were determined. Peak concentrations of both oral preparations appeared with in two hours. However Oracin-50 peak concentration revealed 5.26±1.605µg/ml which was not significantly higher than 4.71±0.142ig/ml as depicted by Bioxil-20. Mean ±SEM of the area under curve (AUC) for Oracin-50 was 296.783±6.331µg. hr/ml and 259.26±4.866 µg.hr/ml for Bioxil-20 statistical analyses revealed no significant different minimum concentration of Oracin-50 revealed 2.550±O.0763µg/ml while 2.450±O.07637µg/ml as depicted by the bioxil-20. Both the preparations took the same time (2 hour) to attain the peak level of the plasma concentration. The present study also revealed that amoxicillin is not much stable in water. Oracin-50 decreased 34% and Bioxil-20 decreased 35% in 72 hours There was no significant difference (P<O.05) in the stability of both groups. The comparative study of the two Pharmaceutical preparations Oracin-50 (Mediexcel Pharmaceutical Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica Pharmaceutical Pakistan) revealed that there was no significant difference (P<O.05) between the means of two groups. The statistical evaluation revealed bio-equaleancy between two drugs. Amoxicillin is broad spectrum antibiotic, its bioavailability is better than other antibiotic. Its MIC is also very low (O.25igIml) but its half 1fe is short. So its repeated doses should be given. As it is somewhat unstable, in case of drinking water. The medicated water should be changed get the maximum efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0894,T] (1).

70. Identification And Chemotherapy Of Ectoparasites Of Camels (Camel Us Dromedarius) In Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Iqbal | Prof. Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Syed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project has been designed for identification and chemotherapy of ecto-parasites of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different areas of Dera-Ghazi-Khan. For this purpose 300 camels were examined during the period October to November 2004. Out of 300 camels 109(36.3%) were found infested with ecto-parasites. Two types of ectoparasites were found to be active during those days. Sixty three camels were infested with ticks. After collection these ticks were mounted for identification, with the help of their morphological characters. The only tick found to be identified was Hyalomma dromedarii and the tick infestation was found to be 21% in those areas during October-November 2004. Similarly, 85 suspected camels were examined by skin scraping in the District Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Dera-Ghazi-Khan, for identification of mites 46 camels weie found to be infested with mange mites and the mange mites infestation was 15.3%. The species of mites identified was Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli. For chemotherapeutic trails 60 positive ecto-parasitic camels were divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B and C, 20 camels in each group. For further procedures these groups were divided into sub-groups i.e. A (Al + A2), B (Bi + B2) and C (Cl + C2) where each sub-group contained 10 animals (camels). Al, Bi and Cl were infested with mites and A2, B2 and C2 with ticks. The group A was treated with Ivermectin (Baymec; Bayer) at dose rate of 1 m1150 kg body weight sub/cut. Similarly the group B was treated with Neguvon (0.15%) solution with spray machine. Where the group C acted as infected, non-medicated control group. The efficacy of Baymec on 7th day was 75% and on 14th day was 80%. But the efficacy of Neguvon (0.15% solution) on 7th day was 65% and on 14th day was 75%. The camels of group C were not treated and acted as control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0895,T] (1).

71. Occurrence And Importance Of Enteric Protozoan Infections On Different Goat Farms In District Swat

by Farooq Shah | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmed hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and importance of enteric protozoa in goat population. A total of 225 faecal samples were collected from fifteen different goat farms in district Swat. These samples were collected from three age groups i.e Group I (day 1 to 6 months), Group II (7 - 12 months) and Group III (over one year). These samples were processed by Direct Smear method, Sheather's Flotation and Zinc Sulphate Flotation technique for the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Eimeria cysts and oocysts. Overall prevalence of Eimeria 37.77%, Giardia 12.44% and Cryptosporidium 6.22% was recorded. Age related prevalence showed highest the number of Eimeria 53.33%, Giardia 18.66% and Cryptosporidium 8% in Group I which comprised animals of I day to 6 month. Among 225 faecal samples 73, were collected from diarrhoeic and 152 from non diarrhoeic animals. The infection rates were higher in diarrhoeic animals, Eimeria 45.22%, Giardia 21.9% and Cryptosporidium 10.99% than non diarrhoeic animal. 34.6% faecal samples were found positive for other parasites such as Haemonchus 10.22%, Trichostrongylus 8%, Trichuris 20%, Strongyloids 6.6%. A large number of faecal samples (58.66%) were found positive for parasitic infections. Results of this study indicated widespread prevalence of' parasitic diseases in goat population and especially Eimeria and Giardia are the predominant protozoan parasites Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0897,T] (1).

72. Comparison Of Different Diagnostic Techniques Against Fasciolosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Mutee-us-Salam | Prof. Dr. H. A. Hashmi | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr. Zafar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study as conducted to find out the most reliable technique for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in buffaloes and to calculate economic losses due to fasciolosis. A total 0 F 1 00 faecal samples were examined by Director Smear, Zinc-sulfate flotation and Sedimentation techniques. Prevalence was 2, 4 and 5 percent respectively. Although they are very cheap and simple techniques but detection of the disease in early stages is not possible. Where as Agar Gel Precipitation technique gave positive results as 8% is laborious technique. But the diagnosis during the early stages is possible. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in Young animals (below 2 years) was found 0% Direct Smear Method. 3.33% by Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique. 6.67° by Sedimentation Technique and 6.67% by using Agar Gel Precipitation technique. In Adult (above 2 years) the Prevalence was found 2.85% by Direct Smear Method, 4.28% by Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique. 4.28% by Sedimentation technique and 8.57% by using Agar Gel Precipitation Technique. In Males the Prevalence was found 0% by Direct Smear Method. 0% by Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique, 6.26% by Sedimentation Technique and 6.26% by using Agar Gel Precipitation Technique. In Females the Prevalence was Found 2.38% by Direct Smear Method. 4.76% by Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique. 4.76% , by Sedimentation Technique and 8.33% by using Agar ( el Precipitation Technique. In Neeli Ravi the Prevalence was found 2.35% by direct Smear Method. 4.76°/o by Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique. 4.76°/o by Sedimentation technique and 8.23% by using Agar Gel Precipitation Technique. In Kundi the Prevalence was found 0% by direct Smear Method. 0° b Zinc sulfate Flotation Technique. 6.66% by Sedimentation Technique and 6.66% by using Agar Gel Precipitation Technique. From the results ii appears that AGPT Sedimentation technique, Zinc-sulfate flotation and Direct Smear Method can be ranked as No. I. 2. 3. and 4 respectively in terms of their efficacy. Total economic losses due to fasciolosis during three months (Oct.-Dec.2004) were very high i.e. Rs.1016400. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0898,T] (1).

73. Seroprevalence Of Ftoxoplasma Gondii Infection In Sheep And Goats

by Sher Hayat Khan | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis the present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats using commercially available kit "Toxopalasmosis Latex" based on the principal of Latex agglutination. . For this purpose 100 blood samples (50 sheep & 50 goats) were collected randomly from slaughter house of Lahore and local sheep & goat forms, the serum was separated and analyzed for anti Toxoplasma antibodies. The animals were divided in three groups, Group I included animals below one year, Group II 1-4 years and Group III included animals aged 4 years and above. The overall 8% and 6% seroprevalence were recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Age titer relationship in sheep showed that Group III had (12.5%), Group 11(7.6 %) and Group I had no positive cases in sheep examined. In goats Group III had (10 %), Group II (5.7%) and no seropositive cases in Group I could be recorded. These results indicate that the infection was higher in older animal than young ones, Breed wise seroprevalence indicated that, Kchhi sheep 14.28%, Desi (non descript) 8.33% and no seropositive case in Lohi and Thali breeds was recorded. In goats Teddy breed had 11.11%, Desi (non descript) 5.55% while no seropositive case in Beetal goats could be recorded. From the data analyzed it is concluded that although the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in sheep and goats is relatively low in this area as compared to the other parts of the world. Yet adequate management might be useful and essential to further minimize the infection in sheep and goats herds. Consequently, preventive measures could further reduce the exposure of toxoplasmosis in the human population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0899,T] (1).

74. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Against Git Nematodes And Their Effect On Blood Parameters In Sheep And Goats

by Naseeb Ullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of various drugs; 1) Albendazole (Farbenda), 2) Oxfendazole (Oxafax) and 3) Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) against naturally infected GIT nematodes in sheep and goats under field condition in and around district Kohlu, Balochistan and to find out their effect on some blood parameters; 1) Haemoglobin, 2) Total leukocyte count and 3) Differential leukocyte count and to detect the prevalence For this purpose 180 sheep and goats naturally infected coprologically were examined. Out of 180 sheep and goats 106 were found positive showed 58% prevalence. For the treatment protocol, forty naturally infected and ten non-infected were selected and divided randomly into five groups having ten sheep and goats in each group viz A, B, C, E and D. Group A was treated with Albendazole 1ml/20mg body weight. Group B was treated with Oxfendazole 1ml/5kg body weight. Group C was treated with Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) @ 2mg/kg body weight. Group E was kept infected non-medicated control group. Group D was kept non-infected non-medicated control group. In group A the eggs per gram of faeces were 22,700 on day zero and no eggs were found on day 7th which was treated with Albendazole. It has been observed from the result that Albendazole showed 100% efficacy on day 7th. In group B which was treated with Oxfendazole with egg per gram of faeces were 23,200 on day zero 22,800 on day 7th and no egg were found on day 14th. It has been observed from above results that the Oxfendazole shown 95% efficacy on day 7th and 100% efficacy on day 14th. In group C which was treated with Karanjwa, the eggs per gram faeces were 19,500 on day zero 22,100, on day 7th 31,800 on day 28th. Group E which was kept infected non-medicated control group, the egg per gram were found on day zero, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th, 20000, 23700, 27500, 31200 and 35300. On the haematological study the haemoglobin and lymphocyte level were decrease as compared to non-infected control group whereas the value of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil were increased as compared to normal group. In group A and B the haemoglobin and lymphocyte value slightly increase on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication. Moreover, the values of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil were slightly decrease on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication in group A and B. It has been observed from above study that Albendazole and Oxfendazole shown their effect on blood parameters, whereas group C which was treated with Karanjwa have shown no effect on faecal egg count and blood parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0902,T] (1).

75. Simplication Of Urea Treatment Method To Improve The Nutritve Value Of Cereal Starw

by Muhammad Haroon Muzaffar | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Anjum Khalique | Dr. Kamran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: In Pakistan about 36 million tones of rice and wheat straw is produced annually which constitutes an important part of livestock feeding. Cereal straws have low protein contents and low digestibility. Hence, inspite of large volume they contribute little towards meeting the nutritional requirement of livestock. In the past, efforts have been made to improve the nutritive value of straws through chemical treatment which included use of NaOH, anhydrous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide with different levels of success. Lately urea has been used for increasing the digestibility and protein contents of straws. However, inspite of significant improvement in the nutritive value by this method the adoption of technology by the farmers always remained low. Reason for low adaptability may be due to relatively tedious technology and involvement of labour. The conventional method of urea treatment of straw involves preparation of 4% solution of urea in water, sprinkling this solution on wheat straw layer by layer and simultaneously pressing the wheat straw to give it anaerobic condition and finally covering it with mud plaster or plastic sheet and incubation for a period of one month before its use. Limitation of this method is the involvement of labour especially when larger quantities of straw are to be treated. To overcome this problem a new simple and easier method has been developed. This method involves weighing of urea @ 4% of straw to be treated, mixing it with the double the amount of manure or Acacia leaves, giving some moisture by adding water, putting this mixture in bag, keeping the bag on ground where straw is to be treated, piling the straw on bag, again moistening the straw with water (60% of straw) and incubating this material for one month under the cover of plastic sheet or mud plaster. The method is slightly less efficient than the conventional one but very simple and involves very little labour as compared with conventional one. In the new method three steps including preparation of urea solution, sprinkling of solution on straw and pressing the straw during treatment process have been deleted which resulted in saving labour and time. CONCLUSION As a result of this study a new and easy method has been developed which is simpler and involves much lesser labour than the conventional one. In this method following three main steps have been excluded which are used in the conventional method. a) Preparation of 4% urea solution. b) Sprinkling and mixing of urea solution with wheat straw. c) Pressing the wheat straw to give it anaerobic conditions. Method is slightly less efficient than the conventional one and demands more research work. The new method may be named as "Bag Method". Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0904,T] (1).

76. A Study Of Babesiosis In Calves At Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad And Adjacent Areas

by Nadeem Niazi | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Javed Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Bovine babesiosis (Piroplasmosis, Texas fever, redwater, tick fever) is a febrile, tick-borne disease of cattle, caused by one or more protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia and generally characterized by extensive erythrocytic lysis leading to anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and death. There are probably at least six Babesia species responsible for bovine babesiosis. Most can be categorized as being small or large Babesia. Morphological and serological differences are used to distinguish the different species. The two that are of most concern in our country are Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis which are inflecting considerable losses to the livestock especially cattle. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis in cow calves at livestock experimental station Qadir Abad and adjacent areas of District Sahiwal and to find out the comparative efficacy of two babesicidal drugs i.e Fa-try-banil (diminazene aceturate) Prix Pharmaceutica. Lahore, Pakistan and Imizol (Tmidocarb dipropionate) ICI, Pakistan. In this study effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters i.e hemoglobin estimation and total ervthrocytic count was also studied. For this purpose 415 calves were examined for the presence of babesiosis. Out of these 30 calves were found positive showing 7.2 percent prevalence. For treatment purpose 40 calves were selected randomly i.e. 30 infected and 10 healthy. i'hcse were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D comprising 10 animals each. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of blood smear method. The animals of group A were treated with Fa-try-banil (dirninazene aceturate) @ 3.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly at day zero. Four out of 10 calves recovered at 3" of injection, one calf recovered 7 day of 1S' injection, 4 calves recovered at 10th day of injection. This drug showed 90% efficacy while the calves of group B were treated with Imizol (Imidocarb dipropionate) lml/l00 kg body weight at day zero. Seven out of 10 calves recovered at 3rd day of injection, two recovered at 7 day of injection and remaining recovered at l0" day of 1S1 injection. This drug showed 100 percent efficacy at 10th day. Animals of group C served as infected untreated control and group D served as healthy non-infected control. Comparative efficacy of both the drugs was determined on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and babesia from the blood. No side effects of the drugs were noted. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocytic count pre-medication. It has been observed from the present study that Imizol was the drug of choice for the treatment of babesjosis in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0908,T] (1).

77. Comparative Efficacy Of Five Diffrent Brands Of Commercial Newcastle Disease Lasota Viurs Vaccines In Broilers

by Tariq Abbas | Prof. Dr. Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The aim of the study was to compare five major commercial NDV (LaSota strain) vaccines being used in Pakistan with respect to potency, efficacy, thcrnioslability and influence on production performance in briolier chicks. The representative vials of the live NDV LaSota strain vaccines namely A, B, C, D and E were procured from local market. The vaccines were assayed for 50% infectivity (BID50) and Haemagglutinative ability (HA). A 3-log10 difference oF EJD50 and two- to-eight fold difference of HA activity was found was found among the various vaccines. Onc hundred and fifty day- old broiler chicks were divided into six groups and managed separately. The birds in group I, II, Ill, IV and V were actively immunized against ND on day 7 and 21 using vaccines A, B, C, D and E respectively. The birds in group VI served as unvaccinated control. The serum 1-Il antibody response of the different vaccines was determined 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-vaccination. The birds (n= 15) in all tile groups including unvaccinated control was challenged at day 35 with local virulent field isolate. The HI serum antibody profile and post-challenge mortality pattern revealed a dose- response relation between the virus content, humor-al antibody response and clinical protection. To compare the heat stability, the vaccines were incubated at 4C, 25CC and 40C for a period of 24 hours. There was no remarkable reduction in I IA liter, however slight dips (less than 2 logarithmic units) in LID50 values were found in all the vaccines. All the vaccines caused siginifcant suppression in weight gain leading to a poor performance in terms of Feed Conversion Ration (FCR) and European Efficiency Factor (EEF) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0909,T] (1).

78. Effect Of Cold Shock On Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa Of Buffalo & Cow Bulls

by Syed Amer Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Dr.Azhar | Dr.Muhammed Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Effect of cold-shock on frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa was measured in terms of motility, viability, plasma membrane and acrosome . integrity. Single ejaculates each from seven Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and 7 Sahiwal cow bulls were processed for freezing. Three straws of 0.5ml (for each parameter) from each bull were thawed and pooled at 3rC before and after cold-shock at 4°C for 2 min. Individual motility was observed by phase contrast microscope before and after cold-shock. Before and after cold-shock, sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were evaluated by supravital stain, hypo osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. Two hundred sperm were counted for each parameter before and after cold-shock. Comparison of before and after cold shock values showed that cold shock had no effect (P>0.05) on motility (64.0±1.88 vs 60.4±2.56), viability (141.1±4.39 vs 124.5±8.03), plasma membrane integrity (83.51±5.82 vs 71.19±4.31) and acrosome integrity (148.3±2.36 vs 141.1 ±2.85) of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Comparison of before and after cold shock values of cow bull spermatozoa indicated that cold shock had significant (P<0.05) effect on motility (59.2±1.05 vs 41.9±.12), viability (140: 14±2.94 vs 90.5±2.73), and plasma membrane integrity (62.3±4.28 vs 47.24±3.71) but no effect on acrosome integrity (147.9±2.21 vs 140.6±2.40). In conclusion, cold shock had significant detrimental effect on cattle bull spermatozoa but no effect on buffalo bull spermatozoa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0910,T] (1).

79. Effect Of Osmotic Pressure On The Membrane Integrity Of Frozen-Thawed Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Muhammed Irfan-Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Dr.Azhar | Dr.Muhammed Mushtaq | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: In the first experiment, semen from seven Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was used to study plasma membrane integrity of freshly collected (raw) and frozen-thawed sperm using the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). For this purpose, percentage motility, integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome was assessed by a phase contrast microscope, HOST plus eosin-nigrosin staining and normal apical ridge test. respectively. 50fJI each of raw and frozen-thawed semen was mixed with 500fJI of 50, 100, 150, 190 or 250 mOsm hypo-osmotic treatments of sodium citrate plus fructose and incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Integrity of sperm plasma membrane was assessed before and after hypo-osmotic treatments to estimate the extent of damage for each hypo-osmotic treatment. In raw semen, the number of swollen sperm was higher (P<0.05) at 50, 100, 150 and 190 mOsm as compared to 250 mOsm. A positive but non-significant correlation (P>0.05) was found between percentage of swollen and live sperm at 100, 150, 190 mOsm. Similarly, a positive but non-significant correlation (P>0.05) was found between percentage of swollen sperm and motility at 50, 100, 150, 190 and 250 mOsm. In frozen-thawed semen, the number of swollen sperm w.as higher (P<0.05) at 50 and 100 mOsm as compared to 150, 190 and 250 mOsm and this number decreased significantly (P<0.05) and gradually from 82.6±5.99 at 150 mOsm to 69.7±5.49 at 190 mOsm and 42.6±4.07 at 250 mOsm. A positive but non-significant correlation (P>0.05) was found between percentage of swollen and live sperm and between percentage of swollen sperm and motility at 50, 100 150, 190 and 250 mOsm. The number of sperm with intact acrosome did not differ (P>0.05) in raw and frozen-thawed semen among treatments. Percentag~ motility in raw semen was highe~' (81%) as compared to frozen-thawed semen (60%). Damage to plasma membrane'was higher (P<0.05) at 50 mOsm (59% raw vs. 70% frozen-thawed) as, compared to other hypo-osmotic treatments, while minimum damage occurred at 250 mOsm (4.1% raw vs. 9.7% frozen-thawed). In the second experiment, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) plus eosin-,nigrosin staining and normal apical ridge test (NAR) were used to determine integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome of raw, diluted (cooled to 5°C) and frozen-thawed sperm. Semen from seven bulls was used in this study. For diluted and frozen-thawed sperm, three straws were pooled at 37°C. Percentage motility of raw, diluted and frozen-thawed sperm was assessed using a phase contrast microscope. 501-11 each of raw, diluted and frozen-thawed sperm was mixed with 5001-11 of 50, 100, 150, 150, 190 or 250 mOsm hypo-osmotic treatments of sodium citrate plus fructose and incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Total number of intact (live) sperm of raw, diluted and frozen-thawed semen was assessed before HOST. Diluted sperm showed higher (P<0.05) swellings of plasma membrane at 50 and 100 mOsm than raw sperm. Similarly, swellings of diluted sperm were' higher (P<0.05) than frozen-thawed sperm. Swellings of raw sperm were significantly higher (P<0.05) at 100, 150, 190 and 250 mOsm than frozenthawed sperm. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was found among percentage motility of raw (81±1.57), diluted (69.6±2.24) and frozen thawed (60.1 ±1.34) sperm. Live sperm were higher (P<0.05) in raw (174.4±7.33) and diluted semen (175.6±3.76) as compared to frozen-thawed semen (142.3±4.84). Although integrity of the acrosome of raw, diluted and frozen-thawed sperm did not differ (P>0.05), significan~ variation was found within bulls. In conclusion, fresh and frozen-thawed sperm behaved differently to HOST and the number of swollen sperm was higher in raw as compared to frozenthawed semen. Plasma membrane' integrity of raw and diluted sperm was compromised during freezing and thawing. However, freezing had no effect on acrosome integrity. Moreover, 100, 150 and 190. mOsm were found suitable to perform HOST. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0911,T] (1).

80. An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tayyaba Ijaz (Phd) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0912,T] (1).

81. Incidence Of Ecto Parasites &Therapy Of Tick Infestation In Cattle Of District Dera Ghazikhan

by Muhammed Ramzan | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Allah Devyia Khan Khosa | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the prevalence of ecto-parasites and to evaluate and compare the efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem) against tick infested cattle. These animal were randomly divided in groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having ten animal in each group. Animal in group A, B, C were treated with Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadirachta Indica (Neem). Animals in group D served as infected non-treated whereas animals in group E served as healthy and un-treated control. The efficacy of Ivermectin, Doramectin and Azadiracht Indica (Neem) on 14thi day post-treatment 100%, 60% and 0% respectively. Whereas animals in group D remained positive throughout the course of treatment whereas healthy animals in group E remained negative throughout the course of treatment from this result it was noted that Ivermectin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tick infestation. No side effect were observed with this drug. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0914,T] (1).

82. Studies On In Vitro Culture Characteristics Of Adherent Baby Hamster Kidney-21 (Bhk-21) Cell Line

by Saddeq-ru-Rahman | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Baby Hamster Kidney-2 1 (BHK-2 1) cell line growth pattern, growth requirements, growth effectors, cryopreservation and its susceptibility to different animal viruses were studied to optimize the in vitro culture requirements and conditions for maintenance and long time cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen of this cell line. It was observed that BHK-2l cells multiplied fast during first 48 hours and made a complete monolayer after getting confluency with in 72 hours post incubation which was followed by a decline phase. Fetal calf serum has growth stimulating effect and 5 - 10% serum level was satisfactory for the maintenance of cell line. While harvesting the cells from a flask, Trypsin (0.25%) with neutralization by fetal calf serum (5-10%) was found better. For cell storage 10% Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) through gradual cooling maintained maximum recovery of viable cells during cryopreservation. Footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV; serotype "0" and "A") were adapted to cell this cell line, while canine parvo virus (CPV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV LaSota strain), canine distemper virus (CDV), and hydropericardium syndrome virus (HPSV) could not adapted to this cell line through five blind passages in this study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0916,T] (1).

83. Comparative Study Of Flank Vs Midline Approach For Overiohysterectomy In Cats

by Mudassir Ahmad Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Ovariohysterctomy is one of the most commonly performed operation in cats and is indicated for both medical and behavioral reasons. The most common indication of ovariohysterectomy is elective sterilization which avoids all objectionable sexual behaviors and over population. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice for most uterine diseases and it greatly reduces risk of mammary neoplasia. The method of performing ovariohysterectomy in cats must be affordable, safe, reliable & convenient. In the past different approaches have been tried for ovariohysterctomy in cats viz. linea alba(ventral midline) and vertical flank. But the relative efficacy of the approaches has not been determined in the past in our conditions. The objective of our study is to compare and evaluate these two approaches in our environmental conditions. The Flank approach was found to be relatively better than the Ventral midline approach in our conditions in terms of convenience, reliability, safety with rapid recovery and less postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0917,T] (1).

84. Preparation And Evaluation Of Cell Culture Vaccines Against Hydropericadium Syndrome Virus In Poultry

by Jamshid Akhter | Masood Rabbani | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: In this study a total of 9 vaccines were prepared, 6 vaccines were prepared from cell culture passaged HPS virus having TCID50 i' and inactivated with formalin and binary ethyleneimine (BET ) with and with out different adjuvant combinations. While other 2 vaccines were prepared from more diluted virus suspension with PBS (10 and 100 times) and were inactivated by binary amine and adjuvant was oil base. The 9th vaccine was prepared from infected liver homogenate (aqua base) and inactivated with formalin. These vaccines were evaluated in 10 groups of day old broilers (100 chicks) for their comparative immunogenicity and protection. At day 14 of age, groups Al, B 1, Cl, and C were vaccinated with four oil base vaccines with different virus concentration and different inactivants. Similarly groups Dl & D were vaccinated with aluminized vaccines and groups A, B, and El with non adjuvant vaccines. Groups E was kept as unvaccinated control group. Serum samples were collected from all groups on 0, 14, 28 and 42 day of age and subjected to AGPT for seroconversion. AGPT GMT results indicated difference for different virus concentrations and no difference for different virus inactivants but same adjuvant. The AGPT GMT recorded 0 & 14 day of age pre vaccination indicated the maternal antibodies against HPS in chicks were not protective level. The chicks became protective against the disease in most susceptible age. The AGPT GMT recorded 14 and 28 days post vaccination indicated the highest and more consistent (149.2 and 182) for oil base vaccines with virus concentration having TCID50 104.1 but for vaccines of diluted virus suspension then GMT was variable. Similarly aluminized vaccines showed (149 and 94.4) and non adjuvant cell culture vaccines showed (116 and 2.7) while non adjuvant liver homogenate showed (80.5 and 2.3). On day 42 of age, all birds were challenged with virulent HPS virus and percentage mortality and percentage protection for each group were recorded. Lowest mortality (0%) and highest protection (100%) were recorded for groups vaccinated with oil base vaccine. There was zero mortality and 100 percent protection were recorded for group Dl (BET inactivated) while in group D (formalinized) there was 10 percent mortality and 88 percent protection in groups vaccinated with aluminized vaccines. While mortality and protection in groups vaccinated with non adjuvant cell culture vaccines were 25% and 71.5% while in group vaccinated with non adjuvant liver homogenate vaccine was 50% and 44%, respectively. Cell culture oil base vaccine against HPS virus, having io' TCID50 inactivated with BET was concluded the best in experimental trails and has been recommended for commercial production after field evaluation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0918,T] (1).

85. Development And Standardization Of Agar Gel Diffusion Test For Diagnosis Of Gigantocotyle Explanatum In Buffaloes

by Shahzad Sharif | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Gigantocotyle explanaturn is one of the most prevalent paramphistome among the flukes which parasitize cattle and buffaloes. Diagnosis of parasitic diseases can be performed by coprological and immunological techniques. In the present study standardization of agar gel diffusion test (AGDT) was carried out. The soluble antigen of Gigantoco1'/e explaflatuni was prepared after homogenization of adult flukes in normi' saline and subsequent collection of supernatant after cenirifugation. 1-lyperimmunc senim against the antigen was rflise(l in rabbits. Agar gel plates were prepared and antigen was standardized against known positive serum. The faecal and blood samples were collected from 200 suspected buffaloes from two abattoirs of the Lahore city. AGDT was performed for serological identification of the samples and coprological examination for detection of ova. The recovery of flukes from the liver, bile duct and gall bladder of thc same animals was also carried out. 'l'he efficacy of serological and coprological examination for the diagnosis of G. explanatum was compared with that of direct recovery of parasite from liver of slaughtered animals. Out of the 200 buffaloes 51 (25.5 percent) harhoured (7, explanatum in their livers, bile duct and gall bladder. The serological examination of the same animals showed that antibodies against (7. explanalum were detectable in 29 (56.85 percent) buffaloes by AGDT while the coprological examination of same animals revealed that ova of (i. explanatum were present in 23 (45.1 percent) out of the 51 animals. From these findings it can be inferred that efficacy of AGDT is superior to faecal examination and could become a useful technique for herd diagnosis of G. explandatum in buffaloes under field conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0919,T] (1).

86. Sero-Epidemiological And Haematological Studies On Toxoplasmosis In Cats, Dogs And Their Owners in Lahore

by Azeem Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Mr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, caused by Toxop1asna gondii and is very common in cats, dogs and human. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of the disease, the current study was conducted to find out the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population in Lahore city and to determine the possibility of transmission of toxoplasmosis from cats and dogs to their owners. For this purpose serum samples from cats (ii=25 domestic, n=25 stray) dogs (n=50 domestic, n=50 stray) and human (n=25 cat owners, n=50 dog owners, ii=50 people having no contact with cats and dogs, ii=25 UVAS, Employees) were collected and analyzed by using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) to find out the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population. Overall 56% cats were seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray cats had the high prevalence (64%) followed by domestic cats (48%). Overall, 53%, 25%, 10.7%, 10.7% cats were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, I : 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence (71%) was detected in cat in the 7 year or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (56.5%) and female (55.5%). The sero-positivity percentage of toxoplasmosis was highest in local breeds of the cats (64%) followed by Himalayan and Persian (50%) and Siamese breed of cat (46%). Furthermore the domestic cats, which had wandering habits, had higher seropositivity (62%) than the cats, which had not these habits (41%). The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was high in the cats receiving raw meat (66%) however the prevalence in the cats receiving commercial cat food and kitchen prepared/left over human food was 40% and 44.4%, respectively. Overall 39% dogs were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray dogs had the high prevalence (50%) than the domestic dogs (28%). Overall 46%, 28.2%, 15.3% and 10.2 % dogs were sero-positive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (45.9%) was recorded in dogs of age group of >1-3 years. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (35.4%) and female (35.4%). The sero-positivity percentage was highest in local breeds of dogs (50%) followed by German Shepherd (42%), Bulldog , Labrador Retriever and Russian (33%), English Pointer (30%), Alsatian, Bull Terrier and German Pointer (25%) and Greyhound (20%). Dogs having access to house as well as yard has the highest prevalence (40%) following the dogs having access only to yard (25%) and the dogs kept strictly at homes had the lowest prevalence (16%). Dogs fed raw meat had a relatively high prevalence of toxoplasmosis (40%) than the dogs fed commercial dog food and home cooked food had prevalence of 18.7% and 2 1.4%, respectively. Overall 22% human were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. The highest seropositivity was observed in cat owners (3 2%) followed by dog owners (26%), UVAS, employees (20%) and the lowest sero-positivity (14%) was observed in people having no contact with dogs and cats. Overall 63.6%, 27.2%, 3.0% and 6.0% human were seropositive at screening dilution of 1: 16, 1:64, 1: 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (26%) was observed in people of 30-40 years or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (21.9%) and female (22.2%). There was decrease in haemoglobin level of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. There was significant decrease in total leukocytic count of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Nutroplielia, lymphocytopenia, cosinopenia and monocytopenia was observed in cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0920,T] (1).

87. Clinico-Therapeutical And Haematological Studies On Babesiosis In And Around The Livestock Experimental Station Qadirabad in Lohi Sheep

by Asif Rashid | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Javaid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Ovine Babesiosis is a serious haemoparasitic disease of sheep. it is caused by two hemosporidian parasites i.e. Babesia motasi and Babesia ovis, transmitted by ticks. The disease results into death due to fever, excessive destruction of RBC's, anemia, haemoglobinuria and icterus. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis in Lohi sheep in and around the Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad and to study the effect of 2 anti-protozoan (babesicidal) drugs i.e.Diminazene diaceturate (Diminazene; star lab.) and Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol; ICI) on the recovery and health of animal. The effect of hernosporidian parasites on various blood parameters was also studied. The parameters included: Haemoglobin (Hb) estimation and Packed Cell Volume (PCV). For this purpose 310 Lohi sheep were examined for the presence of babesiosis. Out of 310 Lohi sheep, 30 were found positive showed 9.67% prevalence. For treatment protocol, thirty naturally infected and ten noninfected sheep were selected and divided into four groups having ten sheep in each group i.e. A, B, C and D. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of blood smear method, which revealed the presence of Babesia. The parasite appeared as piriform bodies within the light pink erythrocytes. The animals of group A were treated with diminazene (Diminazene diaceturate) at a dose rate of 3.5mg/kg body weight at zero day. Three out of ten animals recovered at 3rd day of first injection, three animals recovered at 7th day of first injection, two recovered at 10th day of first injection, while two animals did not show any improvement and might be chronically infected. This drug showed 80% efficacy at 10th day while the animals of group B were treated with Imizol (Imidocarb dipropionate) at a dose rate of 2mg /kg body weight at zero day. Six out of ten animals recovered at 3rd day of first injection, three recovered at 7th day of first injection and remaining one recovered at 10th day of first injection. This drug showed 100% efficacy at 10th day. Animals of group C were served as infected untreated control while animals of group D were served as healthy control. Efficacy of drugs was detected by negative blood smear. Imizol gave best results where as Diminazene was second in efficacy against babesiosis. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease in .Hb and PCV in group A and C on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post medication as compared to group B. From the results of present study, it has been concluded that Imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol) was the drug of choice for the treatment of ovine babesiosis in Lohi sheep when given at the dose rate of 2mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0921,T] (1).

88. Comparative Therapeutic Trials Against Coccidiosis In Dogs

by Maryam Nisar | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of coccidiosis (Isosporiosis), to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Co-trimoxazole &Furazolidone and to study the effect of Isosporiosis on blood parameters. For this purpose the faecal samples of two hundred dogs were examined in the Medicine laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore by direct smear method, and also concentration technique for identification of Isospora oocyst. Out of two hundred dogs thirty-six were found positive for the coccidial infection, showing the prevalence of Isosporiosis as 18%. For chemotherapeutic trials, thirty naturally infected and ten non-infected dogs were selected and divided randomly into four groups having ten dogs in each groups viz A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with Co-trirnoxazole at the dose rate of 15mg/kg (orally) and group B was treated with Furazolidone at the dose rate of 8mg/kg (orally). Group C was kept as infected non-medicated control. Group D was kept as non-infected and non-medicated control. Faecal samples of experimental dogs were examined for OPG counts on day zero (pre-medication), 3rd, 7th and 10th day of medication and percentage reduction of oocyst was calculated. Cotrirnoxazole showed 63%, 90%and 97% efficacy whereas Furazolidone showed 63%, 89.8%and 95% efficacy on day 3, 7 and 10, respectively. Statistical analysis of data revealed non-significant difference (P>0.05) between the groups A, B and D (-ye control) on day 7 and 10 of treatment. Based on criteria of percentage reduction in the number of oocyst in faeces, it was observed that Co-trimoxazole was the most effective (97%) followed by Furazolidone (95%) against Isosporiosis in dogs. Haematological study revealed that the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume were lower in groups A, B, and C as compared to non-infected control group. Whereas as a result of treatment in-group A and B the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume gradually increased on day 3, 7 and 10 post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Cotrimoxazole and Furazolidone showed their effect on blood parameters as a result of curing Isosporiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0922,T] (1).

89. Effect Of Hormone Addition (Pgf 2 Alpha) And Oxytocin In Semen Extender On Post Thaw Semen Quality And Fertility in Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Dr. Rafaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was executed to improve the semen quality during freezing process and to improve subsequent fertility rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes with hormones (PGF2a and oxytocin) supplementation. Pooled semen from Nih Ravi buffalo bulls (n2) was divided into 8 equal parts after complete evaluation and subjected to the hormonal treatments. PGF2a (Lutalyse®) @ 2.5mg, 5.0mg and 7.5mg and oxytocin (Cintocinon®) @ 2.5 I.U, 5.0 I.U and 7.5 I.U/lOOml of diluted semen were added. One group (-ye control) received indomethacin @ 20mg + PGF2a @ 5.Omg/lOOmi of diluted semen. One group remained without any treatment (+ve control). Semen was cooled, filled in 0.5ml straws, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h ours and frozen i n liquid nitrogen. After 24 hours of deep freezing, semen was thawed and evaluated for percentage motility of spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity (HOS assay), acrosome integrity (NAR), viability (Live/Dead), longevity (hours) and fertility. Four (4) straws from each treatment group were thawed and pooled in 5m1 cuvette in water bath at 37°C and evaluated for quality parameters. Twenty five (25) straws from each treatment group were used to inseminate the buffaloes in standing estrus at 3 A.I centers (Phool nagar, Changa manga and Kot radlia kishen) in district Kasur. Pregnancy was checked 60 days post insemination. Data collected was presented as mean ± SEM, treatment groups were compared using ANOVA, unpaired two sample test and Pearson correlation at 5% level of confidence interval using Minitab® computer software. Results o f this study revealed that addition of both Lutalyse® (PGF2a) and Cintocinon® (oxytocin) did not show significant (P>0.05) improvement in any quality parameters measured and a non significant correlation was observed between treated groups and control except indomethacin and viability of spermatozoa where a significant negative correlati9n (r = -0.980) was found. However, blocking of seminal prostaglandins with indomethacin shows significant (P<0.05) deterioration in percentage motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and longevity of spermatozoa but acrosome integrity remain unchanged. Results of fertility trial showed significant difference (P<0.5) among treatment groups. In conclusion, we can say that although hormonal addition did not improve semen quality but improve fertility rate, therefore, the importance of prostaglandins in semen can not be neglected. The W nature and physiological amount in buffalo semen should be investigated and maintained by exogenous addition after dilution during processing to maintain post thaw semen quality and fertility. However, it is suggested that pure forms of hormones should be used to add in semen instead of Lutalyse® as it contains 1.56% alcohol which is supposed to be detrimental to spermatozoa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0923,T] (1).

90. Antimicrobial Activity Of Mentha Longifolia And Artemisia Maritima

by Sakhawat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was undertaken to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose water, methanol and chloroform extract of the Artemisia maritirna and Mentha Ion gifolia were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus subtilis by Disc Diffusion Method, Well Diffusion method and Micro Dilution Method. After determination of the antibacterial properties the data was analyzed statistically by using paired t-test and it was observed that methanol extract had greater antibacterial activity as compared to chloroform and water extract, whereas, chloroform extract had moderate antibacterial activity but the water extract had negligible antibacterial activity. From the four tested organisms Escherichia coli was more susceptible to methanol extract of Mentha ion gfolia. In general Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to both plant extracts as compared to other three tested microorganisms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0924,T] (1).

91. Toxicity Of Flunixin Meglumine In Avian Species

by Muhammad Irfan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dose levels of flunixin meglumine and diclofenac sodium in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundered and fifty broiler chicks were purchased from the market and were reared upto day 28 and then were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D E and F). Groups A, B, C and D were treated with flunixin meglumine at the dosage rate of 1.25, 2.5, 5.00 and 10.00mg/kg body weight JIM once daily respectively and group E was kept as Control. The remaining 25 birds of group F were treated with Diclofenic sodium 5.00mg/kg body weight by same route of administration and dosing interval as mentioned for flunixin meglumine. Treatment was continued for five consecutive days. Clinical signs, mortality, liver and kidney function tests were performed by estimation of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid and Creatinine in the serum samples. Postmortem findings and histopathological changes of different tissues were also recorded. Toxicity of flunixin meglumine was evaluated through the above mentioned parameters and this toxicity was compared with that of Diclofenac sodium. Based on the mortality data and biochemical analysis it was concluded found that flunixin meglumine was toxic in avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem (vultures crises) it is suspected that flunixin meglumine may cause some problems in avian species as diclofenac sodium. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0925,T] (1).

92. Preparation And Evaluation Of Rabbit Anti-Buffalo Immunoglobulin Antibody Peroxidase Conjugate

by Muhammad Babar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Shahid Abbas | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most sensitive rapid and reliable techniques for diagnosis of infectious diseases. For execution of ELISA, antibody-peroxidase conjugate is the fundamental reagent. Turnip peroxidase was purified from turnips, that includes homogenization, inactivation of catalase, ammonium sulphate precipitation and size exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-25-80. The purified peroxidase had Rz value of 1.7, total protein 0.9 mg/ml and total enzyme activity 36152 units/liter. The buffalo serum Ig-G was fractionated using 40 percent final concentration of ammonium sulphate followed by anion exchange chromatography. The salt fractionated serum globulins (10 ml) was depleted of its Ig-G in less than 25 minutes on DEAE cellulose packed column followed by suitable elution. The Ig-G solution (1.0 gm/dl) was mixed in four times volume of oil base (Liquid paraffin and emulsifiers). Rabbits were primed and boosted (0.25ml/: subcut) with buffalo Ig-G antigen with 21 days interval. The immune serum was harvested on 21 days post-boosting. The serum contained 2048 agar gel precipitation AGP units and 10,000 ELISA units. Rabbit anti buffalo Ig-G was purified with salt precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. The peroxidase was linked with the rabbit anti-buffalo Ig-G using the sodium metaperiodate. The conjugate was titrated against buffalo Ig-G and working dilution for execution of ELISA was 1: 2000. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0926,T] (1).

93. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Balantidium Coli In Cattle Around River Ravi Bank Lahore

by Ch. Qasim Bilal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of Balantidium coli and to evaluate the efficacy of Terramycin, Dysen forte, Flagyl against naturally occurring balantidosis in cattle under field conditions around the river Ravi bank Lahore. The faecal samples from animals were collected directly from rectum of animals and brought to the laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for coprological examination. For this purpose two hundred cattle were examined coprologicaly around the bank of river Ravi in Lahore. Out of 200 cattle, 50 were positive, so the prevalence of Balantidium coli in cattle was 25%. Out of 50 positive animals thirty two cattle having balantidiosis were selected for chemotherapeutic trials and eight non effected cattle were selected and divided into five groups viz. A, B, C, D and E comprising eight animals each. The animals of Group-A were treated with oxytetracycline capsules (Terramycin) @ 8mg/kg orally, Group-B with secnidazole tablets (Dysen forte) @ 10mg/kg orally, Group-C with metronidazole tablets (flagyl) @ 25mg/kg orally. The animals in Group-D were serving as infected untreated control group and Group- E were serving as untreated healthy control. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and by reduction in number of cysts/trophozoites on zero, 3, 7 and 1 0 day post medication. Efficacy of oxytetracycline (terramycin) was 25%, 50% and 62.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of secnidazolc (dysen forte) was 37.5%, 75% and 87.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of metronidazole (flagy) was 12.5%, 25% and 37.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Dysen Forte was more effective than Terrarnycin or Flagyl. However, Terramycin showed better efficacy than that of Flagyl. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0927,T] (1).

94. Molecular Detection Of Babesia Bigemina And Babesia Bovis In Carrier Cattle By Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Muhammad Suleman | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Ch | Dr.Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Babesiosis is a highly important disease in the world, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. A wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man are affected by this disease, which is transmitted by ticks and has a worldwide epidemiological distribution. While the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections also occurs in other domestic animals , including horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. The present study targeted the carrier cattle infected with Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, as they are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for studying the transmission and standardizing epidemiological studies. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the gene from the parasite, and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. A study was conducted to detect the. Babesia in blood samples through PCR based techniques. A PCR assay was described which could differentiate Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis by using specific primer in carrier cattle. Blood samples of 100 cattle were randomly analyzed with PCR assay 29 (29.0%) out of 100 blood samples were positive for babesiosis in which 18% were positive for Babesia bigemina and 11% were positive for Babesia bovis, While the Light Microscopy detected only 18 (18%) out of the same samples. The samples found positive by LM were reconfirmed during the PCR assay but no sample was found to be having both Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis infections simultaneously. Thus it is concluded that PCR is a reliable molecular diagnostic technique to detect low level of infections in carrier animals in a population and thus could be used as an effective screening tool for the control and eradication of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0929,T] (1).

95. Standardization Of An Indirecto Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Elisa For Measuring Antibodies Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

by Faisal Amin | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was conducted to make an attempt to develop an in-house ELISA to measure antibodies against IBDV. ELISA is the most commonly used serological test for evaluation of IBDV antibodies, but the cost of imported ELISA kit is usually very high and not affordable by the average farmer. The present study was designed with an aim to develop a cost effective ELISA kit under local conditions. Various steps involved in the development of ELISA were standardized. Two types of antigens i.e. "A" and "B" were used. Antigen "A" was prepared by propagating the live IBD virus (D-78, Intervet) in CEF cells and further concentrated by dialysis against PEG-6000. Antigen "B" was the reconstituted live IBDV vaccine. Both the antigens produced acceptable and comparable results but antigen "B" is conventional due to ease of preparation and to avoid a time consuming and costly procedure of cell culture. The optimum dilution for antigens "A" and "B" were found to be 1:300 and 1:600 respectively. The optimum dilution of conjugate was selected as 1:2000 and incubation time was standardized as 30 minutes at room temperature (25-30°C) after addition of ABTS as substrate. Standard curve (two fold dilution of the positive sera up to 1 1th dilution) was constructed and 3 standards were selected to cover the range of strong reactor with non-reactor sera. The in-house developed ELISA was evaluated with field chicken sera samples of different age groups. The sera samples of different groups (A, B, C and D of 1-day-old broiler breeder chicks, 1-day-old broiler chicks, 13 weeks old vaccinated layer breeder bird and 30 weeks old vaccinated broiler breeder birds respectively) were evaluated with in house ELISA and its efficiency was compared with commercially available ELISA kit. The samples that were either positive (strong or weak) or negative with commercial ELISA kit also had similar pattern with in-house ELISA. Groups A, C and D were strongly positive while group B was found negative for IBDV antibodies. It is concluded that in-house developed ELISA is comparable with the commercially available kits. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0930,T] (1).

96. Application Of Different Control Measures Against Argas Persicus

by Qaiser Siddique | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: To final out the comparative efficacy of different control measures against Argas persicus, In-Vitro and In-Vivo studies were carried out for the in-Vitro studies three thousand soft ticks Argas Persicus at different stages of their development were used in the experiment. The ticks were divided in to 5 groups A, B, C, D and E having 600 ticks in each group. The ticks of each group (600) were further divided in to three replicates having 200 ticks in each. The ticks were maintained in small plastic boxes containing tick rearing medium at a controlled temperature of 25 Co and 60% relative humidity. The 5 treatments are applied with a small (1 liter) hand held sprayer at the rate of 20ml per box 345 cm2 surface area. The first application was made after 24 hours and repeated twice at 48 hours intervals. On day 0,3,5,7 and 10, the ticks were separated from the manure by immersing the manure in water and retrieved the ticks with the help of sieve. The ticks relating to each group were counted and the counts of each group were compared. The reduction in the counts in test groups as compared to control group A indicated the efficacy of the treatment. It was noticed by the comparative mortality of the ticks in the replicates of different groups that in mortality of ticks in Group A occurred as 6.17% in B as 67.67% in C as 70.67% , in D as 100% and in E as 71.83%. The findings of the In Vitro experiment showed that the efficacy of Tiekide was 100% and in ranking order was placed at No. 1 amongst the test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) as compared to B, C and E groups. However the findings of Groups B, C and E were not significant amongst each other (P>0.05). For the In-Vivo studies, the experiment was conducted on a layer farm infested with Argus persicus. A total of 100 layers infested with Argas persicus were reared under experimental conditions on particular farm. One hundred infested birds were divided into 5 groups i.e A,B,C,D and E, each group consisting of 20 birds. The ticks of all members of the groups were counted on day 0,3,5,7 and 10. Group A acted as infested and non treated, B was treated by application of EM1 under the infested wings, C was applied EM5, D was applied Tiekide (Homoeopathic formula) under the wings the medicine was also orally administered @ 2 drops in 1 ml water and members of Group E were applied 1% solution of Ivomec (Ivermectin). The results indicated that the reduction in the mean tick counts was 95.74% in Group D which was placed at No. I, in descending order the mean tick counts reduced by 70.97% in Group E, 68.59% in Group C, 67.63% in Group B and only 1.93% in control Group A. The Tiekide was claimed to be a drug of choice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0932,T] (1).

97. Molecular Detection Of Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis In Fresh And Cryopreserved Buffalo Sper Matozoa)

by Daulat Raheem Khan | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Irshad | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The objectives of present study were a) to validate annexin V/Pl assay, for buffalo sperm, using graded doses of camptothecin through fluorescent microscopy (Exp. 1) and b) to determine the effect of stages of cryopreservation on apoptosis (PS externalization, using annexin V/PT assay), motility and plasma membrane integrity in buffalo sperm (Exp.2). In the first experiment graded doses of camptothecin were used (n=2) in different aliquots of sperm suspension (1x106/mL) for induction of apoptosis. Higher dose levels of camptothecin (10.0 iM and 20 jiM) resulted in inducing apoptosis (P<O.05) compared to the lower (5tM) dose or control. In the second experiment semen samples (n=9, from three bulls) were cryopreserved using vapor freezing. Annexin V/PI assay for apoptosis, visual assessment for percentage motility and hypo-osmotic swelling test for plasma membrane integrity were employed at various stages of cryopreservation (i.e. fresh, after equilibration and post thaw). The mean percentage of apoptotic, necrotic and viable sperm did not differ between fresh and after equilibration stages. However, freezing and thawing increased (P<0.05) the percentage of apoptotic sperm (25.4±0.6 vs. 36.5±1 .9) while decreased (P<0.05) the necrotic (29.7±0.7 vs. 35.1±1.2) and viable sperm (37.2±1.3 vs. 32.8±1.9, (P<0.07). Similarly, freezing and thawing decreased (P<0.05) the mean percentage motility and plasma membrane integrity, compared to other stages. Based upon the difference in initial and post thaw values of two variables (percent motility and percent apoptosis) it is concluded that apoptosis contributes more than 50% sperm motility loss during the process of freezing and thawing in buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0933,T] (1).

98. A Study On The Occurrence Of Enteric Protozoa Of Pet Dogs

by Dr. Khalid Qasir | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Khalid | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was designed to record the occurrence of enteric protozoan parasites of pet dogs. A total of 150 faecal samples of pet dogs of different age, breed and sex were collected. These dogs were equally divided into three age groups i.e. group A (< 6 months of age), group B (> 6 months and < 1 year of age) and group C (> 1 year of age). These faecal samples were examined by direct smear method, Sheather's sugar flotation technique and zinc sulfate flotation technique. Information regarding the clinical status of animals, age, breed and faecal consistency were also recorded. The overall prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites was 35.3 percent. Prevalence of various species belonging to Genera Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidium Entamoeba and Balantidium was 18.66, 14.66, 5.33, 1.33 and 1.33 percent. Prevalence of enteric protozoan was higher (44%) in pet dogs of group A, followed by 36.0 and 26.0 percent in group B and group C, respectively. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal protozoan in domestic dogs passing normal faeces was 33.65% and passing abnormal faeces was 39.13%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0935,T] (1).

99. Pathogenesis Of Salmonellosis With Respect To Carrier States In Poultry And Its Public Health Impact

by Younus, M | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry | Prof.Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present research endevour was made to study and investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings. The objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only' produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. In this study 400 samples were collected and were distributed and detailed as; poultry feed (n=100), poultry intestines (n100 Small and n=100 Large intestines) and eggs (n=100) were collected for the identification of the organism through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella enteritidis in the poultry feed was 20,15,10,15 and 10 for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher respectively (P>0.05). The positivity percentage as tested through PCR for Salmonella typhimurium for layer starter, layer grower, layer finisher, broiler starter and broiler finisher feed was 15,10,10, 10, and 10 respectively (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between layers feed and broilers feed as far as identification of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium was concerned (P>0.05) but the prevalence range of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimuilum from poultry feed was 10-20% which was biologically significant. The positivity percentage rate of Salmonella enteritidis for small and large intestine in Desi birds (local breed) was 2 and 16 % respectively. Where as for broilers in small and large intestine it was 4 and 18% respectively. The positivity of Salmonella typhimurium in small and large intestine of Desi birds was 2 and 14% where as in broilers it was 4 and 16% in the small and large intestine respectively. There was a significant difference (P <0.05) between the positivity of percentage of salmonella enteritidis and salmonella typhimurium as far as identification of Salmonellae from Desi and broiler meat was concerned. It was found that 16%, 8%, 16'Y0 and 16% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella enteritidis in layer egg albumin, Desi (local breed) eggj albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the detection of Salmonellae. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, Desi (local breed) double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% respectively. It was found that 12%, 4%, 12% and 12% egg albumin was found positive for Salmonella lyphimurium in layer egg albumin, Desi egg albumin, double yolk albumin and broken egg albumin respectively. In each case 25 egg albumin were collected and tested for the' detection of Salmonella. Similarly the egg yolk from layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs was taken and positivity rate for Salmonella enteritidis was found 8%, 4%, 8% and 4% respectively. The positively rate for Salmonella typhimurium in both albumin and yolk was relatively less in both albumin and yolk of layers, desi double yolk and broken eggs. Statistically there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) but the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from different eggs ranged between 4-16% and 4-12% respectively which was biologically significant. The Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated, identified and grown on the artificial and selective media. The virulence of the organisms of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were estimated through calculation of LD50. It was found as 10358/mI and 103/ml for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium respectively, having significant difference (P< 0.05). In order to understand the pathogenesis and carrier states of salmonella organisms in poultry, a group of 300 broiler birds were procured and divided into three groups were studied upto the age of 3 months. The infection was orally given on the 7th day of their age. As an average 86.74% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella enteritidis in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05). Similarly an average 94.94% of the birds were maintaining the organism of the Salmonella typhimurium in the large intestine during the entire experimental period in contrast to the small intestine in which 0% were found positive (P< 0.05) but non of the samples of Small and Large intestine of control group (Group-C) were found positive for Salmonella enleritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. There was a significant difference between Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in large intestine of poultry (P< 0.05). The histopathology of different organs of broiler chickens i.e liver, lung, spleen, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, bursa of fabracious and lean muscles at different phases of disease was also conducted for the better understanding of pathogenesis due to salmonellosis. The principal lesions in the liver at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and haemmorrhage. No lesions were recorded in liver after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the lungs at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B were leukocytic infiltration,' mild necrosis, vascular congestion and haemrnorrhages. No lesions were recorded in lungs after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in group C. The principal lesions of the spleen were mild leukocytic infiltration, necrosis and congestion at the age of 14 to 28 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in spleen after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the kidneys were marked tubutar necrosis with glomerular degeneration and Ieukocytic infiltration and haemmorrhages at the age of 14 to 28 in groups A and B. No lesions were1 recorded in kidneys after 28 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of the small intestine were degeneration of mucosa with inflammatory cells, necrosis, inflammation, superficial ulceration on mucosal lining of intestine at the age of 14 to 21 days. No lesions were recorded in small intestine after 21 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of the large intestine were leukocytic infiltration with necrosis and inflammation at the age of 14 to 91 days. The lesions were recorded up to 91 days of age in group A and B. No lesions were recorded in control group C. The principal lesions of Bursa of1, fabricious were atrophy & necrosis of bursal follicles and leukocytic infiltration at the age of 14 to 21 in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in Bursa of fabricious after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The principal lesions of lean muscle were muscular degeneration and necrotic areas at the age of 14 to 21 days in groups A and B. No lesions were recorded in lean muscles after 21 days of age in groups A and B. No lesions were found in group C. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever and food poisoning in humans. The chain of transmission started fron poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end host. Finally, the 400 samples of stool and blood from 200 human patients (100 suspected of typhoid fever and 100 suspected of food poisoning) were also collected from four different hospitals from urban area of Lahore for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. A total of 14% and 10% stool samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in case of suspected typhoid fever patients respectively. Similarly 6% and 2% blood samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected typhoid fever patients and also as for as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients of each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the hospitals. CONCLUSION A series of five experiments were conducted and carried out to study and explore the project Pathogenesis of Salmonellosis with respect to carrier states in poultry and its public health impact." For this purpose, in the 1st phase, identification, isolation and characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was attempted. It was followed by the estimation of LD 50 and carrier states and histopathological study at different phases of disease in broiler chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium to ascertain the nature of carrier states in terms of maintenance of the Salmonellae by different organs leading to histopathological changes and finally to the stage of shedding of the organism through the feces in the environment. Dissemination to human beings and the Public health impact of Salmonellosis was studied in the human subjects who consumed the meat and eggs of the carrier birds which were followed by testing their stool and blood samples through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this way the pathogenesis and chain of Salmonellas enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infection through poultry feed, meat, eggs and humans beings was transmissible. However, the humans were considered as dead end host. It was concluded that Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was maintained in the large intestine of the poultry and has transmitted from poultry feed, poultry meat and poultry eggs to human beings and thus, causing typhoid fever and food poisoning. RECOMMENDATIONS /SUGGESTIONS Major aim of this research endeavour was to help in understanding the basic principles involved in the chain of infectious cycle of SalmoneUosis. In addition to that the application of the quality control of poultry products with respect to Salmonella infection to broiler chicks and broiler meat available in the market for human consumption is the ultimate goal of this project. The objective was to reduce the risk of Salmonellosis in poultry and humans. The following measures are suggested. 1. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN POULTRY! ANIMALS A. Monitoring o The poultry and their environment should be monitored by frequente testing of Salmonellae. o Bacteriological profile of poultry house environment. o Serological testing of flock and removal of infected birds. o Culturing of tissues from selected birds. o Egg sheils, egg albumin & egg yolk culturing. B. Hygiene and Sanitation o Eggs from infected layer flocks should be pasteurized before consumption. o Salmonella positive breeder flocks should be given pellet feed. o Hatching sanitation o Proper disinfection of hatching eggs. o Proper sanitation and disinfection of farm premises. o The provision of salmonella-free feed i.e pellet feed is of prime importance for the prevention of salmonella infections of poultry flocks and parent flocks. o Control of rodent, insects and wild birds C. Managemental o For routine treatment of eggs and progeny, only those antibiotics should be used that do not cause microbial resistance against drugs widely used in humans o Resistance of Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp. to fluoroquinolones has become a public health risk. This does not exclude well targeted and transient use of antibiotics as essential measures in salmonellosis control programmes. o Vaccination of breeder flock is recommended for decrease of the salmonella infection pressure. 7 1. MEASURES FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SALMONELLOSIS IN HUMANS A. Meat and Eggs o Wrap fresh meat in plastic bags at the market to prevent blood from1 dripping on other foods. o Cook poultry products at temperature of 170°F for breast meat and at 180°F for thigh meat. o Avoid eating raw or under cooked meat and egg. o Cook poultry meat and egg thoroughly. o Purchase only inspected grade AA eggs and animal food products. o Handle raw eggs carefully: o Keep eggs refrigerated o Throw away cracked or dirty eggs. o Do not eat half fried and half boiled eggs. o Wash hands immediately after handling raw poultry or raw eggs. o Full fried and full boiled eggs should be used for eating to prevent food borne Salmonellosis problem. b. PERSONNEL HYGIENE MEASURES o Washing of hands with soap and warm water before and after handling foods, after using the bath rooms. o Refrigerate foods properly. - Use bleach to wash cutting boards and counters used for preparation immediately after use to avoid cross contamination of other foods. o People who have Salmonellosis should not prepare food for others. o Educate the food handlers and persons who prepare food. Educational programmes covering pre- and post harvest food safety procedures, especially salmonella control, should be initiated in the animal and food production sectors for the public awareness. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0938,T] (1).

100. Standardization Of Avian Leukosis Diagnostic Techniques Through Polymerase Chain Reaction (Pcr) And Confirmation With Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (Elisa)

by Abdul Razzaq (M.Phil) | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Ch | Mr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr.Abdul Rauf Shakoori | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Avian Leukosis Virus type J infection of chickens is a neoplastic disease affecting chickens. ALV-J is of great economic significance not only because of tumor mortality, but also because of decreased egg production in meat breeding stocks, increased rate of infections, poor response to vaccination and weight suppression in broilers. There is wide spread prevalence of ALV-A and ALV-J in commercial chicken flocks. For control of ALV's eradication programmes based solely on dam testing may be less effective than those where dam testing is combined with procedures to mitigate early horizontal transmission in progeny chicks. For this purpose PCR along with antigen capture ELISA was used in combination for detection of ALV-J proviral DNA, and ALV group specific antigen i.e. p 27 antigen of ALV-J. Polymerase chain reaction technique was standardized by using improved version of H7 primers specific for ALV sub group J targeting env gene encoding gp85 for the detection of avian leucosis virus type J and its confirmation was carried out by comparing it with antigen capture immunosorbant assay which measures group-specific antigen (GSA) i.e. p27 antigen. Feather pulp and serum samples from 50 broiler birds of up to 7 weeks of age were randomly selected from 10 different broiler poultry farms of district Lahore Pakistan. The prevalence of ALV-J was 22 % for antigen capture immunosorbant ELISA and 34 % for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0943,T] (1).



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