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1. Pillars of Epidemiology

by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: Pakistan: UVAS LAHORE; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 614.4 Athar 30073 1st 2013 Epidemiology] (3).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Casoni Skin Test, Indirect Haemagglutination And Double Diffusion Tests For The Detection Of Hydatidosis In Goats

by Azam Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Tufail Muhammad Khan | Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Basraa | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0149,T] (1).

3. Antiseperim Antibodies: A Plausible Cause Of Repeat Breeding In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Amir Saeed, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was designed with the assumption that high titres of antisperm antibodies in repeat breeders might be a contributing factor for conception failure in such animals. For this purpose, 32 buffaloes/buffalo heifers were divided into four equal groups. From the normal cyclic and repeat breeder buffaloes, 48 serum samples were collected at 0, 1, and 24 hours after insemination, respectively. Oestrus mucus was also collected from these animals. A total of 16 serum samples were collected from virgin heifers and pregnant buffaloes. The serum and mucus samples were subjected to simple agglutination test, sperm quantitative penetration test and sperm cervical mucus contact test. High antibody titres were recorded in the serum and oestrus mucus of repeat breeders. Moreover, it was observed that lesser number of spermatozoa penetrated through a definite distance in cervical mucus of repeat breeder buffaloes as compared to cervical mucus of normal cyclic animals. Similarly higher number of spermatozoa exhibited shaking movement over a period of time in cervical mucus of repeat breeders, which indicates the presence of spermagglutinins. Thus, it can be concluded that antisperm antibodies may be responsible for conception failure in repeat breeder buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0383,T] (1).

4. A Study On The Chemotherapy And Taxonomy Of Mange Mites In Ovine And Its Effect On Different Blood Parameters

by Rafique Rana, M | Dr. Muhammad Afzal | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Prof. Dr. SAghir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A study was carried out to find out the taxonomy, chemotherapy of mange mites in sheep and its effect on different blood parameters. A total of 30 flocks comprising of fifteen hundred sheep of different age and sexes were examined in the city and villages around Lahore. Out of above mentioned animals 200 suspected sheep were thoroughly examined and 30 (15%) were found positive for mange mites infestation. Species of three genera namely Sarcoptes, Psoroptes and Chorioptes were found infesting these animals. The average number of mites recovered from the species of each genera were recorded as 851, 825 and 815 for Psoroptes, Sarcoptes and Chorioptes respectively. For the identification of different species of mange mites microscopic examination was carried out and mites were first seen under low power and then high power of magnification. The slides were mounted with mites and then examined to study their morphological characteristics. The three genera identified were Sarcoptes, Psoroptes and Chorioptes in sheep. Chemotherapeutic trials were carried out in suspected sheep by using two concentrations of neguvon solution i.e. 0.10% and 0.15% at ten days intervals. For this purpose sheep were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with 0.10% solution of neguvon, group B with 0.15% solution of neguvon and group C was kept as untreated control group. The data obtained on reduction of mites due to acaricide application were subjected to statistical analysis by applying completely randomized design and results were recorded. It was noticed that 0.15% neguvon was highly effective against mange mites infestation when it was replied twice after ten days interval. The effect of mange mites on different blood parameters was also recorded. For this purpose sheep were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of clinically infested sheep, group II subclinically infested sheep and group C included healthy sheep which was kept as control for the comparison. The effect of mange mites on different blood parameters of two infested groups of sheep i.e. I and II was recorded before and after two applications of 0.10% and 0.15% neguvon solution at ten days interval and results were compared with group C for comparison. The findings of this study indicated that the infestation of mange mites is a quite common problem in sheep population of this area. The sheep suffering from mange mites exhibit poor feed intake, severe irritation, scratching, bleeding, loss of wool, low body growth, reduced production and damaged skin. Such infested sheep are also susceptible to various viral and bacterial diseases which makes sheep production uneconomical and put extra burden on the sheep breeders. Keeping all this in view suitable and prompt measures should be taken for early diagnosis and treatment of the infested animals. This will result not only for the control of the disease, but also help to improve the economical condition of the owners. It will also increase the gross national product of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0386,T] (1).

5. Bioavailability Of Gentamicin In Male Buffalo Calves

by Hasan Raza, S | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Saghir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin sulphate were investigated in the same 20-male buffalo calves heal thy after intravenous administration and after intramuscular administration. The blood samples were collected at various time intervals following administration of single dose of 4 mg/kg. The concentrations of Gentamicin in serum samples were determined according to the microbiological assay described by Arret (1971). The plasma concentrations of gentarnicin at different time intervals after injections were plotted on semi-logarithmic graph paper. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated according to the method described by Gibaldi (1984). Results were expressed as mean ± SD. The peak concentration of 11.273 ± 0.4976 µg/ml reached in 31.092 ± 1.217 minutes after intramuscular injection. Keeping intravenous as standard the relative bioavailability after injection was 82.5%. The half-life was 97.29 ± 5.259 minutes after I/v injection mean ± SD, volume of distribution was 202.36 ± 8.486 ml/kg/ The volume of distribution at steady stage (Vdss ) was 214.67 ± 20.99 ml/mm. The total body clearance of gentamicin was 1.7382 ± 0.0738 ml/kg. Pharmacokinetics parameters of gentamicin were seemed to be independent of rout of administration at the dosage level applied. The pharmacokinetics evaluation by compartmental method and non-compartmental method was not found significantly different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0390,T] (1).

6. Comparison Of Two Methods Of Estrus Synchronization In Sahiwal Cows

by Dawar Hameed Mughal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Kazim Raza Chohan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 24 Sahiwal cows were selected for this study and randomly divided into two groups viz A and B. Group A cows were injected two injections of prostaglandin F2 intramuscularly without palpation 11 days apart, while the other group involved the veterinarian skill for detection of palpable corpus luteum and only single injection of prostaglandin was given in all the cows. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Estrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. 91.66% and 83.33% cows from A and B groups respectively responded to the treatment. This response was slightly greater in cows of group A than group B. Interval to the onset of estrus after treatment was found non-significant (P>O.05) in both group cows. The length of estrus in group A was 21.54±1.65 hours whereas it was 19±0.88 hours in group B. The difference in the length of estrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The conception rate of both groups was found to be 54.54% and 50% respectively, which was slightly higher than the second group. The mucus characteristics of both the groups were noted and 81.81% and 70% cows were found having typical fern like pattern and discharged clear (Transparent) mucus. No one cow having atypical fern pattern and cloudy discharge of mucus conceived. The behavioural signs and the physical changes were recorded. There was little difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group B the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group A. The cost per animal for group A and B was 303 rupees and 276.50 rupees, economically group B technique seems to be profitable to the farmers, and by adopting this technique one can save money. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0462,T] (1).

7. Comparative Efficacy Of Cloprostenol, Estradial And Gentamycine For The Treatment Of Endometritis In Buffaloes

by Chaudhry, Shafiq, M | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of Cloprostenol, EstradioJ and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis in buffaloes. Eighty buffaloes suffering from endometritis were selected amongst the animals brought for A.J. on repeat breeding at different A.I. Center/Sub-Centres in Lahore and Gujranwala city. After detailed gyanaecological examination animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups. Twenty buffaloes in group A were injected 500 ig of Cloprostenol (Estrumate). On day 8 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group B were given 3 intrauterine infusion of stilbestrol. On day 3, 5 and 7 of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group C were given single dose of gentamycine (intrauterine infusion) on the day of the oestrus cycle and cured animals were inseminated at the following oestrus. Twenty buffaloes in group D served as control and were inseminated without giving any treatment. After two months all the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. Seventy animals were tested for pregnancy diagnosis. While others were later transferred to untraceable places. The percent curative and conception rate observed in Cloprostenol treated group 'A' were 65% and 58.33% respectively similarly in group B Stilboestrol treated animals the curative rate was 75% and conception rate was 64.28%. In group 'C', the animals treated with Gentamycine, the curative and conception rate were observed 45% and 42.85%. In control group 'D' only 35.71% animals were conceived after insemination. On the basis of curative and conception rates Stilboestrol was found better than Cloprostenol and Gentamycine for the treatment of endometritis buffaloes. The cost of treatment with stilboestrol is lower compared with Cloprostenol and Gentamycine. On the other hand a certain degree of invonvience remains with Stilboestrol therapy as intrauterine infusion demands special skill. It is concluded that Stilbestrol and Cloprostenol results were signficanly higher as compared to treated with Gentamycine and control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0505,T] (1).

8. Progesterone And Lh Profile Of Nili Ravi Buffaloes In Low Breeding Season

by Rizwan Nasr Cheema | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Ijaz Ahmed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the main objective was to determine the oestrus activity of buffaloes during low breeding season. Out of six buffaloes 3 showed oestrus and out of these 2 repeated oestrus cycle. Both the primary and secondary symptoms of oestrus were clearly visible at oestrus. Length of the oestrus cycle was observed as 21.5 days with the average oestrus period 30.8 hours. The mean progesterone concentration in cyclic buffaloes on the day of the oestrus cycle (d=0)was 0.09 ng/ml and the highest serum progesterone concentration were observed on 16th day of oestrus cycle. In the non cyclic buffaloes the progesterone concentration remained around 1 ng/ml throughout the study. At the onset and the end of the oestrus the concentration of luteiningzing hormone was 3.9 ng/ml. Whereas at the beginning of standing heat average luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration 3.8 ng/ml. The surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was 14.4 ng/ml observed. The average time of LH surge was 17.6 hours after the onset of the oestrus. End of oestrus time of following LH surge was 17.2 hours. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0512,T] (1).

9. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rizwan Qayyum | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. asif Rabbani | Prof. Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: For this research project, about 305 fresh fertile hen eggs were obtained from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore. These eggs after cleaning were incubated at 37°C in automatic incubator for 11 days. At the 11th day, candling was done to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not,. Eggs found dead at the time of candling were discarded. Fertile eggs 305 in number were inoculated with physically and chemically treated mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus which had already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20°C. Each egg was inoculated with about 0.lnil of the treated viral sample. Four eggs were set for each of the factor for each time period. Four eggs were kept control in each factor in which viral suspension without physical or chemical treatment was inoculated. The project was designed to study the effect of physical and chemical factors on the survival of Newcastle disease virus. The physical factors were temperature, p11 and UV light and chemical factors included five disinfectants like Formaline, Iosan, Phenol Aldekol and Bromosept (QAC). It was noted that at 56°C temperature virus lost its haemagglutinating activity after 45 minutes, but survived this temperature at 15 and 30 minutes exposure. It was observed that virus survived at pH 4 and 9 for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hrs but was killed at pH 1 and 13 for all the said time periods. After exposing virus to UV light, it was examined that Newcastle disease virus survived at UV light exposure for 45 minutes. As far as the chemical factors were concerned, the results showed that 0.48% concentration of formalin inactivated virus in 30 minutes but not in 15 minutes. Other two concentrations i.e. 0.12% and 0.24% could not inactivate the virus. Phenol and Bromosept showed good antiviral activity against ND virus. 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of Phenol inactivated the virus within 15 minutes but virus retained its HA activity at 0.2% phenol concentrations for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The virus survived at 0.1% Bromosept concentration for 45 minutes and at 0.5% concentration for 15 minutes time but its haemagglutinating property was lost at 0.5% concentration in 30 minutes and at 1% concentration, the virus was killed within 15 minutes time. 0.1% concentration of Aldekol could not inactivate the virus in 15, 30 or 45 minutes. At its 0.5% concentration virus was inactivated after 45 minutes exposure but not at 15 and 30 minutes. However 1% Aldekol inactivated virus after 30 minutes but not within 15 minutes time. losan with 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations killed the mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. So the results of this study show that losan shows excellent antiviral activity against ND virus and is the best for disinfection of this virus at the farm. Bromosept (QAC) and Phenol should be the other two options for farmers to disinfect their sheds and hatcheries to minimize the chances of infection from Newcastle disease virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0519,T] (1).

10. A Study On The Effect Of Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticide Talstar (Bifenthrim) On Immune Response In Broiler Chicken

by Fida Hussain | Prof. Dr. A.R. Rizvi | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0520,T] (1).

11. Study On The Effect Of Different Methods Of Minimizing Heat Stress On The Performance Of Broilers

by Mansoor Ahmed Cheema | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Shaudhary | Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare desert cooler, water sprinkling and false ceiling and to investigate their effects on performance of broilers during heat stress. Two hundred and forty, one day-old broiler chicks were procured from local market. They were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D. Each group was Further subdivided into three replicates. Each group was reared sepnrnJv in di ITorent, pens. Feed and wiLer were provided Rd 1ibitun. The duration of experimental period was 6 weeks. rFreatn1(it.Is viz desert cooler, water sprinkling, false ceiling and control were allotted to groups B, C, D and A respectively. The treatments were used from 3rd week of age to onward in the respective groups. Data regarding temperature, humidity, weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were recorded and daily average was calculated each week. The data obtained showed that all the treatments (desert cooler, water sprinkling, and False ceiling) had a effect (P < 0.05) on temperature, with highest cooling efficiency in the birds kept in desert cooler, followed by water sprinkling treatment and false ceiling Only desert cooler and water sprinkling treatments caused higher(P <0.05) relative humidity than either false ceiling treatment or control group. Although all the treatments showed a difference (P<0.05), group B (desert cooler) had the highest weight gain with maximum feed consumption i.e. 2047.78 g and 4740.74 g followed by group C (water sprinkling) 1857.36 g and 4261.26 g and D (false ceiling) 1443.97 g and 3248.37 g. The poorest weight gain and feed consumption was observed in control group i.e. 1154.35 g and 2487.28 g. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control group was better (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups, while no significant difference was observed among the experimental groups. No significant difference was also observed in the dressing percentages of all the groups. There was no mortality in any group throughout the duration of this project. Economics studies suggested that water sprinkling treatment was most. economical, followed by desert cooler treatment, while false ceiling treatment was the most expensive treatment, which cost even more than the control group. On the basis of results obtained it could be suggested that desert cooler was the best method for minimizing the heal stress Followed by water sprinkling and false ceiling. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0522,T] (1).

12. Comparative Study On The Performance Of Ross-1 And Avian Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broiler

by Mahmood Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This experiment was designed to compare different male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of ROSS-I and AVIAN strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strains. The objective of the experiment was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these different lines of strains and their use as a commercial broiler. The following observations were recorded on; Average feed consumption, Average weekly body weight gain, Average feed efficiency, Average dressing percentage, Mortality (if any) and Economics of meat production. A total of 180 one -day old chicks purchased from local market were divided into six groups i.e. A having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Ross-I strain, B having female chicks of male grand parent meat line of Ross strain, C having commercial broiler chicks of Ross strain, D having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Avian strain, E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain and F having commercial broiler chicks of Avian strain. Chicks were reared for a period of 42 days (6 weeks) under identical managemental conditions. Same rations (Starter and Finisher) were fed to all the groups. The results indicated that there was difference (P<0.01) in feed consumption among various groups. Group E containing female chicks of the male grand parent line of Avian strain consumed highest feed (3997 gms) during 0-42 days. It was also noted that weight gain amongst all the groups from 0 to 42 days was different (P<0.01). Highest weight gain was recorded in group E having female chicks of the male grand parent meat line of Avian strain. The FCR of groups A, B, C, D, E and F during starter and during finisher phase was difference (P<0.05). However, the efficiency of feed utilization was highest in group E. Dressing percentage of different groups was not different (P> 0.05). The economic evaluation of all the six groups for meat production showed that the birds of group E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain proved to be the most economical whereas birds of groups B having females of male grand parent line of Ross strain proved 2nd during grading. RECOMMENDATIONS The overall picture of the trail reveals that male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0525,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Water Restriction On The Conmsistency Of Droppings And On Subsequesnt Performance Of Broilers

by Afzal Sher, M | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Spoilage of water and watery droppings are major factors responsible for the accumulation of excessive moisture in the poultry houses. This moisture will be deposited into the litter. Resultantly the litter becomes too wet, which in turn creates managemental problems and economic losses to the industry. Watery droppings are produced, when birds consume water beyond their metabolic requirements, because excretion of water with the faeces is almost directly proportional to the intake of water. The present study was designed to overcome this problem by restricting the water to the birds and to investigate its effects on the consistency of droppings, weight, gain, feed consumption, FCR, water intake, water: feed ratio, mortality and haematologi cal parameters. The experiment was carried out at Poultry Experimental Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore for a period of 6 weeks i.e. from 30-10-1996 to 10-12-1996. One hundred and eighty, one day old "Hubbard" broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 30 chicks in each. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates. These groups were given water in such a way that group NA" was offered full water and the rest of the groups were given 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75% respectively of the requirement. All the groups were reared in battery brooders under optimum environmental and managemental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to them. The source of water was also the same throughout the trial. They were vaccinated according to the recommended standard schedule. From second week, onwards, moisture contents of the faeces were estimated on weekly basis. It was examined that each increment of water deprivation resulted in drier faeces and lower Water: feed ratio than the control. Statistically differences (P<0.01) of weight gain, moisture contents of the excreta, FCR, water: feed ratio and blood values were recorded among the groups. The best performance was evaluated in group C and the poorest in group F. Waler stresses did not affect mortality, only 3 birds died during the whole study. Feed consumptions was found to be non-significant. Commercially these results will be helpful in controlling watery dropping, without lowering meat production, saving of water, labour and sewerage cost in poultry operations. CONCLUSION Excreta moisture can be minimized from 1.6 to 5.2% without affecting production and economics. RECOMMENDATIONS It is recornmenj, that water consumption can be reduced from 5% to 10% in a relatively cooler environment during starter and finisher phase. Reducting the water intake 15% or more had deleterious effect on the performance of broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0530,T] (1).

14. Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

by Col.Shabbir Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Saleem Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Bhatti.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails. The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available. One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks. To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately. The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated. Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period. The following data was recorded: Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage. The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5 Factorial design. The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird. The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females. The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to 8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5. The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability. The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0537,T] (1).

15. Influence Of Various Treatments Of Rice Polishings On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Abdul Majid | Prof. Dr. Nisar Ahmed Mian | Dr. Javaid Ahmed Qureshi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Increasing cost of feed ingredients and use of cereal grains in poultry feed which are also used for the human feeding, makes it imperative to look for alternative sources for feeding poultry to save grains for human consumption and reduce the cost of feed as well. Ingredients which are cheap, not utilized for human feeding and are readily available, merits consideration for poultry feeding. Rice polishing is one of such ingredient. Rice polishings is an important by-product of rice milling industry. It is a finely powdered material obtained in polishing the rice kernels after removal of hulls and bran. It furnishes almost equivalent energy as other cereal grains and is a good source of protein and water soluble vitamins specially thiamin and niacin. It however contains certain antinutritional factors which, could be eliminated by various treatments yielding it into a useful feed ingredient for poultry feed. Present experiment was conducted to observe the influence of rice polishings on the performance of broiler chicks after subjecting it to various treatments. Full fat rice polishings was subjected to extrusion cooking and then divided into 4 equal parts. One part was used in ration as such, second treated with 1 percent acetic acid, third treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide and fourth treated first with acetic aid and then with calcium hydroxide. Five starter and finisher experimental rations designated as A, B, C, D, and E respectively were prepared. Ration A contained no rice polishings and was kept as control. In rations B, C, D and B treated rice polishings at 15 percent level was used substituting wheat. Starter rations were fed for 35 days and Finisher rations for 21 days to 150 Hubbard broiler chicks divided into 15 experimental units of 10 chicks each reared on floor on deep litter system. Each experimental ration was randomly allotted to 3 experimental units of chicks. Results indicated that maximum weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration C which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid. Lowest weight gain was recorded in birds fed on ration A (control). Second best result in weight gain was observed in birds fed on ration D which contained extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent calcium hydroxide. Best feed utilization per unit of gain was observed in birds fed on ration C where as poor feed conversion ratio was noted in birds fed on ration E which contained rice polishings first treated with acetic acid and then with calcium hydroxide. Results indicated that different treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and resulted into better weight gain. Use of treated rice polishings did not show any detrimental effect on the performance of birds. Difference in feed consumed and conversion ratio towards higher side might have been due to some managemental errors or weather conditions. Extrusion cooked rice polishings treated with 1 percent acetic acid showed significantly improved growth rate and feed utilization in birds per unit of gain as compared to control and other rations containing rice polishings given other treatments. It was concluded that various treatments improved the nutritional quality of rice polishings and it proved to be a beneficial feed ingredient for poultry feeding substituting wheat without any deleterious effect. Treatment with 1 percent acetic acid or 1 percent calcium hydroxide were equally good and potent methods to overcome the problem of antinutritional factors present in rice polishings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0542,T] (1).

16. Induction Of Parturition In Buffaloes Using Dexamethasone In Conjunction With Prostglandin (Pgf2 Alpha)

by Arif Majeed | Dr. Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The present study was intended to study the effect of prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) and dexarnethasone on reproduction and production of Nili-Ravi buffaloes after parturition. For this purpose eighteen pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes were selected on the basis of their breeding history, with good health status, their lactation phases were 3rd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th and 10th respectively. These animals were divided into three equal groups viz group A, B and C, each comprising 6 animals. These animals were kept under uniform managemental and feedings conditions. Each buffalo in groups A and B were injected with 20mg dexamethasone and 526ig cloprostenol sodium (PGF2 alpha) intramuscularly on day 10 and 15 respectively before their expected term, while the buffaloes, in group C served as a control. From the present study it was concluded that parturition can be induced at day 10 and 15 prior to their expected term successfully did not affect the production and reproductive efficiency of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The use of PGF2 alpha and dexamethasone before parturition in buffaloes did not affect the milk yield of each buffaloes as compared with control group, and also the calve birth weight compared with control group. The only complication we found was the retention of foetal membrane, in all the treated buffaloes. No retention of foetal membrane was found in the control group. So the calving interval could be reduced by reducing the duration of pregnancy. It was also concluded that by induction the lactation period could be increased. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0546,T] (1).

17. Morphological Abnormalities In The Spermatozoa Of Cross Bred Cow Bulls During Summer Season

by Afzal, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Imriaz Hussain Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In this study twelve normally producing breeding bulls three of each Sahiwal and Friesian breeds and six bulls of 50% Cross-bred were selected. The mean volume of ejaculates were 4.87, 4.22 and 5.95m1 in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred, respectively. There is no significant difference among the volume of breeds during the months May, June and July. The semen concentration were 637.369, 606.554 and 312.806 million per ml in Sahiwal, Friesian and Cross-bred. However, the concentration of spermatozoa in Cross-bred were significantly lower (P<0.01) as compared to Sahiwal and Friesian bulls. The overall average values for head abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P <0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Crossbred (2.65 vs 7.20 and 8.90%) respectively during summer season. The neck abnormalities percentage were significantly lower (P<0.01) in Sahiwal vs Friesian and Cross-bred 1.13 vs 3.52 and 5.59% respectively during summer season. Similarly the values of mid piece abnormalities percentage were significant higher in Cross bred vs Sahiwal and Friesian (2.04 vs 0.60 and 1.83%) respectively during summer season. The same results pertaining to protoplasmic droplets and tail abnormalities were obtained. The overall average abnormalities percentage in spermatozoa of Sahiwal breed were significantly lower vs Friesian and Cross-bred (8.64 vs 21.32 and 27.67%) respectively during summer season. These results indicated that Exotic breed (Friesian) as well as Cross-bred have poor adaptability against the stress of the high temperature during summer season, so they produce lower quality semen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0549,T] (1).

18. Role Of Single Injection Of Prostaglandin F2 Alpha On Breeding Efficiency Of Buffaloes

by Sajid Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In the present study, a total of twenty Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. In group A ten buffaloes were administered with prostagladin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn), 2 hours after calving. In group B, ten buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on day 14 and day 21 postpartum. After that twice a week rectal palpation was carried out until the first postpartum oestrus. The results of present study revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P < 0.05) earlier in group A as compared to group B (28.90± 1.79 and 35.40±3.95 days). There was no significant difference in the diameter of cervix, gravid and nongravid uterine horn at day 14 postpartum. A significant difference between the groups was obtained on days 21, 25 and 28 postpartum in the diameter of cervix and gravid horn. The corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy regressed very rapidly following calving. The overall period required for complete regression of corpus luteum of pregnancy was (19.20±4.87 days) in treated group and (18.40±6.07 days) in control groups. The difference was significant. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was, however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20±5.71 days in treated and 28.20±8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79.50±19.83 days) as compared to control group (103.0± 17.45 days) and the difference was significant (P<0.05). So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0585,T] (1).

19. Use Of Prostaglandin (Pgf2 Alpha) To Induce Oestrus In Postpartum Non Cyclic Sahiwal Cows

by Amjad, M | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Imtiaz Hussain | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The incidence of ovarian cysts in dairy cows in variously reported as ranging from 10-12 percent. Various factors are reported to influence the incidence of ovarian cysts. Factors that have been suggested are age, level of. milk production, nutrition, heredity, length of postpartum interval, frequency of examination of the reproductive tract and stress around the time of parturition. Ovarian cysts are a significant cause of reproductive failure because of prolongation of the interval from parturition to the first oestrus. Twenty four postpartum anoestrus Sahiwal cows at 85 days postpartum were selected and randomly divided into the groups viz group A and B. Group A (n=12) cows were injected 2m1 (5mg) prostaglandin F2 alpha (Prostavet, Virbac, France) intramuscularly (i/rn) at day 85 postpartum without palpation. A second injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha was given 11 days apart to those cows who had not responded to first injection. Rectal palpation was performed at 105 days postpartum to confirm the presence of corpus luteum on the ovary. A third injection was given at 118 days postpartum to those cows that had not responded to 1st and 2nd injection of PGF2c. The cows in group B were not given any treatment and served as control. The cows were artificially inseminated on the basis of standing heat 12 hours after the detection of heat. Oestrus detection was made by teasing, behavioural symptoms, physical changes and rectal palpation. In group A and B the oestrus response was 66.66% and 25% respectively. This response was greater in cows of group A than group B. There was difference in behavioural symptoms and physical changes among the groups. In group A the behavioural symptoms and physical changes were slightly more pronounced as compared to group B. Interval to onset of oestrus in group A was 96±15.08 hours whereas it was 25.0±1.0 days in group B. The length of oestrus in group A was 23.25±1.99 hours whereas it was 20.33± 1.45 hours in group B. The difference in the length of oestrus among the two groups was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Group A animals exhibited oestrus during 89±0.62 days of postpartum. In group B animal exhibited oestrus at 110±0.19 days of postpartum and the difference was ignificant (P < 0.05). From the present study it is concluded that PGF2 treatment at 85 days postpartum leutolysed the luteal cyst and brings the cows in oestrus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0607,T] (1).

20. Effect Of Various Growth Promoting Antibiotics On The Immune And Digestive Systems Of Broiler Chickens

by Shahan Azeem | prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Talat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effects of growth promoting antibiotics on immune and digestive systems of broiler chickens. This study indicated that un-medicated un-vaccinated chickens had the higher body weights than the vaccinated un-medicated or medicated chickens. Flavomycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not adversely affect the mean weights of spleen, thymus and livers of experimental chickens. However, the use of lincomycin, adversely affected the weight of bursa of' Fabricius. Furthermore, the use of Flavoinycin, Lincomycin and Zinc bacitracin did not have any adverse effects on the development of antibody titers against NDV and AIV. The total viable microflora counts of different treatment groups were not different from each other. Evaluation of the economics of flocks at the end of the experiment indicated that un-medicated, un-vaccinated groups had higher profit returns and the Lincomycin medicated, vaccinated groups demonstrated lowest profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0738,T] (1).

21. Ovulation Induction And Synchronization In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes With Prolonged Post-Partum Period

by Mohammad Atif ikram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Estrus detection and correct tine insemination have been considered one of the important factors affecting the calving interval in 1)11 flab population. This study was undertaken to induce and synchronize ovu1a(on rather than esirtis in buffaloes. Ovsynch program ( ovulation synclronization) enables all fertile buffaloes to be bred at a fixed time by A.l. Sixteen buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed with a mean postpartum interval of 250±31.6 days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (ii=8). On day zero, Dalmeraline (25mcg/ml lecirilin; a GnRH analogue) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. On day 7, 2cc Dalmazine (0.075mg/mi Cloprostenol) was injected intramuscularly. One day 9, second injection of Daimeraline (Lecirilin) was given intramuscularly at the dose rate of 3cc. Insemination was carried out 1 6 hours after second injection of GnRH analogue, Dalmeraline. Buffaloes of group B were kept as control group. They were observed for naturally occurring estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried Out primarily on standing heat basis. Buffaloes of group A responded to hormonal therapy and five out of 8 animals (62.5%) showed estrus behaviour and signs. All animals of group A were inseminated twice, once early in the morning and then in the evening with an interval of 12 hours. Three animals (37.5%) from group A were conceived at induced and synchronized ovulation at first service, while one animal (12.5%) was conceived from group B. It is concluded that the Ovsynch protocol is a useful regime in inducing and synchronizing ovulation with reasonably good conception rates. It is however, found that ovsynch protocol is also effective enough in buflaloes with longer postpartum intervals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0783,T] (1).

22. Effect Of Collection Frequency On The Semen Quality Of Broiler Breeder

by Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr. Talat | Mr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: In future, artificial insemination (AI) in poultry industry has a considerable importance because of the excellent results in fertility and hatchability. Increasing male utilisation in artificial insemination depends upon the optimum use of bids by increasing semen collection. The project was designed to scrutinise the effects of collection interval, testes weight and body weight on semen yield. A total of ten broiler breeder males (35 weeks of age) were randomly selected. After providing ten-day sexual rest these were trained for semen collection by abdominal message technique. In study I the effects of various frequencies of semen collection on semen characteristics were investigated. All birds being collected at 48hours, 24 hours and 12 hours intervals. In each interval five consecutive collections were examined for motility percentage, semen volume and sperm concentration. Out of ten one cock gave no semen through out the study and 2 birds did not yielded semen at 12 hours interval and were excluded from the study. No significant difference in collection intervals was established for percentage motility (P> 0.05), but semen collected at 12 hours interval was significantly lower than 24 hours interval in respect of semen volume and lower than 48 hours interval in respect of sperm concentration. Thus at 48 hours and 24 hours intervals we get significantly higher values of number of sperms per collection, number of motile sperms per collection and number of doses per collection than the values collected at 12 hours interval (P < 0.05). But difference for theses values at 48 and 24 hours collections intervals was non significant (P > 0.05). The total number of semen doses over a six-day period increased linearly and significantly as the frequency of collection increased from once every two day to twice daily. Daily semen collection was found to be more suitable for Al programme at broiler breeder farm. In study II daily semen output, paired testes weight and body weight were correlated. The semen output was found to be significantly correlated with testis weight (r =0.82) and body weight (r = 0.79), but no significant correlation was found between testis weight and body weight (r = 0.56). In biometrical examination the weight of left testis was found significantly heavier than right testis but in respect of testicular volume no significant difference was observed between the two sides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0785,T] (1).

23. Bacteriological Examination Of Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk With Particular Reference To Public Health

by Muhammad Ishaq | Dr. masood Rabbani | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. M. Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present research was envisaged to study the bacteriological profile of raw camel's milk. A total of 50 milk samples were collected directly from the udders of healthy she-camels from various areas of Punjab and were examined for total viable counts (TVC), coliform counts (CC), effect of storage period on total viable counts and coliform counts, using milk ring test (MRT) for brucellosis and In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests for the isolates. All the samples were found negative for milk ring test (MRT) and hence for Brucella abortus. Standard plate count was in the range of 1 .39x 10 to 2. 13x107 c.f.u./ml. The mean standard plate count remained 2. 1x106 C. f. u. /ml. The coliform count was in the range of 3 . 2x iO to 5 . 9x104 c . f.u.Iml. The overall mean for coliforms count remained 3 . 9x104 c . f.u . /ml. The effect of storage period on standard plate count upto 12 hours was zero. At 24 hours, increase was not very high and it remained in the range of 0.008 % to 1.72% organisms per ml of milk. At 36 hours increase was in the range of 0.008% to 4.95%. Similarly the effect of storage period on coliform count was studied and it showed no increase in the number of organisms per ml upto 12 hours of storage. At 24 hours coliform count increase was in the range of 1.75% to 6.06% organisms/mi. At 36 hours, increase was in the range of 2.38 % to 9.09% organisms/mi. It showed that the storage period had no serious effect on the standard plate count and coliform count. Standard plate count (SPC) showed that 48 % samples gave between 1 .01x105 - 9.5x105 organisms per ml. which was not according to international standard of good quality raw milk. Of the total samples, 42 % gave the coliform count between 3 .2x103 - 6.2x103 organisms per ml which fulfilled the international standard of good quality raw milk. Different types of colonies on milk agar, nutrient agar and MacConkey's agar were purified and identified. The species isolated from all the milk samples included; Staphylococcus aureus (14 strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Lactobacillusfermentum (4 strains) , Lactobacillus casei (12 strains), Bacillus cereus (10 strains), Bacillus subtilis (6 strains), Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains) and Neisseria mucosa (4-strains). In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity of different antibiotics with known concentrations was studied. Results showed that all of the isolated organisms were resistant to oxytetracycline, ampicillin and followed by penicillin while most of the organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, followed by chioramphenicol, kanamycin and streptomycin. Escherichia coli was resistant to all the antibiotics used while gave intermediate results by gentamycin and penicillin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0789,T] (1).

24. Effect Of Various Extenders On Semen Characteristics Of Beetal Buck (Capra Hircus)

by Aoun Raza | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The artificial use of germ cells of genetcally superior bucks can enhance the growth potential of goat population to meet the shortage of mutton meat in Pakistan for daily slaughtering, sacrificial events, skin, hair and goat milk too. Beneficial use of superior germ cells can be made only when there is extension of life of germ cells for long periods, maintenance of motility of spermatozoa and increase in number of doses of ejaculate, for which an extender of choice has to be developed. Semen characteristics of forty ejaculates of bucks were evaluated. Pooled samples of ejaculates having motility estimates of at least 60% were used for evaluation. After washing of seminal plasma with physiological normal saline (20% ringer solution) and centrifugation at l000xg for 10 minutes to remove the sperm toxic factor Lecithinase-A. Pooled semen samples were extended in Tris yolk fructose citric acid (TYFCA), milk yolk (MY) and egg yolk citrate (EYC) extenders. Samples were extended using one step extension at a ratio of 1:60 in such a way that each milliliter of semen contained 30x106 progressively motile spermatozoa. Finally extended semen samples were placed at 5°C and 37°C for evaluation of motility percentage after every 24 hours interval and livability (hours) and absolute index of livability o spermatozoa, respectively. Mean±S.E. values of ejaculates of bucks for volume, pH, mass motility, individual motility percentage, sperm cell concentration, live and dead percentage, sperm abnormalities was recorded and post-extension motility percentage at 5oC, livability (hours) and absolute index of livability of of' spermatozoa of pooled semen at 37°C was recorded. Significant differences were observed (P<0.01) in post extension motility percentage at 5°C, at all intervals except at 120 hours interval where deference vas non-significant (P>0.05) between milk yolk and egg yolk citrate extenders. Post extension motility percentage at 5°C was highest in TYFCA than MY and EYC e\tenders. Post extension livability (hours) at 37°C was significantly different among three extenders at a level of probability (P<0.05) but non-significantly different among three extenders at a level of' probability (P>0.01). Absolute index of' livability at 37°C shows significant differences (P<0.01) for all extenders under statistical analysis. Livability (hours) and absolute index of' livability was higher in TYFCA than MY and EYC extenders. Based on these results and effect of extenders on semen characteristics of Beetal Buck, Tris- Yolk-Fructose-Citric Acid was developed as an extender of choice for short term preservation of' semen of' Beetal Buck. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0798,T] (1).

25. Use Of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone For Estrus Synchronization In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Abdul Majeed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aleem Bhatti | Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Sixteen Nih Ravi buffaloes having postpartum period of 197±27.48 (Mean ±SE) days were randomly divided into 2 equal groups viz A and B (n=8). Estrus was induced and synchronized in buffaloes of group A by administering 75 mcg GnRH analogue (25 mcg/ml) intramuscularly on day 0 (first day of experiment). The buffaloes, showing estrus during day 0 to 7 were inseminated and were not given PGF2 alpha injection. The animals those did not exhibit signs of estrus till day 7, were injected with 0.150 mg Cloprostenol (0.075 mg/mi) intramuscularly. Buffaloes of group B served as control group and were not given any hormonal treatment. Animals in group A were observed for estrus from day 0 to 16 of the experiment, whereas the buffaloes of group B were bserved for natural estrus from day 0 to 26. Estrus was detected with the help of teaser bull. Artificial insemination was carried out mainly on the basis of standing heat. In group A, 4 buffaloes responded to the treatment and exhibited the estrus. One buffalo exhibited the estrus on day 5 following the injection of GnRH whereas three buffaloes exhibited the estrus on day 2, 4 and day 5 following the injection of PGF2 alpha. In group B, 2 buffaloes exhibited natural estrus, one on day 3 and the second on day 11 of the experiment. Variation in the interval to estrus may be because of huge difference in the postpartum days of animals. The duration of estrus in group A (24.62±O.96h) was significantly different (P>O.05) as compared to group B (20.25±O.33h). No difference was observed between group A and B towards the expression of estrus symptoms. Two animals from group A, conceived at induced and synchronized estrus at first service, whereas one animal conceived from group B. It is concluded that the select synch protocol is useful for synchronization of estrus in buffaloes with promising conception results. It is indicated that select synch protocol is also applicable for induction of estrus in buffaloes of variable postpartum intervals, it seems that select synch protocol will be an effective tool if used in cycling buffaloes during early postpartum days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0832,T] (1).

26. Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On The Growth Performance And Immune Styatus Of Broiler Chicks

by Anwar-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present research work was undertaken to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of Garlic on different concentrations and Zinc Bacitracin on the antibody titers against ND in NDV vaccinated broiler chicks. For this purpose 150 day-old broiler chicks were purchased from the local market and divided into 5 equal groups i.e. A (vaccinated, non medicated control), B (administered with ND vaccine and Zinc bacitracin), C (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and 1 g/kg Garlic), D (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic 5 g/kg), E (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic (10 g/kg). Each group comprised of 30 chicks. Group E was fed on a ration containing Garlic at the dose rate 10 g/kg of feed and given throughout he study period i.e. upto 42 days of age. The comparative immuno-modulatory effects of Garlic and Zinc Bacitracin were worked out on the basis of GMT levels in ND vaccinated unmedicated birds alongwith the ND vaccinated, medicated birds. These titers were evaluated by using HA and HI tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, weight gain, FCR, postmortem findings, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus, bursae and liver were also assessed in drawing the final conclusion. Data was analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) to find out the means of the experimental groups. The birds that were, NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds NDV vaccinated and Garlic 5 g/kg medicated secured second position regarding weight gain and FCR among the three experimental groups (A, B and C). The birds from group B (Z.B. and NDV) had the higher body weight than group (A and C). Feed conversion ratio of group B was also found to be better than group A (NDV vaccinated, unrnedicated) and group C (NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated). None of the three treatments (Garlic, Z.B. and control) had any adverse effects on the weight size, and texture of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver). The birds belonging to group E (NDV vaccinated, Garlic 10 g/kg medicated) had shown the highest antibody titers on day 42. While the birds of group A (NDV vaccinated, unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titers. Among the three experimental groups (B, C and D), the birds from group D had higher antibody titers as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas the group B had the higher antibody titers than the group C. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0842,T] (1).

27. Efficacy Of Gentamicin And Enrofloxacin In Endometritis In Postpartum Buffalo

by Muhammad Assad Javaid | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Aleem | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was carried out on 40 postpartum buffaloes suffering from endometritis with the objective that if gentamicin (@ 4mg/kg body weight, I/M) or enrofloxacin (@ 5mg/kg body weight, I/M) for 3 consecutive days is effective against the endometritis. Twenty postpartum, untreated, healthy buffaloes were kept as control (group C). The uterine characteristics and blood samples for haematological studies were examined before (day 0) and after treatment (day 4). Mucus samples were examined for fern pattern at first estrus before treatment and after treatment. Both the treatment did not differ significantly (P> 0.05) among them; however, they had significantly (P< 0.05) beneficial effect on cervical diameter, location of uterus, texture of uterine wall and symmetry of uterine horns. Intensity of uterine infection was cured sigtnificantly. The haematological values revealed a significant improvement (P<0.05 in EST, Hb and TLC in endometritic animals (group A and B) but the difference was non significant in control group. Whereas value of TEC was non significant in group A and C and significant improvement was observed in group B after treatment. Moreover, when we compare the 3 groups (A,B and C) to each other, non significant difference was observed among the Hb concentration in three groups. Whereas, ESr was not significant between group A,B and C, but was significant between groups B and C (P<0.05). in TEC, the values were significant difference in group A with C group B with group C. but no significant difference in group A with group B. and in TLC, there was significant difference in group A with group B and group ?A with group C, but no significant difference in group B with group C. similarly in DLC the values of eosinophils were significant in group A. but no significant difference in group B and group C in before and after treatment. In neutrophils, there were significant differences in values of group B but no significant difference in group A and group C. also in lymphocytes, significant difference was found in group B, but was not no significant difference in group A and C in before and after treatment. As in basophils, monocytes, there was no significant difference in before treatment and after treatment. Furthermore, when these DLC value were compare with each other after treatment, there was significant difference in neutrophils and lymphocytes within group A with B, A with C and B with C. in monocytes, significant difference was found in A with C group and group B with C, but no significant difference in A with B. In eosinophils, no significant difference was found in all three groups. And in basophils, significant difference was found in group A with C and B with C. but no significant difference in A group with B group. The physical signs (uterine tone, vulvular swelling, hyperemia, and wetness in vagina, switching of tail, mucus discharge) and behavioural signs (Micruration, rising of tail, bellowing, mounting and restlessness of estrus were studied. After treatment estrus was observed in 45% of group A and 55% of group B buffaloes. The pregnancy rate was 60% in group A and 50% in group B buffaloes. This was comparable to the pregnancy rate in group C buffaloes (62%). And there were no significant difference in the conception rates. It is concluded that both gentamicin and enrofloxacin are equally effective for the treatment of postpartum endometritic buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0847,T] (1).

28. Prevalence And Treatment Trials Against Gastrodiscus Infestation And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Horses

by Muhammad Ali | Prof. Dr. khalid pervez | Dr. kamran ashraf | Dr. muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was conducted to work out the prevalence of gastrodiscus infection in Lahore area and to check the comparative efficacy of one patent (Albandazole) and two Herbal Drugs i.e. Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) against Gastrodiscus infection in Horses and its effect on various blood components including Hb, TLC, and DLC the purpose of this experiment was tomention extensive Pharmacological Experimentation on indigenous drug which result in the discovery of some potent Anthelmintic Drugs which would be a break through in limiting Gastrodiscus infection in horses. Furthermore, it could contribute to the improvement of our economy by making an industrial use of these resources and by saving foreign exchange via exporting these medicines abroad. In addition to these, studies were expected to contribute to the rationalization of Eastern / Unani system of Medicine, practiced by HKIMS and SIANAS. To accomplish the study six hundred faecal samples of horses were collected and coprologically examined by fresh smear method to determine 40 naturally infected horses by Gastrodiscus infection. The 40 infected animals were divided into four groups i.e. group A, group B, group C, and group D comprising 10 animals. Each groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) and Kalonji, respectively were as group D was control and remain untreated. The prevalence of Gastrodiscus infection at Lahore areas was found to be 6.6%. The Egg per gram (EPG) counts was estimated by using Macmaster technique at zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day (post-medication). Groups A, B and C were treated with Albandazole, Neem and Kalonji seeds dose rate of 10ml/10kg body weight, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1gm/kg body weight, respectively. After medication at 3rd, 7th and 10th day EPG count was measured. It was observed that at 3rd day, Albandazole Neem and Kalonji showed the efficacy 50%, 4769% and 9.09% respectively. At 7th day, the efficacy of albandazole neem and kalonji was found to be 66.66%, 53.84%, 20% respectively. At 10th day, the efficacy of albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 95%, 60% and 27.27, respectively. The average efficacy of Albandazole Neem and Kalonji was found to be 70.5%, 53.6% and 18.78%, respectively. Hence, Albandazole, and Neem showed better results as compared to Kalonji. It was concluded that Albandazole and Neem were safe against Gastrodiscus in Horses. HAEMATOLOGY In the present study forty blood samples from naturally infected horses with different intensities of infection were examined for haematological studies to know the changes in the blood picture due to Gastrodiscus. The blood samples were collected premedication i.e. on Zero day and then on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post-medication. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected animals on Zero day. The normal haemoglobin value was 10.5 to 15.5 g/dl. This value became near to normal on 7th day post-medication and went on increasing upto 10th day as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The study regarding the total leukocytic count concluded a mild increase values of TLC, but after treatment these values decrease to normal level as the ova count in the faeces was decreasing. The haematological finding of the present study are in complete accordance with the results of Chaudhry et al., (1991) and Peal et al. (1989). The reported that there was decrease in hemoglobin values of infected animals as compared to healthy animals. It is tempting to speculate that the decrease in haematological values may be due to the blood sucking habit of the parasite. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0851,T] (1).

29. Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infectionin Butchers And Buffaloes By Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Latex Agglutination Test

by Rana Sajjad Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Naeem Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic zoonotic infection is usually aymptomatic in immunocompetent persons although it may be present as lymphadenopathy, febrility, etc. but it is a life threatening opportunistic infection in congenitally infected patients and in immunocompromised individuals (those with AIDS, malignancy, organ transplantation, etc). Human beings become infected with T. gondii usually by ingesting oocysts in food and water contaminated with cat feces or by consuming tissue cysts in undercooked meat. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on serological tests latex agglutination test (LAT). Detection of specific DNA seems to be of clinical value in the ingestion of patients infected with toxoplasmosis. In this study, latex agglutination test was used for the detection of the antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based on the amplification of repetitive B1 gene of T. gondii. The study was based on a total of 200 samples involving 50 butchers, 50 buffalo's sera and whole blood respectively. LAT established an overall infection of T. gondii in butchers and buffaloes as 20 % and 22 % respectively. The PCR analysis confirmed this T. gondii prevalence in butchers and buffaloes. LAT proved to be an efficacious method for routine serological screening for antibodies to T. gondii. The costly and sophisticated PCR results in our investigation showed good correlation with the serological data of these patients showing that LAT can be used as an alternation to PCR. The results demonstrated that PCR analysis of clinical samples of patients suspective for acute toxoplasmosis including those with an acquired infection presented by lymphadenopathy can be a promising diagnostic method that enables direct detection of parasitic DNA. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0861,T] (1).

30. Clinico Epidemiological Study Of Bacterial Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Cattle And Buffalo Around Lahore

by Ahtasham-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle and buffalo. For this purpose 100 clinically sick cattle and 100 clinically sick buffalo of both sex and age were examined. The samples were taken randomly from the Outdoor Hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Lahore. various District Veterinary Hospitals of Lahore and Private Veterinary Clinics of Lahore during September 2004 to February 2005. All the animals presented during the above mentioned period were clinically examined. Those showing signs of cough and nasal discharge were clinically examined, and their respiration rate, pulse rate, temperature and lung auscultation was performed. The frequency of clinical signs were observed and found it as, abnormal lung sounds 36.5%, Nasal discharge 69%, Cough 73%, Anorexia 93.5%, Depression 90.5%, Dyspnea 28%, Fever 84.5%, Increased pulse rate 66%, Increased respiratory rate 76.5%, Increased breath sounds 64.5% and Loud breath sounds 56%.Whereas no above mentioned signs were observed in control group. A total of 200 samples of nasal mucus were collected from 100 clinically sick cattle and l00 clinically sick buffalo. Nasal swabs were collected from clinically sick animals. Nasal swabs collected from the nasal cavity of the affected animals, in gamma sterilized cultural swabs, were properly labeled and kept at 4°C till further processing. Each affected animal was also tested For Bovine Tuberculosis using Single Intradermal Test. Smears were made from each nasal swab, stained with Gram's staining and was examined for the presence or absence of bacteria. Each positive bacterial swab was inoculated in nutrient broth, tubes, which was incubated at 37°C and then examined after different intervals of time for turbidity. A loopful of material from positive turbid broth was streaked on the nutrient agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Different types of colonies were purified. Smears were prepared from each type of colony, stained with Gram's staining and examined under oil immersion lens. The staining and morphological characteristics were recorded. Out of total 200 samples, only 152 were positive for bacterial contamination. The prevalence so calculated was 76% amongst the animal examined. A total number of I 52 isolates belonging to the genera Pasteurella, Streptococcus. Staphylococcus. Escherichia and Mycobacteriurn were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological, staining, cultural and biochemical characters of the organisms isolated from nasal mucus of cattle and bLiffalo. Of these Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from 43 (21 .5%), Pasteurella multocida 3 I (I 5.5%), Escherichia coli 11 (5.5%), Streptococcus 29 (14.5%), Staphylococcus 23 (11.5%) and Mycobacteriurn bovis 15 (7.5%). The main objective of this study was to assess and record the incidence of various bovine respiratory tract infections and to study the bacterial etiological agents involved in the production of respiratory tract syndrome. The etiological agents were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics of isolates. These findings will help in devising proper and early measures required to cure the disease and to boost LI the prodLictive performance of these ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0870,T] (1).

31. Clinicotherapeutic And Haematological Studies Of Coccidiosis In Qualis

by Muhammad Zahir Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of different anticoccidials i.e. Coxigon and Toltrazuril and their effect on blood values in quails. A total of 100 young healthy quails were purchased and raised for a week in good husbandry and hygienic conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D, comprising of 25 birds each. Group A was treated with Toltrazuril, while group B was treated Coxigon. Group C was infected, non medicated and group D was uninfected control group. All the groups except D were given primary challenge doses of infection. The oocysts count was done on day zero, 3, 5 and 7. Record of mortality, morbidity was kept and postmortem of dead birds was also performed. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) test, to detect the differences between the treatments and means. It is concluded that Toltrazuril as anti-coccidial revealed significant (P<0.05) difference among all the treatments in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, oocyst count, reduction and decrease in mortality ratio and help a lot to normalize the blood values of quails. The results of other anti-coccidial i.e. Coxigon was not satisfactory, due to less decrease in mortality ratio, feed intake and weight gain and help little to normalize their blood values, and group C was infected non medicated showed great mortality and morbidity rate as compared to other groups. The results of this study will help to the Feed Farmers in choosing the best anti-coccidial drug, while the farmers will get choice amongst anti-coccidial drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0872,T] (1).

32. Prevalence Of Ecto And Endo Parasites In Cross Bred Cattle At Lahore And Its Chemotherapy With Ivermectin

by Saleem Khan Niazi | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: The present project had been designed to study the prevalence of Ecto and Endo parasites in crossbred cattle of all age groups and to test the efficacy of ivermectin (Ivergen-Symans) at recommended dose rate by the company against ecto and endo parasites in naturally infected cross bred cattle. For this project 400 crossbred cattle were scanned to isolate 60 infected animals. These 60 animals were divided in to 3 main groups i.e. A, B, and C, comprising 20 animals each. Each main group was subdivided into four sub groups, comprising 5 animals each and were marked as Al, A2, A3, & A4, Bi, B2, B3, B4 and Cl, C2, C3 & C4. Out of total 400 animals, which were scanned 278 (69%) animals were found positive having ecto- endo- and mixed parasitic infection. Faecal samples of all 400 animals were tested for GIT nematodes, out of which 158 (40%) animals were found positive, skin scrappings of all 400 animals were tested for ecto-parasites, out of which 68 (17%) animals were found positive. 52 (13%) animals were found positive for mixed infection of both ecto- and endo-parasites. The results of the present study revealed that Ivergen is highly effective at extremely low dosage against wide variety of nematodes and arthropods parasite, so it is recommended for field use. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0873,T] (1).

33. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Flumequine And Enrofloxacin On Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccinated

by Waseem Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to determine whether Flumequine and Enrofloxacin supplementation has any immunomodulatory effects on broiler chicks. A total of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 48 chicks. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups of 24 chicks. The chicks in group 1st were administered Flumequine, those in group 2 were treated with, Enrofloxacin and those in group 3 were treated with cyclophosphamide. Chicks in group 4 were not given any treatment. The parameters of investigation included the effects of Flumequine and Enrofloxacin treatment on live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, effect on various lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and liver) and immune response of treated chicks to NDV-vaccination, post field NDV challenge mortality. Data presented in this study indicated that the Flumequine treated chicks had higher mean body weights, better FCR, higher NDV HI antibody, lesser overall mortality, no NDV post challenge mortality and no detrimental effects on their lymphoid organs, compared to the cyclophosphamide treated, and untreated chicks. The overall findings of this study clearly demonstrate that the use of Flumequine has good effect on growth and performance of the treated chickens. (Key words: Flumequine, Enrofloxacin, Immunomodulation, Broiler) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0881,T] (1).

34. Effect Of Norgestomet And Gnrh On Besumptio Nof Cyclicity And Pertility In Early Postpartum Non-Suckled Buffaloes

by Attiq Ullah | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Khalid | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Delayed resumption of postpartum estrus activity is the most vital factor responsible for poor reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes. This study was designed to induce ovulation in early postpartum buffaloes (30-37 days). Fifteen Nili-Ravi buffaloes with a mean postpartum period 32.6±2.72 were randomly divided into three equal groups A, B and C (n=5) on the basis of parity, postpartum period, age and milk production. The animals in group A were given Norgestomet implant at day 32.8±2.94 postpartum period for 9 days. One day after removal of implants animals were given Dalmeralin (Leciren). The animals of group B given only Norgestomet implant at day 32.4±2.50 postpartum for 9 days. Group C animals acted as control and did not receive any treatment. Same number of animals (4/5) exhibited estrus in both groups A and B. None of the buffaloes in-group C showed estrus. It is concluded that treatment of norgestomet or norgestomet + GnRH in early postpartum buffaloes, are able to induce estrus, however, fertility remain compromised. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0884,T] (1).

35. Studies On Gentamicin Toxicity In Broiler Chickens

by Muhammad Shah Rukh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of gentamicin sulphate at different dosage levels in broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted in two phases. During phase I one hundred broiler chicks were divided into A,B, C and D groups having twenty five birds in each and were injected gantamicin sulphate in the form of gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 5mg/kg, lOmg/ kg, 20mg /kg in groups A,B and C twice daily for four days respectively while group D kept as control. During phase II twenty five chicks were divided into groups E,F,G,H and I having five birds in each. Birds in groups E and F were injected gentalin 5% intramuscularly at the rate of 40mg/kg and 80 mg/kg while gantamicin sulphate injected in the form of Aagent 10% at the rate of 40 mg / kg and 80 mg/kg to groups G and H twice daily for four days respectively and the birds of I group were kept as control. Blood samples (3m1) were collected from all medicated and un-medicated groups before and after medication on different days and serum was separated for the measurement of different biochemical parameters. Post-mortem examination of all birds were performed at the end of experiment. Post-mortem examination revealed no abnormality in any bird during phase I (normal organs) while during phase II abnormalities such as congestion, inflammation of the kidney and necrosis, discoloured livers were recorded except control group. Six birds died during experiment in phase 11(2/10 at 40mg/kg and 4/10 at 80mg/kg dose). The mortality rates at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg were 20 and 40% respectively. An increase in Aspartate amino Transferase was observed in medicated birds during phase I while a significant increase in Aspartate amino Transferase, Alanine amino Transferase, uric acid and creatinine were recorded in medicated birds during phase II. From this study it is concluded that broiler birds tolerated gentamicin upto 20mg/kg while acute toxic effects at the dose of 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of gentamicin were recorded in broiler chicks. No sign of visceral gout were recorded in any bird. There was no difference in the toxicity of two different preparations of gentaniicin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0893,T] (1).

36. Bioavailability Of Amoxicilin Trihydrate In Broiler Chickens Administered Through Drinking Water

by Amir Bakhsh | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr | Faculty of Biosciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: Bioavailability of two oral commercial formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate i.e. oracin-50 (Mediexcel, Pharmaceuticals (Pvt.) Limited Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica, µµchickens. The birds were divided into two groups A and B and than six replicates of each group were made. The birds were reared upto 30 days. Group A was medicated by Oracin-50 and group B was medicated by Bioxil-20. The medication was continued for three consecutive days and blood samples were collected before and after medication as per schedule. The plasma level of amoxicillin were determined by microbiological assays. The concentrations versus time data were plotted on logrithmic paper and various bio-availability parameters were determined. Peak concentrations of both oral preparations appeared with in two hours. However Oracin-50 peak concentration revealed 5.26±1.605µg/ml which was not significantly higher than 4.71±0.142ig/ml as depicted by Bioxil-20. Mean ±SEM of the area under curve (AUC) for Oracin-50 was 296.783±6.331µg. hr/ml and 259.26±4.866 µg.hr/ml for Bioxil-20 statistical analyses revealed no significant different minimum concentration of Oracin-50 revealed 2.550±O.0763µg/ml while 2.450±O.07637µg/ml as depicted by the bioxil-20. Both the preparations took the same time (2 hour) to attain the peak level of the plasma concentration. The present study also revealed that amoxicillin is not much stable in water. Oracin-50 decreased 34% and Bioxil-20 decreased 35% in 72 hours There was no significant difference (P<O.05) in the stability of both groups. The comparative study of the two Pharmaceutical preparations Oracin-50 (Mediexcel Pharmaceutical Pakistan) and Bioxil-20 (Bioceutica Pharmaceutical Pakistan) revealed that there was no significant difference (P<O.05) between the means of two groups. The statistical evaluation revealed bio-equaleancy between two drugs. Amoxicillin is broad spectrum antibiotic, its bioavailability is better than other antibiotic. Its MIC is also very low (O.25igIml) but its half 1fe is short. So its repeated doses should be given. As it is somewhat unstable, in case of drinking water. The medicated water should be changed get the maximum efficacy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0894,T] (1).

37. Occurrence And Importance Of Enteric Protozoan Infections On Different Goat Farms In District Swat

by Farooq Shah | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmed hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: A study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and importance of enteric protozoa in goat population. A total of 225 faecal samples were collected from fifteen different goat farms in district Swat. These samples were collected from three age groups i.e Group I (day 1 to 6 months), Group II (7 - 12 months) and Group III (over one year). These samples were processed by Direct Smear method, Sheather's Flotation and Zinc Sulphate Flotation technique for the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Eimeria cysts and oocysts. Overall prevalence of Eimeria 37.77%, Giardia 12.44% and Cryptosporidium 6.22% was recorded. Age related prevalence showed highest the number of Eimeria 53.33%, Giardia 18.66% and Cryptosporidium 8% in Group I which comprised animals of I day to 6 month. Among 225 faecal samples 73, were collected from diarrhoeic and 152 from non diarrhoeic animals. The infection rates were higher in diarrhoeic animals, Eimeria 45.22%, Giardia 21.9% and Cryptosporidium 10.99% than non diarrhoeic animal. 34.6% faecal samples were found positive for other parasites such as Haemonchus 10.22%, Trichostrongylus 8%, Trichuris 20%, Strongyloids 6.6%. A large number of faecal samples (58.66%) were found positive for parasitic infections. Results of this study indicated widespread prevalence of' parasitic diseases in goat population and especially Eimeria and Giardia are the predominant protozoan parasites Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0897,T] (1).

38. Seroprevalence Of Ftoxoplasma Gondii Infection In Sheep And Goats

by Sher Hayat Khan | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Haji Ahmad Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis the present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats using commercially available kit "Toxopalasmosis Latex" based on the principal of Latex agglutination. . For this purpose 100 blood samples (50 sheep & 50 goats) were collected randomly from slaughter house of Lahore and local sheep & goat forms, the serum was separated and analyzed for anti Toxoplasma antibodies. The animals were divided in three groups, Group I included animals below one year, Group II 1-4 years and Group III included animals aged 4 years and above. The overall 8% and 6% seroprevalence were recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Age titer relationship in sheep showed that Group III had (12.5%), Group 11(7.6 %) and Group I had no positive cases in sheep examined. In goats Group III had (10 %), Group II (5.7%) and no seropositive cases in Group I could be recorded. These results indicate that the infection was higher in older animal than young ones, Breed wise seroprevalence indicated that, Kchhi sheep 14.28%, Desi (non descript) 8.33% and no seropositive case in Lohi and Thali breeds was recorded. In goats Teddy breed had 11.11%, Desi (non descript) 5.55% while no seropositive case in Beetal goats could be recorded. From the data analyzed it is concluded that although the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in sheep and goats is relatively low in this area as compared to the other parts of the world. Yet adequate management might be useful and essential to further minimize the infection in sheep and goats herds. Consequently, preventive measures could further reduce the exposure of toxoplasmosis in the human population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0899,T] (1).

39. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Against Git Nematodes And Their Effect On Blood Parameters In Sheep And Goats

by Naseeb Ullah | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of various drugs; 1) Albendazole (Farbenda), 2) Oxfendazole (Oxafax) and 3) Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) against naturally infected GIT nematodes in sheep and goats under field condition in and around district Kohlu, Balochistan and to find out their effect on some blood parameters; 1) Haemoglobin, 2) Total leukocyte count and 3) Differential leukocyte count and to detect the prevalence For this purpose 180 sheep and goats naturally infected coprologically were examined. Out of 180 sheep and goats 106 were found positive showed 58% prevalence. For the treatment protocol, forty naturally infected and ten non-infected were selected and divided randomly into five groups having ten sheep and goats in each group viz A, B, C, E and D. Group A was treated with Albendazole 1ml/20mg body weight. Group B was treated with Oxfendazole 1ml/5kg body weight. Group C was treated with Karanjwa (Caesalpenia crista) @ 2mg/kg body weight. Group E was kept infected non-medicated control group. Group D was kept non-infected non-medicated control group. In group A the eggs per gram of faeces were 22,700 on day zero and no eggs were found on day 7th which was treated with Albendazole. It has been observed from the result that Albendazole showed 100% efficacy on day 7th. In group B which was treated with Oxfendazole with egg per gram of faeces were 23,200 on day zero 22,800 on day 7th and no egg were found on day 14th. It has been observed from above results that the Oxfendazole shown 95% efficacy on day 7th and 100% efficacy on day 14th. In group C which was treated with Karanjwa, the eggs per gram faeces were 19,500 on day zero 22,100, on day 7th 31,800 on day 28th. Group E which was kept infected non-medicated control group, the egg per gram were found on day zero, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th, 20000, 23700, 27500, 31200 and 35300. On the haematological study the haemoglobin and lymphocyte level were decrease as compared to non-infected control group whereas the value of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil were increased as compared to normal group. In group A and B the haemoglobin and lymphocyte value slightly increase on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication. Moreover, the values of leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil were slightly decrease on day 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th post-medication in group A and B. It has been observed from above study that Albendazole and Oxfendazole shown their effect on blood parameters, whereas group C which was treated with Karanjwa have shown no effect on faecal egg count and blood parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0902,T] (1).

40. A Study Of Babesiosis In Calves At Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad And Adjacent Areas

by Nadeem Niazi | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Javed Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: Bovine babesiosis (Piroplasmosis, Texas fever, redwater, tick fever) is a febrile, tick-borne disease of cattle, caused by one or more protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia and generally characterized by extensive erythrocytic lysis leading to anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and death. There are probably at least six Babesia species responsible for bovine babesiosis. Most can be categorized as being small or large Babesia. Morphological and serological differences are used to distinguish the different species. The two that are of most concern in our country are Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis which are inflecting considerable losses to the livestock especially cattle. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis in cow calves at livestock experimental station Qadir Abad and adjacent areas of District Sahiwal and to find out the comparative efficacy of two babesicidal drugs i.e Fa-try-banil (diminazene aceturate) Prix Pharmaceutica. Lahore, Pakistan and Imizol (Tmidocarb dipropionate) ICI, Pakistan. In this study effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters i.e hemoglobin estimation and total ervthrocytic count was also studied. For this purpose 415 calves were examined for the presence of babesiosis. Out of these 30 calves were found positive showing 7.2 percent prevalence. For treatment purpose 40 calves were selected randomly i.e. 30 infected and 10 healthy. i'hcse were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D comprising 10 animals each. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of blood smear method. The animals of group A were treated with Fa-try-banil (dirninazene aceturate) @ 3.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly at day zero. Four out of 10 calves recovered at 3" of injection, one calf recovered 7 day of 1S' injection, 4 calves recovered at 10th day of injection. This drug showed 90% efficacy while the calves of group B were treated with Imizol (Imidocarb dipropionate) lml/l00 kg body weight at day zero. Seven out of 10 calves recovered at 3rd day of injection, two recovered at 7 day of injection and remaining recovered at l0" day of 1S1 injection. This drug showed 100 percent efficacy at 10th day. Animals of group C served as infected untreated control and group D served as healthy non-infected control. Comparative efficacy of both the drugs was determined on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and babesia from the blood. No side effects of the drugs were noted. Haematological examination revealed a significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocytic count pre-medication. It has been observed from the present study that Imizol was the drug of choice for the treatment of babesjosis in calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0908,T] (1).

41. An Epidemiological Study Of Nosocomial Infections At Mayo Hospital, Lahore

by Tayyaba Ijaz (Phd) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present study was designed to investigate the Prevalence of Etiological Agents of Nosocomial Infections in Mayo Hospital, Lahore-Pakistan of the 32,620 patients studied during 1997-2001; a total of 4502 (13.80%) patients acquired various types of nosocomial infections during their stay at Hospital. Clinical samples collected from various types of patients consisted of 1040 samples of Pus & Wound Swabs, 109 samples of blood; 115 of Pleural Fluids, 286 of Ascetic Fluids, 37 of Cerebrospinal Fluid, 1398 of Urine, 988 of Sputum; 329 of Burn Swabs, 99 of Patient Body Devices and 101 of Fecal and Drainage Material. The routine techniques for isolation. Identification through Biochemical, Serological and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing were used for studying the Bacteriology of the selected samples. The present findings revealed that from a total of 4502 samples, 1287 Strains of Staphylococci, 429 Strains of Streptococci, 328 Strains of Enterococci, 781 Strains of Pseudomonas, 349 Strains of Enterobacter, 41 Strains of Acinetobacter, 26 Strains of Klebsiella, 140 Strains of Proteus, 1031 Strains of Escherichia, 67 Strains of Serratia, 93 Strains of Haemophilus, 119 Strains of other types of Gram Positive Bacteria, 13 Strains of other types of Gram Negative Bacteria, and 189 Strains of Yeast and Fungi were found as Etiological Agent for Nosocomial Infections. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0912,T] (1).

42. Comparative Study Of Flank Vs Midline Approach For Overiohysterectomy In Cats

by Mudassir Ahmad Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Ovariohysterctomy is one of the most commonly performed operation in cats and is indicated for both medical and behavioral reasons. The most common indication of ovariohysterectomy is elective sterilization which avoids all objectionable sexual behaviors and over population. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice for most uterine diseases and it greatly reduces risk of mammary neoplasia. The method of performing ovariohysterectomy in cats must be affordable, safe, reliable & convenient. In the past different approaches have been tried for ovariohysterctomy in cats viz. linea alba(ventral midline) and vertical flank. But the relative efficacy of the approaches has not been determined in the past in our conditions. The objective of our study is to compare and evaluate these two approaches in our environmental conditions. The Flank approach was found to be relatively better than the Ventral midline approach in our conditions in terms of convenience, reliability, safety with rapid recovery and less postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0917,T] (1).

43. Sero-Epidemiological And Haematological Studies On Toxoplasmosis In Cats, Dogs And Their Owners in Lahore

by Azeem Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Mr. Kamran | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, caused by Toxop1asna gondii and is very common in cats, dogs and human. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of the disease, the current study was conducted to find out the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population in Lahore city and to determine the possibility of transmission of toxoplasmosis from cats and dogs to their owners. For this purpose serum samples from cats (ii=25 domestic, n=25 stray) dogs (n=50 domestic, n=50 stray) and human (n=25 cat owners, n=50 dog owners, ii=50 people having no contact with cats and dogs, ii=25 UVAS, Employees) were collected and analyzed by using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) to find out the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cat, dog and human population. Overall 56% cats were seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray cats had the high prevalence (64%) followed by domestic cats (48%). Overall, 53%, 25%, 10.7%, 10.7% cats were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, I : 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence (71%) was detected in cat in the 7 year or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (56.5%) and female (55.5%). The sero-positivity percentage of toxoplasmosis was highest in local breeds of the cats (64%) followed by Himalayan and Persian (50%) and Siamese breed of cat (46%). Furthermore the domestic cats, which had wandering habits, had higher seropositivity (62%) than the cats, which had not these habits (41%). The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was high in the cats receiving raw meat (66%) however the prevalence in the cats receiving commercial cat food and kitchen prepared/left over human food was 40% and 44.4%, respectively. Overall 39% dogs were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Stray dogs had the high prevalence (50%) than the domestic dogs (28%). Overall 46%, 28.2%, 15.3% and 10.2 % dogs were sero-positive at screening dilution of 1:16, 1:64, 1:128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (45.9%) was recorded in dogs of age group of >1-3 years. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (35.4%) and female (35.4%). The sero-positivity percentage was highest in local breeds of dogs (50%) followed by German Shepherd (42%), Bulldog , Labrador Retriever and Russian (33%), English Pointer (30%), Alsatian, Bull Terrier and German Pointer (25%) and Greyhound (20%). Dogs having access to house as well as yard has the highest prevalence (40%) following the dogs having access only to yard (25%) and the dogs kept strictly at homes had the lowest prevalence (16%). Dogs fed raw meat had a relatively high prevalence of toxoplasmosis (40%) than the dogs fed commercial dog food and home cooked food had prevalence of 18.7% and 2 1.4%, respectively. Overall 22% human were sero-positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. The highest seropositivity was observed in cat owners (3 2%) followed by dog owners (26%), UVAS, employees (20%) and the lowest sero-positivity (14%) was observed in people having no contact with dogs and cats. Overall 63.6%, 27.2%, 3.0% and 6.0% human were seropositive at screening dilution of 1: 16, 1:64, 1: 128 and 1:256, respectively. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (26%) was observed in people of 30-40 years or above age group. Neither of the positive rates was found to be different between male (21.9%) and female (22.2%). There was decrease in haemoglobin level of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. There was significant decrease in total leukocytic count of cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Nutroplielia, lymphocytopenia, cosinopenia and monocytopenia was observed in cats, dogs and human positive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0920,T] (1).

44. Comparative Therapeutic Trials Against Coccidiosis In Dogs

by Maryam Nisar | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of coccidiosis (Isosporiosis), to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Co-trimoxazole &Furazolidone and to study the effect of Isosporiosis on blood parameters. For this purpose the faecal samples of two hundred dogs were examined in the Medicine laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore by direct smear method, and also concentration technique for identification of Isospora oocyst. Out of two hundred dogs thirty-six were found positive for the coccidial infection, showing the prevalence of Isosporiosis as 18%. For chemotherapeutic trials, thirty naturally infected and ten non-infected dogs were selected and divided randomly into four groups having ten dogs in each groups viz A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with Co-trirnoxazole at the dose rate of 15mg/kg (orally) and group B was treated with Furazolidone at the dose rate of 8mg/kg (orally). Group C was kept as infected non-medicated control. Group D was kept as non-infected and non-medicated control. Faecal samples of experimental dogs were examined for OPG counts on day zero (pre-medication), 3rd, 7th and 10th day of medication and percentage reduction of oocyst was calculated. Cotrirnoxazole showed 63%, 90%and 97% efficacy whereas Furazolidone showed 63%, 89.8%and 95% efficacy on day 3, 7 and 10, respectively. Statistical analysis of data revealed non-significant difference (P>0.05) between the groups A, B and D (-ye control) on day 7 and 10 of treatment. Based on criteria of percentage reduction in the number of oocyst in faeces, it was observed that Co-trimoxazole was the most effective (97%) followed by Furazolidone (95%) against Isosporiosis in dogs. Haematological study revealed that the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume were lower in groups A, B, and C as compared to non-infected control group. Whereas as a result of treatment in-group A and B the values of haemoglobin and packed cell volume gradually increased on day 3, 7 and 10 post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Cotrimoxazole and Furazolidone showed their effect on blood parameters as a result of curing Isosporiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0922,T] (1).

45. Effect Of Hormone Addition (Pgf 2 Alpha) And Oxytocin In Semen Extender On Post Thaw Semen Quality And Fertility in Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Dr. Rafaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Dr. Asim Aslam | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This project was executed to improve the semen quality during freezing process and to improve subsequent fertility rate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes with hormones (PGF2a and oxytocin) supplementation. Pooled semen from Nih Ravi buffalo bulls (n2) was divided into 8 equal parts after complete evaluation and subjected to the hormonal treatments. PGF2a (Lutalyse®) @ 2.5mg, 5.0mg and 7.5mg and oxytocin (Cintocinon®) @ 2.5 I.U, 5.0 I.U and 7.5 I.U/lOOml of diluted semen were added. One group (-ye control) received indomethacin @ 20mg + PGF2a @ 5.Omg/lOOmi of diluted semen. One group remained without any treatment (+ve control). Semen was cooled, filled in 0.5ml straws, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h ours and frozen i n liquid nitrogen. After 24 hours of deep freezing, semen was thawed and evaluated for percentage motility of spermatozoa, plasma membrane integrity (HOS assay), acrosome integrity (NAR), viability (Live/Dead), longevity (hours) and fertility. Four (4) straws from each treatment group were thawed and pooled in 5m1 cuvette in water bath at 37°C and evaluated for quality parameters. Twenty five (25) straws from each treatment group were used to inseminate the buffaloes in standing estrus at 3 A.I centers (Phool nagar, Changa manga and Kot radlia kishen) in district Kasur. Pregnancy was checked 60 days post insemination. Data collected was presented as mean ± SEM, treatment groups were compared using ANOVA, unpaired two sample test and Pearson correlation at 5% level of confidence interval using Minitab® computer software. Results o f this study revealed that addition of both Lutalyse® (PGF2a) and Cintocinon® (oxytocin) did not show significant (P>0.05) improvement in any quality parameters measured and a non significant correlation was observed between treated groups and control except indomethacin and viability of spermatozoa where a significant negative correlati9n (r = -0.980) was found. However, blocking of seminal prostaglandins with indomethacin shows significant (P<0.05) deterioration in percentage motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and longevity of spermatozoa but acrosome integrity remain unchanged. Results of fertility trial showed significant difference (P<0.5) among treatment groups. In conclusion, we can say that although hormonal addition did not improve semen quality but improve fertility rate, therefore, the importance of prostaglandins in semen can not be neglected. The W nature and physiological amount in buffalo semen should be investigated and maintained by exogenous addition after dilution during processing to maintain post thaw semen quality and fertility. However, it is suggested that pure forms of hormones should be used to add in semen instead of Lutalyse® as it contains 1.56% alcohol which is supposed to be detrimental to spermatozoa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0923,T] (1).

46. Antimicrobial Activity Of Mentha Longifolia And Artemisia Maritima

by Sakhawat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: This study was undertaken to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose water, methanol and chloroform extract of the Artemisia maritirna and Mentha Ion gifolia were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus subtilis by Disc Diffusion Method, Well Diffusion method and Micro Dilution Method. After determination of the antibacterial properties the data was analyzed statistically by using paired t-test and it was observed that methanol extract had greater antibacterial activity as compared to chloroform and water extract, whereas, chloroform extract had moderate antibacterial activity but the water extract had negligible antibacterial activity. From the four tested organisms Escherichia coli was more susceptible to methanol extract of Mentha ion gfolia. In general Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to both plant extracts as compared to other three tested microorganisms. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0924,T] (1).

47. Toxicity Of Flunixin Meglumine In Avian Species

by Muhammad Irfan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dose levels of flunixin meglumine and diclofenac sodium in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundered and fifty broiler chicks were purchased from the market and were reared upto day 28 and then were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D E and F). Groups A, B, C and D were treated with flunixin meglumine at the dosage rate of 1.25, 2.5, 5.00 and 10.00mg/kg body weight JIM once daily respectively and group E was kept as Control. The remaining 25 birds of group F were treated with Diclofenic sodium 5.00mg/kg body weight by same route of administration and dosing interval as mentioned for flunixin meglumine. Treatment was continued for five consecutive days. Clinical signs, mortality, liver and kidney function tests were performed by estimation of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid and Creatinine in the serum samples. Postmortem findings and histopathological changes of different tissues were also recorded. Toxicity of flunixin meglumine was evaluated through the above mentioned parameters and this toxicity was compared with that of Diclofenac sodium. Based on the mortality data and biochemical analysis it was concluded found that flunixin meglumine was toxic in avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem (vultures crises) it is suspected that flunixin meglumine may cause some problems in avian species as diclofenac sodium. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0925,T] (1).

48. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Balantidium Coli In Cattle Around River Ravi Bank Lahore

by Ch. Qasim Bilal | Prof. Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Haji | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of Balantidium coli and to evaluate the efficacy of Terramycin, Dysen forte, Flagyl against naturally occurring balantidosis in cattle under field conditions around the river Ravi bank Lahore. The faecal samples from animals were collected directly from rectum of animals and brought to the laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for coprological examination. For this purpose two hundred cattle were examined coprologicaly around the bank of river Ravi in Lahore. Out of 200 cattle, 50 were positive, so the prevalence of Balantidium coli in cattle was 25%. Out of 50 positive animals thirty two cattle having balantidiosis were selected for chemotherapeutic trials and eight non effected cattle were selected and divided into five groups viz. A, B, C, D and E comprising eight animals each. The animals of Group-A were treated with oxytetracycline capsules (Terramycin) @ 8mg/kg orally, Group-B with secnidazole tablets (Dysen forte) @ 10mg/kg orally, Group-C with metronidazole tablets (flagyl) @ 25mg/kg orally. The animals in Group-D were serving as infected untreated control group and Group- E were serving as untreated healthy control. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and by reduction in number of cysts/trophozoites on zero, 3, 7 and 1 0 day post medication. Efficacy of oxytetracycline (terramycin) was 25%, 50% and 62.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of secnidazolc (dysen forte) was 37.5%, 75% and 87.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. Efficacy of metronidazole (flagy) was 12.5%, 25% and 37.5% on 3, 7 and 10 day, respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Dysen Forte was more effective than Terrarnycin or Flagyl. However, Terramycin showed better efficacy than that of Flagyl. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0927,T] (1).

49. Molecular Detection Of Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis In Fresh And Cryopreserved Buffalo Sper Matozoa)

by Daulat Raheem Khan | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Irshad | Dr. Muhammad Amir Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: The objectives of present study were a) to validate annexin V/Pl assay, for buffalo sperm, using graded doses of camptothecin through fluorescent microscopy (Exp. 1) and b) to determine the effect of stages of cryopreservation on apoptosis (PS externalization, using annexin V/PT assay), motility and plasma membrane integrity in buffalo sperm (Exp.2). In the first experiment graded doses of camptothecin were used (n=2) in different aliquots of sperm suspension (1x106/mL) for induction of apoptosis. Higher dose levels of camptothecin (10.0 iM and 20 jiM) resulted in inducing apoptosis (P<O.05) compared to the lower (5tM) dose or control. In the second experiment semen samples (n=9, from three bulls) were cryopreserved using vapor freezing. Annexin V/PI assay for apoptosis, visual assessment for percentage motility and hypo-osmotic swelling test for plasma membrane integrity were employed at various stages of cryopreservation (i.e. fresh, after equilibration and post thaw). The mean percentage of apoptotic, necrotic and viable sperm did not differ between fresh and after equilibration stages. However, freezing and thawing increased (P<0.05) the percentage of apoptotic sperm (25.4±0.6 vs. 36.5±1 .9) while decreased (P<0.05) the necrotic (29.7±0.7 vs. 35.1±1.2) and viable sperm (37.2±1.3 vs. 32.8±1.9, (P<0.07). Similarly, freezing and thawing decreased (P<0.05) the mean percentage motility and plasma membrane integrity, compared to other stages. Based upon the difference in initial and post thaw values of two variables (percent motility and percent apoptosis) it is concluded that apoptosis contributes more than 50% sperm motility loss during the process of freezing and thawing in buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0933,T] (1).

50. Effect Of Different Doses Of Bovine Somatotropin Hormone In-Ravi Buffaloes On Growth, Milk Production and Physiological Parameters

by Hafiz Faisal Majeed | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to see the effect of different doses of bovine sornatotropin hormone (bST) on milk production, milk composition, growth! body weight, and physiological parameters (Hemoglobin, Total protein, 1-lernatocrit values, Cholesterol, Glucose, Urea and ESR level). For this purpose 21 Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes were involved in this experiment. They were kept at Livestock Experimental Station Bahadur Nagar Okara with similar stage of lactation were selected. They were randomly divided in to three groups A, B and C with 7 animals in each group. The group A was injected with full- recommended dose of bST hormone (250 mg /animal) with trade name of Boostin-250 S/C at an interval of 14 days, while the animals of group B were given S/C injection on alternate days with divided doses of(36 mg/animal). The group C was kept as control. The maintenance requirement of the animals was met through by available green fodder at the rate of 40-50 kg per animal per day while production requirements were met through concentrate ration at the i-ate of half of the milk production. Milk production was recorded daily and milk sarnpes weve coXeeted on weakly basis or analysis. The blood samples were collected on fortnight basis to see the effect of bovine Sornatotropin hormone on physiological parameters. The research trial continued for 6 month till the completion of lactation. The average (rnean± SD) milk production of groups A, B and C were 7.38±1.30, 7.29±1.20 and 6.66±0.80 litters respectively. The increase in milk production was found to be 11% as compared to group C (control). The average (mean± sd) Fat, SNF and T.S percent in animals of group A were recorded 6.59±0.10, 9.13±0.28 and 15.73±0.34, respectively Where as in group B it was 6.58±0.15, 9.28±0.26 and 16.01±0.30 respectively. The averages (mcan±SD) Fat, SNF and TS percent in control group C were, 6.42±0.111, 8.83±0.47 and 15.45 ±0.245 respectively. There was improvement in Fat, SNF and TS percent of the treated group versus control group. The average (mean±SD) body weight found in subgroups A, B and group C was 528.78±50.64, 561.02±91.35 and 518.06±37.50 kgs respectively. There was slight increase was observed in treated group. The average values of Hemoglobin, 1-Iaernatocrit, ESR, Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, and Urea in experimental animals of group A were I 1.44g/dl, 32.84%, 94.15mm/h 173.87mg/lOOrni, 10.99g/dl, 567.57 g/dl, 86.25 mg/dl, and 4.089 rng/dl and respectively. In animals of group B there were 11.96 g/dl, 32.04%, 74.70 mm/h 181.10 mg/lOOm!, 11.10 g/dl, 548.03 g/dl, 84.655 mg/dl and 3.7474 rng/dl respectively. Whereas in-group C (control) the average values of Hemoglobin, Haernatocrit, ESR Cholesterol, Total protein, lipid glucose, Urea were 12.20 g/dl, 33.11%, 83.11 mm/h 190.78, mg/lOOm!, 10.60 g/dl, 557.32 rng/dl, 84.92 rng/dl and 3.8848 g/dl, respectively. It is concluded that the bovine Somatotropin hormone had no desirable effect on physiological parameters. It is concluded that treatment of bovine sornatotropin hormone had no effect on blood composition, milk composition and physiological parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. It is also concluded that dose of bSt of 250mg injected at 14 days interval is beneficial for overall performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloe. To overall bST had positive effect on economic parameters in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0950,T] (1).



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